Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Psychology 285 Week 9 Final Essay

E preciseone has gather uped at point in their lives who am I? E genuinelyone go out go through colossal lengths to witness out exactly that answer. Because of that no topic in psychology at once is more heavily researched than self (Myers, D.G., 2012). These palpateings come about for a sum up of reasons. We develop a number of feelings for reasons that are related to group dynamics, genetics perhaps, and social twine. in that location are so mevery influences on the relationships that we develop.Self-conceptsT here(predicate) are so many awesome qualities about me Im honest, very giving, independent and opinionated how forever organism opinionated bunghole be a blessing and a curse. Growing up I remember earth in trouble so oftenmultiplication because of my mouth. I was the fictitious character of child that needed to get my point across and I was going to get out w despisever it was that I needed to cite My m opposite told me several times lately that she admires my courage when it comes to regulateing whats on my mind she hated it when I was growing up that she respects it now because she holds back a lot afraid to spill the beans up. Knowing that I am extremely opinionated I admit to be careful sometimes about the route that I say things to other people. This is because what I say may be without malicious bearing however it could come off that way if its not guardedly expressed I am so opinionated that I volition solicit my opinion to anyone with being asked to solicit it. Especi entirelyy when it comes to my little child she thinks that Im being hard on her however I tell her all the time the daylight I have zilch to say be worried, I talk because I care This brings me to being such a giving individual I would give my midsection if I was able to continue to live. I have given my final to so many and I expect absolutely nothing in return. I have learned that there is no greater lesson in liveliness than the one of being able to give. I am the type of person who will go through my son, daughter, finance and my protest clo checks rightful(prenominal) to see what they are no longer wearing to give it away(predicate) to someone else who can actually use it. I want to put d sustain great examples to my children I want them to pay if forward too but I want them to also know the difference between being a giving person and being an idiot This brings me to my independence in life. I am such a strong minded person, very level headed so I know what I want and I know exactly what I need to do to get to where I need to be, by myself My mother loves the independence in me but she hates the cogitate behind why Im so independent. That reason would be because I dont want to end up manage her shes so dependent on my stepfather that she has absolutely nothing on her own Her premiere car came from him the first time she moved into her own place was because of him, the raw(a) house the clothes on her back, the shoes on her feet, down to the food she eats. I dont want that for myself in any way. My fear is that if I allow someone to do anything in any form for me that they will throw it in my face later. eon my mother admires this quality about me my fianc hates it so very much. Hes unendingly fighting me not because he has nothing else to do but because he wants to do more. However along with the fear of having what was done thrown in my face another fear is to allow myself to comply with someone else doing something for me and they arent able to later than I feel like I set myself up for failure. This aspect of my life is revolved around issues of sureness in my opinion. I know that I have trust issues I am always afraid of being hurt in some way whether it be because I was let down or because my heart was broken. My world is great and everything is exactly the way it should be until someone else tries to help. This is what one would squall self-serving slash. Self-serving bias pl ays an extremely major part of exploit and anyone elses life we would all love to believe were a super hero all of the time, but when something goes wrong have you ever you ever seen the super hero take the pick? Never that is the comrades job The concept of self-serving bias has opened my eyeball up to taking more responsibility for my own actions and stop victimization the actions of others to feel better about a situation that has gone wrong. This is why now I feel that I have an internal venue of control I believe that I am what influence the peach effect of the events of my life. My actions have reaction weather I like the reactions or not they are still because of me and no one elseAttitudes and feelingsConfirmation bias influences the perception of yourself and the people around me because we all want what we believe to be true Take this for example my mother doesnt very much care for my fianc she doesnt really have a reason, because he does everything that he is suppos ed to do and more sure we have an argument here and there but to her its abusive. So she says thing like this down I told you he doesnt care about anyone but himself, flavor at at how he speaks to you he doesnt care. I explain to her that its unfair to say that about him especially when things were said in the raise up of the moment. Confirmation bias can destroy you because you are always looking for the next thing to support your beliefs. My sister thought that her husband was artifice with my cousin, (this was not true) so everything that my brother in law and cousin did together it was remote and because they were sleeping together. I tried so many times to tell her that they werent sleeping with one another but she had it in her head that they were so much that she actually pushed them together (self-fulfilling prophecy). She pushed and pushed so much that the untrue theory became true. I was hurt for her when this happened because these beliefs ended up generating t heir own confirmation. Behaviors influence placement in so many ways, each day of my life behaviors influence my attitude. My step brother for example to me his behavior is very perverted is says things about my little sisters that he should not referencing the rear ends and other parts of their bodies as well as mine extremely inappropriate this behavior influences my attitude towards him because I dont trust him as a result, I dont want him around any of our sisters, or my infant daughter, I dont even trust him around my son My attitude toward him is extremely negative and I hate when hes around.Another way that behavior affect attitude is through imitating your parents because the attitudes and beliefs of your parents have a strong impact on your life later. The topic of exhibiting the behavior of my parents brings me to gender roles. Our gender roles are defined by our own conceptions of being a male or female. Social influenceIn certain situations I am willing to conform to a degree, but I am not willing to conform altogether for an entire group to make it easier on the group. I enjoy being an individual I never want to blend in with the throng I always want to stand out. I know this because at act as there are so many groups of people who notwithstanding want to hang out with that group of people they are all so caught up with whos doing what and why that they entirely lose snap of why we are even at work in the first place. I on the other hand dont feel that I have the time for that its childish so I am all about my work and nothing else When our Post procure comes around they will all scrabble to go back to work or act as if they are working so that they wint get into trouble A person of authority influences faithfulness because the authority figure has the power to discipline.The foot in the door technique is one that is employ in my profession a lot when the new comers come on to the job a co-worker will began to ask for small favors and those small favors turn into large favors. I have used this technique in new relationships to see just how far I can get him to go for me. I will change in the presence of others depending on who the person is if its an elder I wint swear, if its a younger group of my peers I will relax more but it really depends on the group. When working with groups there are always slackers in the group they do the least expecting the selfsame(prenominal) amounts of credit. This is something that I have struggled with in school and in work because its completely unfair to the group. This is called being lazy and being lazy is completely unattractive.Factors that attract me to someone are whether or not they are intellectually stimulating to me, smart, fun loving, easy going, handsome, tall, and has a great sense of humor. Thats not to say that whats attractive to me is attractive to the next person. effective because they are attractive doesnt mean that everything is going to be great ther e may be some conflict and in solution conflict you must talk it out, speaking on your concerns and try development the I exercise saying how you feel as oppose to the blame game because no one will be receptive to that

Monday, January 28, 2019

Captains of Industry Vs. Robber Barons

John Davidson Rockefeller was once the worlds richest person. He made his cash in the oil blood and later became a famous philanthropist. Rockefeller was born(p) in Richford, N. Y. When he was 14 years old, his family moved to Cleveland. Rockefeller started work as a clerk at a sm wholly produce firm. He then formed a partnership in a element commission house. He used the profits from that to enter the oil business at 23. At that time, the production of oil and refining was a circumstantial organization. Rockefeller set out to make the industry orderly and efficient.Fifteen years later, he achieved his goal of having oil products flow from producer to consumer controlled by one come withThe Standard oil colour Company. Standard Oil, which was established in 1870, grew out of some(prenominal) oil companies owned by Rockefeller, his younger brother William, and some associates. Rockefeller in like manner concentrated on transportation. He built tank cars and distribution syste ms. In 1882, Rockefeller organized the Standard Oil Trust. He then controlled almost all U. S. oil refining and distribution and much of the worlds oil trade.The immensity of Rockefellers holdings and ordinary criticism of his business methods caused the Ohio Supreme Court to dissolve the Standard Oil Trust in 1892. From 1895 to 1897, Rockefeller gradually retired from active business. By that time, he had started human activities. He helped found the University of Chicago in 1890, and by 1910 his gifts to that organization come $35 million. Rockefeller spent the rest of his life establishing the foundations through which he gave his funds to the public.

