Wednesday, November 27, 2019

3 Cases of Nonequivalent List Items

3 Cases of Nonequivalent List Items 3 Cases of Nonequivalent List Items 3 Cases of Nonequivalent List Items By Mark Nichol When a list of items in a sentence is not a simple matter of a, b, and c, writers can easily err in erroneously constructing the sentence, mangling the syntax in the mistaken belief that nonequivalent items are equivalent. Each of the sentences below presents a distinct problem with parallel structuring of lists, and the discussions and revisions that follow the examples explain and resolve the problems. 1. If you have a kitten, pregnant, or nursing cat, we recommend that you feed it kitten food. This sentence reads as if it refers to three types of cats: kitten cats, pregnant cats, and nursing cats. However, â€Å"kitten cat† is redundant, so kitten must appear syntactically distinct from the two other types of cats mentioned. The references to those types may be combined into a compound phrase, but it must follow a conjunction and a shared article, and the punctuation between them must be omitted to allow them to share the article: â€Å"If you have a kitten or a pregnant or nursing cat, we recommend that you feed it kitten food.† 2. Companies need to embrace innovation, cultural change, and embark on the digital-transformation process to become more nimble and keep up with the changing business environment. This sentence attempts to refer to three actions: embrace of innovation, embrace of cultural change, and embarkation on the digital-transformation process. But â€Å"cultural change† is not provided with its own verb, and the comma that precedes the phrase prevents it from sharing one with innovation. In order to share, the comma must be replaced by a conjunction. In addition, because such a revision results in two, not three, list items (the combination â€Å"embrace innovation and cultural change† and the phrase about embarkation), no internal punctuation is required: â€Å"Companies need to embrace innovation and cultural change and embark on the digital transformation process to become more nimble and keep up with the changing business environment.† 3. Factors influencing technology selection and implementation include the entity’s goals, marketplace needs, competitive requirements, and the associated costs and benefits. Because â€Å"associated costs and benefits† is only tangentially related to the entity, it should not be part of the list describing various aspects of the entity; the sentence must be revised so that â€Å"competitive requirements† is clearly the final item in the list: â€Å"Factors influencing technology selection and implementation include the entity’s goals, marketplace needs, and competitive requirements and the associated costs and benefits.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Comma After i.e. and e.g.List of Greek Words in the English Language15 Names and Descriptions of Effects

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Free Essays on The Concept Of Race

The Concept of Race Race- A local geographic or global human population distinguished as a more or less distinct group by genetically transmitted physical characteristics. What in the world does that mean? Every definition is vague, nothing is definite. When I was growing up I never noticed the color of people’s skin until I started Kindergarten. It was something that was taught to me. I have always has black, white, and tan colored skinned friends. As I have grown older I have noticed that there are lines, you can’t walk into a store with someone of a different color with out getting looks. I am white, and a good friend in high school was black. We were friends from the first day I started at Eastside, he was my body guard and I was his little comedian sister. After four years of hanging out, studying, and working together, my friend asked me to date him. I just did not see him as a â€Å"boyfriend† he was my big brother. He claimed that I did not want to date him because he was black. Honestly, it had nothing to do with his skin color. It was not until then that I realized how naà ¯ve I had been about race, how deep race runs in the south. Race is really just a category; it has nothing to do with anything but the color of skin, or the region your ancestors were from hundreds of years ago. Race in the south is the color of your skin. Supposedly, if you are white you think you are too good for the blacks. If you are a light skinned black you are shunned by the dark skinned blacks. Does this make any sense? In a big city, like Atlanta, white people and black people are different than the people in a small town, like Statesboro. The white and black people act differently toward each other. They act differently period. In Atlanta, you have a small group of people running around with rebel flags all over their trucks, and the rest think they are stupid. In Statesboro, a larger group of the white population have the rebel fla... Free Essays on The Concept Of Race Free Essays on The Concept Of Race The Concept of Race Race- A local geographic or global human population distinguished as a more or less distinct group by genetically transmitted physical characteristics. What in the world does that mean? Every definition is vague, nothing is definite. When I was growing up I never noticed the color of people’s skin until I started Kindergarten. It was something that was taught to me. I have always has black, white, and tan colored skinned friends. As I have grown older I have noticed that there are lines, you can’t walk into a store with someone of a different color with out getting looks. I am white, and a good friend in high school was black. We were friends from the first day I started at Eastside, he was my body guard and I was his little comedian sister. After four years of hanging out, studying, and working together, my friend asked me to date him. I just did not see him as a â€Å"boyfriend† he was my big brother. He claimed that I did not want to date him because he was black. Honestly, it had nothing to do with his skin color. It was not until then that I realized how naà ¯ve I had been about race, how deep race runs in the south. Race is really just a category; it has nothing to do with anything but the color of skin, or the region your ancestors were from hundreds of years ago. Race in the south is the color of your skin. Supposedly, if you are white you think you are too good for the blacks. If you are a light skinned black you are shunned by the dark skinned blacks. Does this make any sense? In a big city, like Atlanta, white people and black people are different than the people in a small town, like Statesboro. The white and black people act differently toward each other. They act differently period. In Atlanta, you have a small group of people running around with rebel flags all over their trucks, and the rest think they are stupid. In Statesboro, a larger group of the white population have the rebel fla...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Strategic management in action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Strategic management in action - Essay Example The successful implementation of the structure has made Google become a case study for other companies that once dominated the technology industry such as IBM and General Electric (Peng et al, 2007). The Silicon Valley-based Information Technology uses the laissez-faire management structure. The laissez-faire management style gives employees freedom to undertake their tasks without severe control from the management. Employees are given an opportunity to manage themselves without reporting to their seniors as is the case for many well-established organizations. Such working environment encourages employees to implement their ideas and apply their skills and talents in coming up with creative products and services (Porter, 2008). In Google, the management is less structured compared to other blue chip companies. With the less structuring, it is easier to control the workflow and the quality of work being undertaken. Interestingly, the ratio of employees to managers is 1:20.The ratio is less compared to other well-established companies. The fewer ratios allow engineers of the company to work with manageable teams. With a small and manageable team, work efficiency is enhanced something that leads to quality work (Taylor et al., 2008). Google uses a very competitive hiring process that only attracts to notch candidates in various fields. For instance, the company only employs engineers from reputable institutions. In addition, the engineers must have attained remarkable achievements in the education. Furthermore, the engineers are taken through a vigorous interview process as to identify the best-suited candidates. The competitive hiring process has enabled the company attract the best talents in the technology industry. Also, the employees are given attractive salary packages in a bid to retain them. The strategy is also useful in ensuring that Google does not lose its talented