Shakespeare’s Henry V Minor Characters

Christina Priester Amy Smith Eng 205 10/15/12 The main char manageers in Shakespe bes heat content V are extraordinarily compelling. From the beginning of the happen, most of the focus is directed to interactions between might Henry and other royalty or people of status and significance. genuinely little attention is focused on the minor instances, the peasants- the Hostess, the Boy, and the soldiers- Bardolf, Nym, and side arm. Although these characters have and small parts in the play, they are essential. They take the spotlight for a mo manpowert, temporarily diverting our attention from the King and his political responsibilities.Each of them contri unlesse essential background information, their opinion of King Henry, and the soldiers perspective of the upcoming battle, The first act of the play is focused on the conspiracy between the leaders of the church building and King Henry making the finding to go to war with France. small-arm all of the political information is needed for the plot, it is quite dense, and some of it is tight to get through. There is some relief in Act II of the play, when the Hostess, the Boy, Bardolf, Nym, and pistol are introduced.There is some humor in the exchanges between the soldiers. For example, Bardolph to Nym What, are Ancient shooting iron and you friends stock-still? Nym answers, and Bardolph to Nym I forget bestow a breakfast to make you friends and well all three be sworn brothers to France. This is intelligibly a sarcastic teasing remark to Nym, with the suggestion these two situations will nevenr happen. The scene becomes grim when the Boy enters, informing them of Falstaffs illness. Falstaff is seriously ill, and in scene three of Act II, we learn that Falstaff has passed on.The soldiers grieve for their lost friend, but the Hostess has the strongest emotional reaction. She was caring for him at his bedside when he passed away. Falstaff was an integral character in the preceding play, King Henry IV . He and the other soldiers were friends of Henry before he became King. The friendship between Henry and Falstaff ended harshly. The Hostess, on with the soldiers think Falstaffs illness is in part caused by Henrys harsh treatment of Falstaff. In the passage by the Hostess, just after the Boy enters, she makes a statement The King has killed his heart. After Nym and Pistol settle their quarrel, the Hostess tells the men to visit Falstaff, and Nym comments The King hath run bad rumors on the knight, thats the even of it. Although they wait the King partially to blame for Falstaff falling ill, they passive seem to stimulate King Henry in high regard. Nym makes a statement to Pistol The King is a good King, but it must be as it may, he passes some humors and careers. The interpretation of this phrase is that although the King is good, he still has quirks and faults of his own.Pistol expresses his opinion of King Henry in Act IV, on the eve of battle when Henry, mantled as a vol unteer soldier engages Pistol in a conversation. He tells Henry he thinks the King is a fine fellow, with a heart of gold, was raised well by his parents. He goes on to proclaim he love and loyalty to King Henry. Pistol is unaware he is speaking to the King himself. He shows contempt for the disguised King when he finds out about Henrys relation to Fluellen, the Captain that request the execution of Bardolph.King Henry is very adamant about the execution of Bardolph in Act III when he is caught stealing a holy relic from a French church. Henry gives his reasoning that Bardolph should be so penalise We would have all such offenders cut off. And we give express level that, in our marches through the country, there be cryptograph compelled from the villages, nothing taken, but paid for, none of the French upbraided or abused in disdainful language for when lenity and cruelty play for a kingdom, the gentler gamester is the earliest winner. This passage is basically saying he wants to make an example of Bardolph as a warning to his soldiers to be respectful and not have the villages in France pillaged or the citizens terrorized, or they will have to face the consequences of their actions. He also feels that the French prisoners should face the consequences for the slaying of the Boys, and orders their throats to be cut. His anger fuels this decision because he wants justice for the boys that were slaughtered.At the end of battle, Henry carries the Boy, showing his sorrow for the expiry of these young men. Overall, King Henry is seen by his soldiers as good and just, yet firm with his punishment of his subjects. Without the minor characters, our judgment of the King may be harshly skewed. They are also the only link in this play between the King and Falstaff. The minor characters enlighten our understanding of the King, give us some background information, and serve their purpose well.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

R.L Stevenson shows many opposites in the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Essay

In the check Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde the ii main characters be stop opposites. Dr Jekyll is a kind person even so when he changes into Mr Hyde his attitude changes into a nasty, evil person. R.L Stevenson carries on the opposites through the book keeping the readers guessing.The two doors to Jekylls house seem to be complete opposites. One is shabby and in a dark corner of a building which is described as a sinister block. By saying it showed no window suggests that its dark and secrecy maybe they fork over something to hide.The wall is described as discoloured and suffering negligence lack of upkeep and maintenance making it gravid unattractive.On the door, the fact that in that location is no knocker or bell gives an unwelcoming feel and being described as blistered and distained would also make it appear uninviting.However the street, which the door lies on, is a logical argument to what has just been described. The buildings in the street are described as impudently pai nted shutters and well polished brasses making the whole street sound like it has an air of general cleanliness.In the First chapter, also The drool of the door there is some other opposite. This is between Mr Hyde and the young girl. It says one superficial man .. stumping along at a good passing game and a girl of maybe eight or ten .. rail as hard as she was able this is opposing because there are two different genders, ages and paces.In the chapter Dr. Jekyll was quite at ease R.L Stevenson describes another opposite with Mr Utterson and the other people that had been to Dr Jekylls dinner. In the mans rich silence, after the expense and the strain of gaiety. This tells us that Mr Utterson is happy to be quiet, as the other guests that have left were quite loud and talked to him a lot.Also in this chapter and the following chapter, another opposite is the reaction and temperament of Dr Jekyll. Speaking with Utterson, Dr Jekyll is put across as every mark of force and kindn ess, which makes him warm and loving, then in the incident of the letter he is rather shifty and reacts differently to Utterson that he did before.In the Search for Mr Hyde there are two different characters in contrast, Dr Lanyon and Mr Utterson. For example it says received his move patients referring to Dr Lanyon. This puts across to the reader that Dr Lanyon is a very open, friendly person, where as, as we give notice tell from the Dr Jekyll was quite at ease chapter Mr Utterson is different, he is much quieter and would privilege to be on his own.Another opposite that R.L Stevenson puts in the book is in the chapter The Carew murder case. At the beginning of the chapter the setting is peaceful. The details were hardly a(prenominal) and startling this portrays that it was a very still, open night with only scenic features. It describes a maid looking out of her window into the pretty night. Her views on the night were very optimistic and loving. She was amatoryally given by saying this it puts across to the reader that the night is quiet which would make it slack to think and by saying romantically given puts across that she has romantic view on life.The scene then changes drastically. Before the night was appease but all of a sudden it transforms, much like the diversity of Dr Jekyll to Mr Hyde.The night turns dark when Mr Hyde enters the scene. It was like a presence of evil had sustain into the lane. The horror of these sights and sounds this describes what the maid saw Mr Hyde doing to the old man.R.L Stevenson shows many opposites in the remote case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. These help to keep the reader thinking and to surprise the reader.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Management Is An Art Or Science Essay

The concept of exercisement is universal and very old. That is wherefore antithetical views have been expressed about its nature by divers(prenominal) writers from quantify to time. According to my private opinion caution has element of both fraud and wisdom.Management as an inventionArt refers to the look of doing specific things it indicates how an design drop be strived. Art is a combination of make and skills. Art keeps changing and basically is the application of theoretical principles by science to recover excellent results. Management at times is described as an ar twainrk that how managerial principles poop be applied in real founding situations, it consists of the following aspects Practical knowledge Managers do have practical knowledge of the domain, also they know how to apply it. they know the pros and cons of any act as they know that only knowledge is not enough, but unrivaled should know how to apply it as well. Personal Skills Peculiar abilities which you own are not held by every other person. E.g. Painters paint the similar things in a different manner. It varies from person to person.Some may paint it effectively objet d cunning others may not catch attention. Similarly every manager has personal skills as well while applying managerial principles, on the basis of his experience which might fetch better results or fail. Creativity The act if making something in a efficient way and a different manner, and apply it in such a way to manage, is creativeness. it is based in creativity and intelligence of a person. Vision is definite and based on the facts, it is ones destiny.Management is also a collection of mankind and non human imaginations by using them in a different manner to achieve desired objectives. Practice Practice makes man perfect. No one is born(p) a true maneuverist. in the same way, no one learns to manage right out of the womb. they furnish their skills over the time through practice. purpose oriente d Managerial activities are always goal based, directed towards feat of results. for this very purpose, various resources human and non human resources are blended so the ability of managers of using available resources brings it near to arts.Management as scholarshipManagement as a Science Science may be described as a systematized body of knowledge based on proper findings and exact principles and is capable of verificationScience is extraordinary. With the aid of science, we dissolve visualize matter across 37 orders of magnitude, from the largest galactic cluster to the smallest cognize particle . When science is done correctly, it can advise us in all of our day-to-day decisions and actions. Science is a method of doing things. It is the organized, systematic initiative that gathers knowledge about the world and condenses the knowledge into testable laws and principles. The origin of a advanced science of commission can be traced to the work of Frederick Taylor (1911) an d Luther Gulick (1937). The science of management and administration has become a principal component of management scheme and practice in the recent year.Management known as a science because it focuses on the following Principles management comprises of universally accepted principles, that is why a many believe that it is a science. E.g. rewarding and employee for good performance. experimentation and observation First, managers observe some new techniques then employ them in business to check results, so they can eventually be follow or avoided. Cause and effect relation Science is based on cause and effect relationship as it is always based on finding relationships between the variables. E.g. heating a metal. Satisfactory performance of employees in any organization is a result of a positive works condition and the two variables are performance and working conditions.Test of inclemency and predictability Validity means soundness. in science soundness of the scientific princi ples can be verified at any given time and they interpret similar results every time and in near future apparent events can be predicted by using such principles. In management the validity of principles can be established by applying them in different solutions and matching the outcome with the original result. For example, one of the principles in Management is sensation of command. if it is tested in a situation where an employee has to work under two bosses and in situation where employee has to perform under 1 boss, their performance depart be different from each other.Conclusion- Management is an Art and Science twoSo, I conclude that management is an art and science both. Management is the art and science of preparing, organizing and directing human efforts to control the forces and utilize the natural resource and time for the benefit of men. Thus, it has now been accepted that management is an art as well as science. It has the elements of both arts and science, bu t some masses look at management is indeed a science, because of the scientific principles and rules that exist and that can be applied for improving the productivity and efficiency of organizations, profit or nonprofit. This kind of approach is good but we have to keep in mind that solution to every problem is not specified or given by rules and principles, sometimes we have to go creative think out of the box.So management as an art comes into the picture. Art and science both foster new and creative ways to understand organizations and snuff it what we know about them. They both generate and employ metaphors of management that servicing us form our perceptions, assumptions, and new ideas about organizations. Both inspire our imagination. seek in the art and science of management will continue systematically to gather knowledge about the behavior of people in organizations and endeavour to present that knowledge in new and testable theories, concepts, and hypotheses. But fu ture look also must be pursued with enough flexibility to rent the emergence and investigation of entirely new knowledge about organizations and the way we manage them. In the words Management is a mixture of an art an science the present ratio is about 80% art and 20% science.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Principles That Define the Culutral Level of Analysis Essay

Explain how precepts that lay out CLOA may be demonstrated in research. The stolon Principle states that universe be development processors. Cognition refers to the mental tasks or trusting regard in human behavior. Thinking may involve keeping, attention, perception, language and closing making at any(prenominal) one time. cognitive psychologists see these cognitions atomic number 18 active systems In between taking in and responding to information a number of processes argon at work.Information jakes be modify reduced, elaborated, filtered, manipulated, selected, nonionized, stored and retrieved Therefore the human mind is seen as active system process information, and cognitive psychologists aim to reflect these processes. Central to this information treat approach is the computer metaphor. One of the challengingies facing cognitive psychologists is that they were trying to count processes that ar non directly observable. Consequently the computer revolution o f the 1950 provided the lyric and metaphor they needed. deal, like computers, acquire information from the environment (input). Both heap and computers store information and retrieve it when applicable to current tasks both atomic number 18 limited in the amount of information they after part process at a given time both transform information to adopt advanced information both return information to the environment (output). This information processing approach was adopted by Atkinson and Shiffrin in their Multistore Model of keeping (1968). This model sees retentiveness as an active process.Information flows in through the sensory stage (input). It indeed flows to the short-term memory before it is transferred to unyielding term memory where it can be stored and later retrieved. A get ahead example of information processing is the organization of information into schemas in the LTM. Schemas are mental models of the world. Information in LTM is stored in interrelated netw orks of these schemas and these schemas can affect retrieval. Simply put, schema theory states that all experience is organized into units.Within these units of acquaintance, or schemata, is stored information. A schema, then, is a generalized description or a conceptual system for understanding knowledge-how knowledge is represented and how it is used. fit to this theory, schemata represent knowledge nigh concepts objects and the relationships they afford with other objects, situations, events, sequences of events, actions, and sequences of actions. A primary example is to think of your schema for dog.Within that schema you most potential have knowledge about dogs in general (bark, four legs, teeth, hair, and tails) and likely information about specific dogs, such as collies (long hair, large, Lassie) or springing cow spaniels ( incline, docked tails, liver and white or black and white, Millie). You may also think of dogs within the greater context of animals and other liv ing things that is, dogs breathe, need food, and reproduce. Your knowledge of dogs might also include the fact that they are mammals and thus are warm-blooded and bear their young as opposed to laying eggs.Depending upon your face-to-face experience, the knowledge of a dog as a pet (domesticated and loyal) or as an animal to fear (likely to bite or attack) may be a part of your schema. And so it goes with the development of a schema. Each new experience incorporates more information into ones schema. The second principle of CLOA states that the mind can be studied scientifically. Cognitive processes are operose to study. They a good deal occur rapidly, and inside the mind so they cannot be spy directly.It is only the responses that participants gravel when given some cognitive task to transact that can tell us about cognitive processes. These tasks usually constrict place under tightly controlled lab try outs where the main aim is to sequestrate a particular component of th e cognitive process for the study. One of the soonest and most famous experiments into cognitive processes is the Stroop Effect. The Stroop establish is a phenomena involved in attentional processes. Although we will actually focus on the process of memory this is a good study to look at.People are often introduced to the Stroop Effect in beginning psychology classes as they learn about how their brains process information. It demonstrates the effects of interference, processing speed (reaction time) and automaticity in divided attention. The effect is reard after John Ridley Stroop who frontmost published the effect in English in 1935. In his experiments, J. R. Stroop administered several variations of the same test for which three diverse kinds of stimuli were created. In the first one, names of food colourings appeared in black ink.In the second, names of comments appeared in a different ink than the color named. Finally in the third one, there were squares of a given colo r. In the first experiment, 1 and 2 were used. The task required the participants to read the create verbally color names of the scripts independently of the color of the ink (for example, they would have to read majestic no matter what the color of its ink was). In the second experiment, input 2 and 3 were used, and participants were required to say the color of the letters independently of the compose word with the second kind of stimulus and also name the color of the dot squares.If the word purple was written in red, they would have to say red, but not purple when the squares were shown, the participant would have to say its color. Stroop, in the third experiment, tested his participants at different stages of practice at the tasks and stimulus used in the first and second experiments, to account for the effects of association. Stroop noted that participants took much endless to complete the color reading in the second task than they had taken to name the colors of the sq uares in Experiment 2. This delay had not appeared in the first experiment.Such interference was explained by the automation of reading, where the mind automatically determines the semantic meaning of the word (it reads the word red and thinks of the color red), and then must intentionally check itself and identify instead the color of the word (the ink is a color other than red), a process that is not automatized. This is a classic laboratory experiment that involves the manipulation of an independent covariant (colour or name of word) to see what effect it has on the dependent inconsistent (reaction time).It attempts to control the square off of all other extraneous variables such as other cognitive processes or skills. It also allows us to establish a cause and effect relationship between task and mental process. The strengths of the experiment are that it got valid results but however was still very unethical which not usuall in psychology is. One more strength is that it is an booming experiment which does not need a lot of input to keep back out. The study can be considered incubate cultural as any human would act the same in this situation.Obviously the reaction time would be different but in the end anyone would take longer to read the words writte in a different colour. Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors, is the statement which forms the third principle. Although cognitive tasks such as memory and attention are universal, there are cross cultural variations in processing mechanisms. Bartletts study demonstrates how memory can be distorted by cultural schemas. Schemas are representations of knowledge based on experience. In his study in which British participants were asked to think back a native American folktale.He found that the story of The war of the Ghosts was difficult for Western people to reproduce exactly because of its cultural subject matter which was unfamiliar to them so in fact they encoded the m eaning of the story neutered to their existing cultural schemas. As a result Bartlett conclude that interpretation plays a large role in remembering events or stories. We reconstruct the past and try to make it fit into our schemata, the more difficult this is to do, the more likely it is that elements are forgotten or distorted so that it fits and remembering is integrally related to the social and cultural context in which it is practiced.Cole and Scribner (1974) studied memory skills in both American and Liberian children. They argued that cognitive processes are universal but not cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are dependent on the environment study, social interaction, culture and technologies make up the environment they observed the effects formal schooling / education (culture) had on memory they compared recall of a series of words in the US and amongst the Kpelle people using word lists that were culturally specific.They found that in general educated Kpelle childre n performed better in the recall of list than no educated Kpelle children and those overall American children performed better than Kpelle children. Although this could be interpreted as memory skills being better amongst Americans children than Kpelle (African) children such an interpretation would overlook the influence of culture. Western schooling emphasizes certain cognitive strategies such as caboodle / categorizing.It is unlikely such parallels exist in traditional societies like the Kpelle People learn to remember in ways that are relevant for their routine lives, and these do not always mirror the activities that cognitive psychologists use to analyze mental processes The strengths of this lab study are that it was carried out ethically and the with the results we can almost confirm the cross cultural validity but of bunk we cant confirm it with 100% as exceptions will always be there. The applications of this study are basically already demonstrated within the study as it can be used for memory in schools or even at a working place.

Memorandum of Law and Letter Sample

Memorandum of Law To Al Smith, Senior render From Research beau RE evince and Federal Court carcass for calcium shilling v. Al, Kathy, Dan Date January 3rd, 2012 Questions Presented I. Overview of the State and Federal Courts in calcium. II. Which California judgeship or motor hotels hold jurisdiction for the amount in disceptation in the three lawsuits that chase after(prenominal) wants to agitate? III. Why should wharf file his lawsuits in a particular flirt or salutes? IV. Which elusion tag must pose himself? Statement of FactsOur client bob resides in Los Angeles, California and has asked for our advice in three separate deterrent examples in which he has loaned people m singley. In the start-class honours degree case, loading dock loaned $500 to Al. Al signed a promissory none which asseverates that Al exit refund the loan in one month. Al has not paid anything. In the second case, bobsleigh loaned $7,000. 00 to Cathy 14 months ago. Cathy signed a prom issory note which states that she would pay the note in full in 12 months. She has not paid. In the triad case, Bob loaned $55,000 to Dan 24 months ago. Dan signed a promissory note stating he would repay the loan in 18 months. Dan has paid nothing.Al, Cathy, and Dan every reside in Los Angeles, California. California Statutes of Limitation Written agreements (promissory note) 4 years, calculated from the date of breach. vocal agreements 2 years. The polity of limitation is stopped only if the debtor makes a payment on the account after the expiration of the applic able limitations period. brief Answers I. splendid courts now harbour trial jurisdiction over every(prenominal) civil cases including family law, probate, juvenile, and general civil matters. For monetary issues to a lower place $10,000 a soul in pro-per living in Los Angeles could file a tutelage in down(p) claims court.All registers over $10,000 would have to be do in Los Angeles County top-hole Court po lished Division. If we were to receive an unfavorable command above in a court other than small claims court we would file an draw in to the 2nd District Court of Appeal also located in Los Angeles, California. If that ruling was not in our favor we could than conjure up to the California lordly Court if necessary. Federal courts ar similar in structure to State courts in California. The lordly Court is the highest court in our countrys judiciary. There are twain levels of Federal courts under the Supreme Court, they are The U.S. District Courts (the Trial Courts), and The U. S. Courts of Appeals (the Appellate Courts). II. The three lawsuits could be fled in Los Angeles County outstanding Court. To pull through himself some time and coin Bob could file the cases against Al ($500) and Cathy ($7,000) in small claims court. However, we would not be able to make appearances for Bob in those 2 cases since they are in small claims court, we could advise and fixate him on what he needs to say while he is in court. If Bob wants us to make the appearances for him we could file all three cases in Los Angeles Superior Court Civil Division.If Bob elects to handle the first two cases on his own in small claims court we could show him on the third case against Dan ($55,000) in Los Angeles Superior Court Civil Division. Bob does have the option of filing against Dan in small claims court alone he would only be able to receive $10,000 and would forfeit the departure of the loan forever. Bob should also know that any of our fees would not be recoverable in small claims court except in obsolete cases. III. Bob should file the two smaller cases in small claims court to save him time and bills in getting a appreciation that bay window be enforced.Our firm hatful represent him in the third case against Dan and we should be able to recover attorney fees and cost for him when we put on a judgement for him. After a judgment is made we can assist Bob in fili ng the appropriate liens in his case to make sure he has a way of recouping his losses from the defendants. IV. Bob must definitely represent himself in the first case with AL in small claims court. Since it is such a low sum of money it would not be worth it for him to use our firm for anything other than effectual advice in what documents he needs to file and things he needs to say while in court.If Bob feels comfortable after he does the first case he should have no problem proceeding on his own in the second case in small claims court. give-and-take I. The State of California Supreme Court gains authority and jurisdiction done the Constitution of California, Article 6 voice 1. The authority of dividing the state into member creating the Court of Appeals jurisdictions is giving to the legislature through the Constitution of California, Article 6, Section 3. The legislature has set up six districts for the Court of Appeals base on geography. Within the jurisdiction of the Co urt of Appeals are the Superior Courts of California.The Superior Courts have been created by the authority of the Constitution of California, Article 6, Section 4. The authority of the Supreme Court is given via the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and is subdivided into the antithetic circuits and districts by authority of the United States jurisprudence patronage 28, Part 1. In this Code are the needed statutes giving power and jurisdiction to the various national courts. The court of appeals are comprised of thirteen separate judicial circuits as utter in United States Code Title 28, Part 1, Chapter 3, 41.This same statute covers the area of California, placing California into the Ninth Circuit Jurisdiction. United States Code Title 28, Part 1, Chapter 5, 84, (C), Section (1) divides the Central District into Divisions placing Los Angeles into the Central District Courts and the eastern Division. This division comprises the counties of Riverside and San B ernardino. Court for the Eastern Division shall be held at a suitable site in the city of Riverside, the city of San Bernardino, or not more than than 5 miles from the boundary of either such city. II. Bob is requesting information on three different cases that have similar event patterns.Bobs case Vs. Al will need to be filed at heart California Superior Court, fiddling Claims Court Title Three based on Civil Rules 3. 1 3. 2120. This division will hear Bobs claim for the amounts under $10,000 SB221. A plaintiff may not file a claim exceeding $2500. 00 more than twice per year, so this should be kept into consideration should Bob have subsequent claims in the near future. Bobs claim against Cathy based on the $7,000. 00 promissory note should be filed as an action as a piddling Claims Case to be tried within the Superior Court Small Claims Division, of Los Angeles.Both cases against Cathy and Al can be handled similarly since the only difference is the dollar mark amounts. Bob can see how comfortable he feels after the first case is completed and then decide if he wants to handle it in small claims court or if he would like our firm to represent him in Superior Court Civil Division. In Dans case if Bob didnt think he would ever recover more than $10,000 he could handle this case in small claims court and save himself time and money although he would be taking a major loss.If Dan has the assets and ability for Bob to get his money back than our firm should represent him in the civil division of Los Angeles Superior Court and Bob with a judgment Bob would be able to recover attorneys fees. III. By filing the first two cases in small claims court Bob will save money and time and be able to enforce a judgment he receives sooner instead of the two cases being tied up in court. Obtaining a Lien after judgment under CALIFORNIA CODES CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE contribution 697. 310-697. 410 would be the only way to make sure our client can recoup his claims.The c ase with Dan should be filed in Los Angeles Superior Court Civil Division so Bob has a chance at recouping all of the money he has loaned. IV. Bob must represent himself in any case he wants to file in small claims court consistent to California Civil Code, Section 116. 540 stating that except in circumstances that will not relate to this inquire about attorney representation, and no person other than the plaintiff and the defendant may take part in the conduct or defense of a small claims action. __________________________ Research Associate Client Letter Dear Bob, You have asked me to do some ratified research regarding the overview of the State and Federal Courts in California and where to begin the recuperation of three loans you made at different times to three different people in Los Angeles, California using promissory notes. For monetary issues under $10,000 a person living in Los Angeles could file a complaint in small claims court. All filings over $10,000 would have to be made in Los Angeles County Superior Court Civil Division.If we were to receive an unfavorable ruling above in a court other than small claims court we would file an appeal to the 2nd District Court of Appeal also located in Los Angeles, California. If that ruling was not in our favor we could than appeal to the California Supreme Court if necessary. Federal courts are similar in structure to State courts in California. The Supreme Court is the highest court in our countrys judiciary. There are two levels of Federal courts under the Supreme Court, they are The U. S. District Courts (the Trial Courts), and The U. S. Courts of Appeals (the Appellate Courts).It is my understanding that Al, Cathy and Dan are refusing to repay the generous loans that you made to them. Under California Statue of Limitations you have 4 years to file a claim for breach of a promissory note and you are well within your rights to do so as long as you dont wait longer than quadruplet years from the date that the breach occurred. In order for you to start your two cases against Al and Cathy you will need to file a claim in Los Angeles County small claims court as the amounts of $500 and $7,000 is well below the small claims court throw inable limit of $10,000. I would be happy to ssist you in filing your claim and can also assist in preparing you for your court date but small claims court rules do not allow you to be represented by an attorney at court. By filing this case in small claims court and then obtaining a judgment this would be the cheapest and fastest way in helping you to recover your money in this case. The third case against Dan would have to be filed in Los Angeles Superior Court Civil Division. In this case you could also file for credible attorneys fees and cost as well as the $55,000 loan. transport let me know whether there is anything else I can do for you. Respectfully, Al Smith

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Gender Differences in Discourse Essay

The ability to fetch with our fellow human beings makes us distinct from other living beings. The chapter has made it re all(prenominal)y clear that utterance is not conversation. Conversation is a collaborative effort by twain the converseer and the listener. Our success much depends on how well we bunghole interact with people around us. It much depends upon understanding certain factors called social kinetics in conversation. In the essay Wowork force Talk Too Much Janet Holmes makes it very clear that it is a wrong notion to think that women blather to a bulkyer extent than men. She says it is an assumption based on stereotypes.On the other hand, she says that it is men who talk more. There is no proof to say that men ar biologically programmed to talk more than women. It is just the social conditions that promoted the wrong notion that boys atomic number 18 more active than girls and they talk more. She says it is entirely disagreeable. I find so integrityr evoke to jockey that it is boys who interact more in the class populate than the girls. Then, the pen claims, how it batch be said that women talk more than men In the second essay of the chapter, Tony Kornheiser makes a distinction in the communion style of women and that of men.He feels that women are very particular to the highest degree everything and they work up more to say than men produce. He makes a point axiom that women do not think life is as simple as men believe it to be. A conversation that turns into a lecture is in spades boring as Deborah Tannen points protrude in the essay Ill cond single It to You. The most frustrating experience for any peerless is when a conversation turns into a lecture. I feel it is not moreover boring to women but also every bit tedious to men. There has been much literature on gender dark terminology and there is a gradual change in the affair of oral communication to sound neutral.Ronald Macaulay also agrees with Janet Holmes and s ays that some a(prenominal) of the notions are myth and they dupe no validity scientifically speaking. It is rather social conditioning that has contend a key role in imparting opinions that have no basis. Clive Thompsons essay on how computer software can signalize accurately whether the writer is a man or woman is quite a kindle, His questions the many of the commonly held ideas ab come in the differences between the two sexes. (407 address) Chapter6 Media Speak. What we know about the world is from media only. Our perception of the world is influenced by the media which presents it.The billions of dollars spent on TV ads clearly indicate the power that the media enjoys. Undoubtedly, the advertisements that come on television and newspapers and magazines have tremendous influence on us. Within a span of a century there is a great change in the media. at present the world is increasingly dependent on oral media where as it was more often than not written word in the begin ning of the last century. With the aim of range more number of audiences, the quality of words used in TV news and shows has become very low. Neil Postman and Steve Powers, rightly point out that the dependence on the image has made a great carrier bag in news making.The highly quality visuals have replaced good lyric with low level popular speech. They argue that it is not just language but also our views and opinions about the world are getting corrupted. The full general saying is a picture is worth a thousand words but in the present days when news is re-created or re-presented, it is equally true to say that one word is worth a thousand pictures. There is little doubt that the language used by the media is aimed at creating sensations to attract more audience. Then, I do believe that it is not exactly what happened i. e. news.The article All the World in Pictures is very kindle and thought provoking. It has clearly explained how the language is used in mass media. It is aptly said that Advertising is the driving force of consumer economy. The world is make full with advertisements. Wherever there are people, there are advertisements. They appeal to all our weakness creating a world of fancy with eternal youth, power, enriched beauty, immediate happiness, and fulfillment of our inner needs. I feel the use of language in creating much(prenominal) emotional appeals is quite amazing. Advertising act upons much on the psychology of people.A small fifteen second ad can effectively regulate the people appealing to their emotions by making fantastic appeals and promises. The article With these Words, I can Sell You everything is very enlightening. It has made it clear how they twist the language to send their message effectively. It is a finely engineered language that creates strong images on the minds of audience. I have found it very exciting to know the how the advertisers play on the people with their language. (419 words) Chapter7 censoring and Free Speech Freedom of dialect is fundamental to American democracy.It enables every American to allowly express his ideas, opinions and beliefs. Any limits to the freedom of speech are seen as a threat to the rights of Americans. It is interesting to note that the discussion lays emphasis on the equality in enjoying ones rights. No man or woman has the right to ache the feelings or sentiments of others. It is by respecting others rights that we can enjoy our rights well. The censorship is against the rights given in the constitution. However, it is required in some areas. The censorship and books, sloped language and dis homogeneous speech and certain limits on campus speech have lead to interesting debate.The first amendment has not only given the right to express ideas freely but it also has given the right to know others ideas. The censorship on books has been a much debated issue with unalike opinions. It is beyond my understanding wherefore some books are banned totall y and some are censored. When a book raises questions that lead to contr oversy and debate, it result help people to know what exactly the truth is. Banning is not the solution for it. The controversy over Harry Potter books, which have attracted millions of children all over the world, seems pointless.Censorship on books is dangerous as it blocks all new creative and original ideas. Censorship on biased language and hate speech is quite expedient as it raises many questions in the practical use of language. It is very unmanageable and almost impossible to classify what makes a hate speech and biased language. I feel it is highly impossible to make a fairness in the absence of any valid principles regarding what comes under biased language and hate speech. Sometimes, the words may be good but the feeling in which they are delivered could be full of hatred.Censorship on free speech on the campus has some good in it, as it reduces mistaking among the students who come different p arts of the world. The campus is a place where security deposit is broadly needed. The rules prohibiting certain speech acts is good for the minority students. But it does not warrantee that no racist speech is ever heard on the campuses. (378 words) Chapter -8 The side of meat Language Debate The debate whether slope should be made ex officio language of the US or not, is very interesting bringing out valid telephone lines on both the sides.The United States, the nation of immigrants, respects pagan differences of people coming from different countries. Respecting other languages, the US has not stated position as the official language. I find it very great quality of the American people for their respect other cultures. It shows their multi cultural tolerance and national unity. The unity of American people has come more from their like mindedness in political and social values and self respect than from having one language. The discussion on what is Standard English has made it clear how different forces work on language.Robert MacNeil has explored well what makes American English and what exactly it is. The argument for Standard English has its own merits with clear focus on clearness in thinking and what we are saying. It argues for care and caution in the use of language as it is central for identifying an individual. If a person neglects his language and uses it causally, it willing not help him or her in the long run. As the author has rightly put it casualization everything in culture has led to casual military strength to language use as well. The growing informality of language is one of the major concerns of linguists.The scholars and grammarians who prescribe rules on how language should be used are rightly called Prescriptivists. Especially, John Simon, who is called the Prince of Prescriptivists, holds the view that the present day language is poor, foaming and hopeless. He represents those who argue for perfect use of language as it helps you to communicate clearly what you are. It is with the use of language only that a person can show his distinction. If the distinction is lost, he or she will be among many who can not say clearly what they mean.It becomes a serious challenge. I feel there should be certain principles which can not be sacrificed in the use of language. The Descriptivists, on the other hand, just describe how the language is used by people. They do not dictate any rules regarding how English should be used. They are permissive and tolerate the new expressions and the informality in expressions. They argue that a language is called a living language only when it is spoken. When it is spoken it is natural to have changes in the language as no two people can pronounce the same word in the same way.They are free to allow new words into English as change the law of life and of language. It shows tolerance towards people who speak the same language with some regional differences. There are many e xamples when the language of the Black people is accepted by the grammarians and included in the dictionaries. It helps the language to grow and reflect the present day culture. The fears about what will happen to American English seem justified, but nobody can stop the changes that take place in society. I feel the changes in English are an indication of changes in society, and language is just reflecting the same. (534 words)

Monday, January 21, 2019

Feminist and Other Psychoanalytic Trends Essay

The contributions of the socio- cultural approaches to individualizedity, by theorists akin K arn Horney, Nancy Chodorow and Margaret Mahler, focusing on social and cultural variables, are compared with that of biologically driven theories. Freud had left psychoanalysis foc apply on the role played by biology in personality develop custodyt. objet dart biology is important to individual biography, so, too, are an individuals tone history and the presiding cultural and historical context (Kroger, 1996, p. 16).Karen Horney departed from some of the prefatorial principles of Sigmund Freud and suggested social and cultural factors for neuroses and personality disorders. She differed from Freuds view of female psychological science and his inferior portrayal of women. Horneys realization that, Freudian female psychological science was only an offshoot of male psychology, to be expected in a male-oriented culture, came when she experienced childbirth (Foty, 2008, para. 1). She gave t he concept of womb envy, opposite to the theory of phallus envy, given by Freud.In her book, The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937), Horney phrased that emphasis is put on the actually existing conflicts and the neurotics attempts to lap them, in the treatment of neurosis. (p. vii). She did not discount the importance of childhood experiences, as theorized by Freud, but disliked the one-sided fascination that childhood held for psychoanalysts (p. vii). accord to Freud the tussle between id, ego and superego lead to anxiety.However, Karen Horney in her book, Self compend (1942), said that, Freuds disbelief in a wish for ego development is linked up with his postulate that the ego is a wonky agency tossed about among the claims of instinctual drives, of the outside world and of a forbidding scruples (p. 23). She disagreed with this analysis and theorized that the infants anxiety is caused when the child feels isolated and wholly in a hostile world. She argued that, Pare ntal indifference, a lack of fondness and affection in childhood causes anxiety (as cited in Boeree, 2006, Development section, para. 2). consort to Horney, children have two basic requirements need for affection and approval, and need for safety. These two unavoidably are the most important amongst the ten needs that she gave for dealing with anxiety and they emerge due to indifference or lack of warmth from parents. She gave three coping strategies for dealing with these needs moving-toward, which is compliant type, confusable to Adlers getting or leaning approach moving-against, which is the hostile type, alike(p) to Adlers ruling or dominant type moving-away, which is the detached type, akin to Adlers avoiding type ( Boeree, 2006, supposition section).Freud brought forth the individual from the 19th-century family with his concept of the personal unconscious, reformulating ideas about gender and sexuality. Thereafter feminism gained support from psychoanalysis, which was itself transform by war, revolution, socio-cultural change, and theories given by Horney and Melanie Klein (Lieberman, 2004). Melanie Kleins Object analogys Theory emphasized the ego development of the children, during their early years, as universe related to parts of objects rather than the whole.Margaret Mahler conducted extensive observations of healthy contract-infant and mother-toddler dyads in a naturalistic setting to delineate the process by which the child differentiates itself from its base care-taker and becomes an autonomous person(Kroger,1996, p. 51). According to Mahler, separation and individualism are the processes used by infants in the early years of life. Separation is the childs emergence from a symbiotic fusion with the mother, whereas individuation is those achievements patsy the childs assumption of his own individual characteristics (p.51). Mahler gave four stages of separation- individuation process Differentiation (5 to 10 months), which is the beg inning of the difference between self and the primary caregiver Practicing (10 to 16 months), which marks the emergence of motor abilities reconciliation (16 to 24 months), during which, children first get a real sense that they are individuals, separate from their mothers (Mahler, 2007) Consolidation and object Constancy (24 to 36 months), in which the kids lie with that their mother will be back and are not sickish in their absence.Two processes take place at this last variety The achievement of a definite individuality, and the attainment of a authorized degree of object constancy(Kroger, 1996, p. 53). In her book The Reproduction of Mothering, Nancy Chodorow (1978), another(prenominal) Object Relations theorist, pointed out, women experience a sense of self-in-relation that is in crease to mens creation of a self that wishes to deny relation and connection(p. viii). Mothers by virtue of their gender, experience daughters like them and sons unlike.Consequently, girls and bo ys internalize these differences and transform these unconscious maternal communications through and through their own intra-psychic capacities. (p. viii). This leads to men being more independent and women more empathetic. The girls accompaniment to her mother is preoedipalconcerned with early mother-infant relational issues and issues of dependence and individuation. A Boys auxiliary to his mother is oedipal, expressing his sense of difference and male oppositeness to her. (p. 97).Freuds Oedipus complex was to explain sexual identity whereas the individuation process explains the childs gender identity. Separation-individuation theory outlines the importance of further in human development (Edward, Ruskin & antiophthalmic factor Turrini, 1991, p. 3). The relationship between mother and child during infancy plays an integral role in the childs growth in later years. separation-individuation assumes different developmental pathways for men and women, with men cultivating a perso nality style that emphasizes autonomy and women cultivating one in which attachment needs take precedence(Gnaulati & Heini, 2001).References Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality theories. In Shippensburg University my website. Retrieved touch 10, 2008, from http//webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/perscontents. html. Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press. Edward, J. , Ruskin, N. , Turrini, P. (1992). Separation/Individuation Theory and application. (2nd ed. ). New York Brunner-Routledge. Foty, G. R. (1988). A Mind of Her Own The Life of Karen Horney.Smithsonian, 19, n5. p. 127(2). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Gnaulati, E. , & Heine, B. J. (2001). Separation-individuation in late adolescence an investigation of gender and ethnic differences. The Journal of Psychology, 135, 1. p. 59(12). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Horney, K. (1942). Self analysis. London Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. Horney, K. (1937). The neurotic personality of our time.London Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. , Ltd. Kroger, J. (1996). Identity in adolescence The balance between self and other. London Routledge. Lieberman, E. J. (2004). Zaretsky, Eli. Secrets of the Soul A accessible and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis. Library Journal, 129, 10. p. 162(1). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Mahlers Theory of Development. (2007). KidsDevelopment. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from http//www. kidsdevelopment. co. uk/MahlersDevelopmentTheory. html

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Clinical Supervision in Counseling Essay

Professional competence is shown in m both counselors byout the world. integrity way that competence is displayed by counselors is their ability to utilize clinical watchfulness and consultation. Even long standing professionals in the field of counseling continu every last(predicate)y assay supervision. When confronted with difficult honorable decision making and unique situations in its best to gain an outside objective viewpoints. In reference to the campaign study, on that point be plenty of honorable dilemmas and un honourable decisions made by Joe and his supervisor. It is clear their personal values differ from those who choose to follow ethical codes in counseling.The APA and ACAs ethical standards and codes reserve certain relations in comparison to the violations which Joe and his supervisor have perpetrated. To avoid br individuallyes of ethical codes, there are ACA ethics delegacy members to inform appropriate kin standards with all individuals knotted in the counseling process. Clinical supervision is important to utilize for each counselors self-awareness. The subject study implies that Joe ended counseling sessions with Jill because they had vernacular feelings of attraction towards each different.He made an ethical decision in doing so by recognizing the counseling relationship would be ineffective. Joe and Jill began a familiar relationship which ended abruptly after a month, with no animal(prenominal) or oral contact afterwards. Joe had a guilty conscious of their unethical relationship. The imperative action he failed to do was follow through with the prim referral process by choosing to obtain clinical supervision from his supervisor for Jills wellhead-being. However, Joe and his supervisor recently started a intimately relationship. He did not seek referral assistance for Jill to avoid hurt feelings from his supervisor.Inquiring the deportments of both counselor and supervisor, there were evident breaches of ethics. The counselor and supervisor should have the knowledge that any non-professional relationship between the two is unethical and a breach of ethics. In other words, they should have known better. Teaching and modeling ethical and professional behavior is an important tariff of a supervisor (Argosy, 2013). All psychologist, counselors and members of the ACES (The Association for pleader Education and Supervision) must abide by the ACA and APA Code of ethics.The ACES has developed ethical codes for counseling supervisors and is in accordance with the purpose of the ACA as well as a founding division of the ACA. According to ACES, the best practice guidelines are intended to support supervisors in their work. The ACESs guidelines are offered to augment the vox populi of supervisors as they make it their requirement to offer ethical and legal breastplate of rights of supervisors, supervisees and clients, and meet professional needs of supervisees while protecting client eudaemonia (ACES, Best Practices in Supervision, 2010).With regards to ACES practice guidelines there are other exceptional tools or standards available to ensure supervisors know crucial standards for their practice. The American advocate Association created a Journal of Counseling Development Standards of Counseling Supervisors (ACA/ACES, 1990, JCD v69 n 1, Pg. 30, Vol. 69). The standards implemented is this journal are important to counseling supervisors toS develop tenderness areas of knowledge, competencies, and personal traits that characterize effective counselors. What happened between the counselor and the supervisor was passing unacceptable. My values clash with their values.I am sure when I am counseling clients for mental health I will be attracted to a few men here and there. I may even be attracted to my supervisor or a colleague of mine. Physical or worked up attraction is a normal function as a benevolent being, and is not a dangerous or awful thing. Making verbal or physical a ctions to distinctive attractions will not be the oddball for me. I would not want to jeopardize my career involving an unethical misapprehension concerning my attraction to one of my clients. I value the direction in which I am being educated, and I will value even much when I am certified and access a seemingly well respective job.Ethical standards and codes are needed to be taken really seriously. The APA and ACA have very similar codes of ethics and ethical standards. As I have stated before, Joe and his supervisor breached certain codes of ethics specifically pertaining to having a sexual relationship. According to the APA ethical standards it states, Psychologists do not engage in sexual relationships with students or supervisees who are in their department, agency, or training nubble or over whom psychologists have or are likely to have evaluative authority (APA, 2010).One of the ACA Codes of Ethics involving relationships has boundaries regarding supervisory relationshi ps. Logically, between on-going supervisees and their supervisor sexual and romantic interactions or relationships are prohibited (ACA, 2005). at heart the APA and ACA ethical standards, they seem to have overall similar conclusion regarding sexual relationships between counselors and supervisors. One difference I recognized is that the APA states ethical ship canal of going about multiple relationships with clients, although it is best to refrain in case of impairment to the psychologists competency (APA, 2010).Also, The ACA has ethical standards involving potential ethical unspoilt relationships with supervisees in a nonprofessional setting, such as attending a funeral for the supervisee. This has to be discussed between the supervisor and supervisee and documentation of the rationale for the relationship is a necessity (ACA, 2005). Members of the ACA and APA ethics committee have a huge responsibility to manage enforcement of the ethical codes concerning the APA or ACA and to enhance professional development through professions.Committee members have important obligations such as processing cases of asseverate violations. However, a committee member cannot warrant the job review of any member affiliated or that is under the Code of Ethics. If I was an ACA Ethics Committee member, I would inform appropriate behavioral codes for counselors, especially impudently counselors to the field. I would certainly inform them of the no tolerance policies of sexual or intimate relations with co-workers or clients, as well as all ethical codes.I would make them aware of the role and function of what I do as a part of the committee. For example, we as a committee process complaints of ethical violations or alleged violations. Most importantly I would want to educate health professionals of the membership according to the ACA codes, and what the roles and functions of ethical committees. I would like to continue to adopt many values of ethical codes, ethical decision making, standards and principals for supervision that I highly appreciate.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Britain And Australia, The Fall Of Singapore And The Great Betrayal In 1942 And Onwards

wizard of the meaning(a) char causeeristics of international kinship is the ability of one coun fork up to trust the word of their supplys that their bring outners would look later(prenominal) the best interest of their partners, especi protagonist later on mutual pull through end is being executed and undertaken. There is the proverbial approximation virtually how semipolitical bed partners involved in global province alliances argon expect scratch each another(prenominal)s backs.The failure of a partner to look afterwards and protect the interests of the other partner is a really strong incident that easily breaks the trust that binds countries together in friendship, cooperation and alliance. One of the significant setbacks of Australia during the indorsement domain state of war was the bring back of capital of capital of capital of capital of Singapore after the British forces, which Australia trusted to protect this Asian solid ground from being bubble ove r by the enemy. The prevailing savor that surfaced after the incident was made domain was the quality of high treason among Australians to contendds Britain and the British army.Even disregarding the fact that Singapore is an big foothold in the Australian dominion, Australia matt-up betrayed because they were sent to fight in another location under Britains bidding to salvage an measurable British interest with the guarantee that British forces pull up stakes look after Australian interests in the Asia-Pacific Region. It was something which they failed to do in a manner that did not provide the British with thus far a semblance of consolation, just unblemished indignation over what happened.Britains surrender at Singapore in February 1942 can be considered as tantamount to the Great treachery of Australias Empire because many critics and historians believe that Britain simply betrayed Australia when the British forces surrendered at Singapore at during the Second World Wa r, considering that the corresponding level of justification of the view of subversiveness was attributed to the concept of the Great Betrayal of Australias Empire.Karl snub provided a scathing verdict on the Singapore 1942 production in the midst of Australia and Britain, supporting the belief of political analysts and historians who believe that Britains action in Singapore in 1942 was indeed an act of high treason towards its ally Australia. In one sense the fall of Singapore had re put ined a treachery of Australia, and so catapulted Australia into an American embrace . Hacks position in this issue was that the British act of betrayal towards Australias dominion in 1942 is the contribution towards the loss of one of Australias important foothold in the Asian region. This is because the British poorly and inadequately attended to the military concerns involving the plea of Singapore, explaining that Britain had encouraged Australia to commit forces to the Mediterranean, an d then provided inadequate defences for Singapore . Gerhard Weinberg made the same observation about the question of British betrayal of Australia, explaining that the betrayal is be in the inability of the British to come to the aid of the country which is its ally in its time of need, especially with the fact that there was an understanding betwixt the two nations about the providing of support and assistance Australia can help the British military strategy and at the same time provide abundant and sufficient forces that can protect Australia as well as Australias other footholds and territories in the Asia-Pacific region. In both Australia and New Zea pull down, the war had slimly correspondent repercussions.Both felt deserted by the home country in their hour of greatest danger it may be an exaggeration, but not a completely unjustified one . Singapore fell on February 1942, but as early as January, the Australian organization has already impressed upon its British affi liate that they would consider the fall of Singapore, which was under their watch, as an inexcusable betrayal. The telegram that travelled from Australia to London indicated how Australia was hoping that Britain would indeed hold straight to its promises and all the assurance we stand been given , including an solid fortress that depart wait for the arrival of the British fleet that will support land efforts to defend Singapore . This telegram was received by Winston Churchill, the contents of which something that Churchill was not very happy or appreciative to read or be the recipient of such note.The reported efforts of the British to save Singapore from fall (including the sending in of the 18th Division) was later regarded as a defective move for the British, definitely unmindful and not caring anymore about the base of betrayal that Australia might feel. The phrase inexcusable betrayal greatly annoyed Churchill, and he could not easily forget it.The minutes of the British War Cabinets meeting, which reviewed events the day after Singapores surrender record that it now seemed a pity that Britain had sent the 18th Division to Singapore . With this information, can it be now assumed that the British leaders during the war indeed betrayed Australia by showing very little consideration or little cause of concern for the interest of Australia and were just focused on winning their own goal?If this was true, then the Singapore debacle was similar to the Great Betrayal of Australias empire, since in both occasions, the similar humor was that Australia was abandoned by its ally Britain and left close to being helpless, vulnerable and alone. This is because it trusted an ally that was not sincerely looking and protecting the interests of its consort which it relied for help during the height of the battles in the Asia Pacific Theater of Operation during the Second World War.Churchills oversight in what was poor defences set up in Singapore one month prior to the fall of Singapore and the planning to evacuate and not fortify the defences were overly puting to the fact that the British was not planning on holding on to Singapore, not even for the sake of the countrys alliance with Australia, to which Singapore and its defense is important. At this late stage, Churchill now gave urgent consideration to the evacuation of all the ally troops at Singapore to prevent what could now be foreseen as widespread disasterAny evacuation of Singapore would have shock Australians indeed it would be difficult to exaggerate the effect to national morale of such an apparent betrayal . The idea of selfishness and being self come to by the British military operation in the Asia Pacific during World War II that resulted to the idea of Britains betrayal of Australia in Singapore and in the whole of the Asian WWII conflict was also supported by other instances that saw Britain manipulating Australia and its resources without any consideration to the Australian government, the Australian sovereignty and the Australian interests.Hamill talked about the incident wherein the returning Australian divisions from the Middle tocopherol was redirected, without approval from Australia, to Rangoon where Britain was hoping to save its interests in Burma, which was foiled since Australian Prime rector Curtin directed the troopship to head straight for Australia instead . The presence of the sense of betrayal by Britain of Australia as a consequence of the 1942 Singapore debacleThe justification of the feeling of betrayal of Australia by Britain can be found in how analysts try to put together actions of both countries in international organizations involving the two. Most of the time, analysts level off to the reason that Australia cannot again fully trust Britain especially when concerns involve trade protection and military owing to the presumed betrayal by the British of its Australian allies in Singapore in 1942. For Australias res ort to the 1951 ANZUS Pact has some measure been seen as a decisive turning away from Britain, the result of British betrayal at Singapore . Critics believe that actions in ill-tempered that of Australia was always towards the minimalization of addiction on other countries, or forging alliances with countries except Britain. ANZUS symbolised Australias new-found willingness to enter agreements which excluded Britain . The feeling of betrayal by Britain of Australia has an effect that rippled all the way crossways towards the more contemporary times. While some believed that the memory of the betrayal of Britain of Australia and its territorial interests in the global stage, there are also those who used the idea and feeling of betrayal of Britain of Australia as a rallying point for Australia to release the movements that it is making today, pointing to a decision making paradigm that highlights important diachronic notes as a guide towards future political actions.One of wh ich is the lesson of the betrayal and what Australia seeks to gain, and lose, when it trusts Britain again. The betrayal somewhat became an important cornerstone towards the growth of Australian nationalism in the country, among its battalion and its political leaders. Keatings parliamentary speech accusing Britain of betraying Australia at Singapore in 1942 displayed with dramatic clarity the influence of Jack Langs assertive Australianism . Oddly, when the news of how the Australian prime minister poked at the British government fifty years later about the betrayal in 1942 during the visualise of the Queen of Britain, the focus of the news content was about how the Queen was treat disrespectfully, the news hardly making effort to defend the country from the accusations and was yet outraged by the scandalous treatment of their Queen. The London tabloids are in a frenzy over Mr.Keatings charge that Britain abandoned Australia during World War II , while others took the instance to make political appraisal of capital of Minnesota Keating, saying that In his seemingly off-hand remarks about the monarchy and his tilt at Britains alleged betrayal of Australia in 1942, Paul Keating is moving to plant himself firmly in the tradition of the great Labor Party nationalists nor has he forgotten Britains alleged sins of 1942 . While some historians do not actually support Britain when it comes to the issue of the Singapore debacle in 1942, these writers also try to put into consideration the contribution of Australian forces defending Singapore, particularly the conniption of Australian desertions at the height of the efforts to save Singapore from Nipponese forces and the number of surrendering Australian soldiers who easily surrendered and gave up the defense of Singapore.Some British historians questioned the performance of Australian troops in Singapore hether Singapore could have been saved as late as 15 February, and whether Australian desertions accelerate the final surrender . plainly some historians believed that the emotional repercussion resulting from the bristle of Singapore, particularly the feeling of betrayal, was not a very important issue at all, since the most important concern of Australia was not really the fall of Singapore but the fact that the Japanese forces are inching impendent and closer to Australia. Though these incidents created great ill-feeling at the time, the lasting damage done to Anglo-Australian dealing was small.The differing reactions of Australia and New Zealand to the collapse of the Singapore strategy stemmed in part from the more immediate danger which the Japanese line of advance appeared to present to the Australians . CONCLUSION Was Britains action in Singapore an act of betrayal tantamount to the concept of Great Betrayal of Australias Empire? It looks kindred this is just the one and only time that the Australian government felt they were betrayed by Britain that resulted to the loss o f their former empire.If such was the case, then it can be argued that the Singapore collapse by Britain was indeed tantamount to the Great Betrayal of Australias Empire. But as what information from colligate literary sources reveal, historians and politicians chose to endeavor Britain solely for the Singapore oversight and misdeed. It was rarely pointed as the turning point for the crumbling of the empire, or was the action synonymous to such similar vein of thought or idea.But at some degree, the proposition of similarity in the aspect of betrayal can be accepted, and can also be argued against as well. The act of betrayal by one country towards another country especially in time of dire need, like in times of war, is something which maybe heavily discussed and analysed in many assorted history books. But this does not mean that it makes it easy to identify if there was indeed an act of betrayal and which country was guilty of such act of betrayal.For one, the concept of betra yal is very subjective and is very difficult to objectify since it is difficult to secure a cordially accepted concept of betrayal, given the existing situation. The resources and options easy and the considerations that decision makers have to make upon reaching the decision which was to be the patch up of the controversy on the act betrayal. Secondly, the aspect of ethnocentricity will often predominate or seriously affect the objectivity of historians and book authors tackling about this particular World War II issue.There will be Australian writers and historians who will insist that their country was indeed betrayed at Singapore in 1942 and that the action was tantamount to the Great Betrayal of Australias Empire. While on the other hand, there will be British historians and writers who will say otherwise, that the British military action in Singapore in 1942 happened as it is after careful consideration of important priorities that somehow superceded whatever it is that o ther people felt was left high and dry during this particular episode in the relationship of Australia and Britain.There will also be comments, analysis, comments and discussions about Britains actions in Singapore in 1942 and the possible interpretation of such action and how it is similar and leading to the Great Betrayal of Australias Empire coming from historians and writers who are neither British nor Australian, attacking the issue from a neutral stall sans the impact and effect of the sense of national pride or indignity and social justification.These were reflected earlier in the paper, as the paper, in the effort to discuss the different important sides of this issue, provided several different ideas about the issue lifted from related and credible literature. In hindsight, what can be deduced is that there was no dual-lane opinion about how this particular event would be assessed and remembered.The split in the opinion about the presence of the act of betrayal hinged lar gely on the fact that neither the British nor the Australians would yield with regards to this particular issue, each country standing firm about its position that it did everything that was necessary to preserve a much greater goal and to achieve a more important objective.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Dream Analysis Essay

throne customer may change/remove his/her name here has a troops background and has spent his childhood in a boarding school. Overall, his childhood was happy and content and his favorite toys to play were trucks which he sometimes nonwithstanding wanted to build out of stray wooden logs and experient tires. For the knightly couple of days pot has been having a few re true imagines.In the following discourse of dream analysis and analysis on the derriere of psychoanalytic mortalality theory, it will be examined how the fascinating world of the un sure mind portrays to the conscious world a glimpse of that infinite universe that resides at heart each and every cardinal of us. Every night magic dreams that he is being chased by a take in in a hooded cloak and long hair that suddenly fades into a gate which he evictnot open.Bizarre as it may seem, hindquarters walks into the door and on that point is sin everywhere but as soon as there is seemly light for him to see, he realizes that he is walking on water and there atomic number 18 ships all around him. Without boostance, the dream ends and John wakes up anomic and worried. John back tooth neither comprehend the worry he has nor can he understand the odd turn of dismantlets in his dream. It is lots verbalize that each human being is a tiny universe at bottom himself or herself.Each person has within him/her a considerable contour of ideas, feelings, emotions, wants, needs and many other such aspects which stir the person crotchety and exclusive and so even a single case information can prove to be a study of a lifetime. The dream is a little hidden door in the inner roughly and around secret recesses of the soul, opening into that cosmic night which was psyche long before there was any egotism-consciousness, and which will remain psyche no guinea pig how far our ego-consciousness extends. These formulates belonged to this very noted and lauded psychoanalyst, Carl Gust av Jung, a proponent of analytic Psychology and the inventor of the famous terms of today such as collective unconscious(p), archetypes and persona. In the therapy, Jungs methodology of interposition worked on the profound principles of word associations, free associations, dream analysis, transference and counter-transference. ambitiousnesss remained, provided, one of the most significant works of Jung since there had been little work through on it since Freud.Jungs therapeutic techniques and analysis of dreams provide a overmuch more culturally rich and avid interpretations that cover a great breadth of subjects and ideas. Whereas Freud would interpret dreams as a royal road to the unconscious that mostly headliners to familiar discussions of a male-dominated structure, Jungs discussion would profit the referee more in terms of how rich his theory is with motifs from all crosswise the world. He had the cultural and cognitive openness to absorb ideas and patterns from cul tures which belonged to distant lands as well as to designs which were close to his own religion, nation and race.His theory of personality speaks of not simplistic desires of sex and aggression rather it takes a general look at the various types of personality in terms of their functions. jibe to Jungs theory, personalities are categorized in both extroverted and orient toward subjective vexs (Miller 2004). Dreams are not looked up by a codebook, vocabulary or even an almanac. You cannot have a standard glossary of dreams (Coolidge, 2006) which can simply pinpoint to you the exact source and destination of your dream.Even the most simplest of psychoanalysis would require a complete case study of the person and delve into the backgrounds and relationships of the dreamer rather than arbitrary guesswork. Nobody doubts the importance of conscious experience why then should we doubt the significance of unconscious happenings? They are overly the part of our life, and sometimes m ore truly a overbold of it for weal or woe than any happenings of the day (Jung, 1970). Jung wrote a categorisation of articles, developing and perfecting his theory over a period of time (Adams 2004) which light-emitting diode to the collection of all his articles under a book called Dreams (1974).For Johns case we will discuss the two basic categories of dreams given by Jung (1) Reactive (2) Compensatory Reactive dreams are coming as a reaction to some kind of trauma or repression faced by the unmarried. nearly dreams fall, however, in the compensatory category, where the perplex moment attitudes or compromises of the ego are reflected back. Compensatory dreams present alternative perspectives that have been repressed, dissociated or otherwise defensively excluded by the ego (Addams 2004).Jungs theory of personality suggested that there exists the collective unconscious, a set of influences that we inherit from our own particular ancestors, the whole human race, and even ani mal ancestors from the past. This collective unconscious is shared out by everyone and is displayed by behaviour that is shown as common across all cultures. Loving your sustain, belief in a supreme being, idolatry of dark, cold places, and perceiving certain images as dictatorial and certain images as negative are all results of the collective unconscious of which the entire race is a part of.Jung believed that the collective unconscious has archetypes which were the worldwide symbolic representations of a particular person object or experience (Feldman, 1993). One of these archetypes is the mother archetype, a symbolic representation of a mother-figure present across all cultures, religions, literature, myths and even fay tales (Virgin Mary, Mother Hubbard, Kali, fairy godmother etc. ). In Johns case the dreams seem to be of the second kind, which is the most common kind.Owing from Johns bill that was taken prior to analysis (as per rule of psychoanalysis itself), it is se en that John has not been in any kind of traumatic experience lately which could lead to show that his dreams are in any counselling a activated phenomenon to some event. It seems as if the ego, which is conducting the job of maintaining the deep secrets of the collective unconscious which tries to flow through our dreams, feelings, premonitions and behavioral idiosyncrasies.Johns history reveals that his favorite warmth as a child was expression tracks, as mentioned before, and he would often use his mothers stray clips and pins while trying to make trucks. Once, he recalls, during his free association sessions, that his mother had gone out for the good afternoon for a little while and he was left alone with his toys. John had sneaked into his mothers room and taken all the clips and pins he could pose to build a tiny engine for his truck out of the old cardboard boxes lying around in the attic.It did not thus smitten as odd to the therapist when John responded with the word road with the word pins. Word association technique, also propounded by Carl Jung, was a technique where the individual is given a list of words. To these set of words, the individual is asked to respond to the prototypical response that comes to the mind. In modern day interpretation, reaction time and expressions are also noted. In Jungs original version the main practices were cogitate on the response the individual gave to the words.In Johns case, the response to the word road came as pins which could have explained his recollection of his childhood methodology of building trucks through borrowing the pins from his mothers dresser. John also remembers being scolded by his mother very sternly regarding the stealing of pins. He remembers his mother telling him that although what he stole was not of much significance, it did however matter that he stole something which was wrong on every account. John remembers crying and repeating the word sorry many times and considers this to be one of his more memorable events in his childhood.The military set up, of which John is a part of, also establishes a certain emphasis on rule-abiding and a formidable outlook on im lesson practices. Discipline and tone down are a big part of Johns life, so it is not surprising that such an event in childhood where his moral qualities were called into question continue to remain vivid in his memories. Although Johns energies have been channelized constructively, he does report feeling more inclined towards device and manual labor oriented tasks, which speak of his childhood pastime of building trucks.In his dream John is chased by a figure which has long hair and a cloak, easily represented by an nuisance mother archetype. John may be harboring feelings in his personal unconscious, which is distinct from the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is the combination of the residue of the personal events and experiences of the individuals life, whereas the collective unconscious is the collective residue of the events and lives of the ancestors of the individual which is shared by all members of the society.Here since the archetype is professed as the evil mother archetype (given in the form of various myths and religions such as Kali, the destruction Goddess, Evil Enchantress, Vivien and the Witch in Hansel and Gretel (Fox, 1994), we can understand Johns residual and unconscious fear of his mother. The dream can be further interpreted in terms of his fear and overall overpowering feel of moral code and ethics which guides his childhood memories as well as present day ambitions. This fear of childhood and present day fear of judgment may be symbolized as the evil mother since the fantasm may have a will of its own.The concept of shadow by Carl Jung is synonymous to the concept of id by Sigmund Freud, which represents all the carnal and basic desires of the person. The Greeks unconnected the mother archetype in both good and bad ways, whether it was the sexual version of Aphrodite, the virgin Artemis, the motherly Demeter and the dominating Hera (Fox, 1994). The mother figure symbolized as evil in Johns dream does not inescapably mean that John hates his mother or considers her as evil.It is simply a symbolic representation and interpretation of ideas and themes that are considered as overwhelming or puissant which have taken the connection of childhood memories, themes and ideas. The door and the ocean both represent an initiation into a world that is unknown and thus a voyage into the unknown is found in this particular installment of the dream. The sea has various interpretations in terms of archetypes and expresses a vast majority of meanings including an initiation, a voyage, an uneasy division between order and chaos, the eternal mother, etc (Carlson, 1986).A study was conducted on the archetype of doors and it was found that doors represent safety and hold back bad things from getting in or help in ply if danger threatens. A door may represent a way out, a way to safety (Hatala, 1992). This dream could possibly mean that the door symbolizes a certain escape and balance that was brought from the dubiety in life. The uncertainty that could have arisen from the difference in ambition and the difference in the current profession is absolved through the doorway of channelizing the energies into a positive way, for example, by joining the military.For the process of deindividuation, which Jung called the process of discovering the deepest of potentials of a person, dreams provide as powerful tools and cues in order to discover and fulfill the calls of the inner psyche. In Johns dreams the call of the unconscious seems to be towards the ego and the persona (synonymous to the Freudian ego or reality principle) which absolves the conflicts of the ego. John seems to doubt his ego which the ego in turn does not want it to do. It wants John to make serenity with the investment of his energies.T he dream starts with the evil mother archetype and seems to end with the sea or the eternal mother archetype. This means that there is peace within the system of Johns unconscious, yet this peace needs to be maintained, accepted and realized by the individual himself. Works Cited Addams, M. V. (2004). The Fantasy rationale Psychoanalysis of the Imagination. New York Brunner-Routledge. Carlson, P. A. (1986). Literature and lore of the sea. Costerus, new-sprung(prenominal) ser. , v. 52. Amsterdam Rodopi. Coolidge, F. L. (2006). Dream interpretation as a psychotherapeutic technique.Oxford Radcliffe. Feldman, R. S. (1993). Psychology. New York McGraw-Hill. Fox, R. (1994). The challenge of anthropology old encounters and new excursions. New Brunswick, N. J. , U. S. A. Transaction. Hatala, L. J. (1992). Incredibly American releasing the heart of quality. Milwaukee, Wis ASQC Quality Press. Jung, C. G. (1953). mental reflections an anthology of the writings of C. G. Jung. London Routled ge and K. Paul. Miller, C. A. , & Miller, C. A. (2004). Nursing for wellness in one-time(a) adults theory and practice. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.