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Canterbury Tale (The Wife of Bath) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Canterbury Tale (The Wife of Bath) - Essay Example Medieval social standards from which that dark reality consisted were the reason of much injustice, horrible crimes, slavery, massive misery and ugly existence even in the most progressive geographical regions. Among those oppressed part of society were also women who served to men almost as slaves and only sometimes would have been given a possibility to appear equal or even stronger by absorbing money and power. The individual experience of the Chaucer’s tale main heroine and narrator allows to make an attempt to find how virtually and naturally Alison serves as an anchor to the unique woman’s progressive thinking which shows displeasure with the reality of relationship between sexes. Among the main themes of the tale are woman’s dominance and submissive role of the man as well as declaring and stating equality between men and women. Dark Ages are not by accident called so. It was a rough time due to the total and grand chaos on the territory of the modern Europe. Following two great events – rise of the Islam religion and decline of the Western Roman Empire under the barbarian urge Europe suffered a great and total transformation on all the levels. Therefore rational thought and antique traditions of economic and political control remained lost until the early Renaissance which is exactly the times of Chaucer who can be called English version of Boccaccio both of whom are main authors of the main written documents of the early Renaissance . In the tale the author points out that chronologically it takes place in the times of King Arthur therefore it might be somewhere between 5th and 8th centuries while Islam appeared in the 6th. . Under the catast rophic eastern pressure European kingdoms created by such legendary and perhaps even historically mythological and cult icons like Arthur, William the Conqueror or Carl the Great with all their image honored war and battleship as the most sacred, holy and important crafts therefore

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Popular Places in Shimla Essay Example for Free

Popular Places in Shimla Essay Dear Sebastian, I had a wonderful time visiting Shimla, the summer hill station of India, which has a number of appealing attractions. It is located in the lower ranges of the Himalayas and is enveloped with oak, deodar, pine and rhododendron forests. Shimla is an old town and has beautiful colonial structures, quaint cottages and charismatic places to go for walks. The town also has delightful means of entertainment, shopping and sports. The highest point in the area is Jakhop Hill which provides a breathtaking view of the entire city. Glen forest a charming place for picnics and the Shimla Summer Hill is a quaint place to go for peaceful and refreshing walks. There is a beautiful water fall by the name of Chadwick Falls within the thick forests while Prospect Hill which is close by, provides for the perfect picnic outing. The most beautiful structure in Shimla is the Institute of Advanced Studies which was previously the official residence of the Viceroy of India during British rule. There are several temples in the area such as Sankat Mochan, Tara Devi temple and the temple of the Tibetan Goddess Drolma. The Himachal Pradesh State Museum houses a rich collection from the entire state. The town is indeed very pleasant and is quite huge for a hill station. The hill station presents the visitor with charming and unique glimpses of the fast vanishing colonial charisma. The Mall, buildings and picnic spots remind one of the time when this town was the summer capital of the British in India. The centre of all activities whether it is commercial or cultural is the Mall which provides a magnificent reminder of the colonial culture. The place is beautiful and is worth the pains for you to visit and experience the same joy that I experienced. You need to carry light woollens as the temperature is quite low even during summers. If you wish to go for a trekking expedition you can carry your camp kits and clothing that can sustain the rough and hectic routine. Best wishes John Works Cited Popular Places in Shimla, http://shimla. com/Places/index. htm, Accessed on 2

Friday, November 15, 2019

Explain How Rational Organisational Design Business Essay

Explain How Rational Organisational Design Business Essay Rational organisational designs, suggested by Max Weber, rely on logic, order and authority, paying particular attention to the division of labour, promotion by merit and hierarchal control; with the belief that this provides perfection in organisations (French et al, 2009). Organisations implement this design with the optimism of increased efficiency; however, have dismissed social organisation and the impacts this can have. In this essay, rationalisation will be discussed, focusing on the effects it has on an organisation and its employees; concluding with the argument of whether a rational organisational design is desirable for Junction Hotel. Scientific management, established by Frederick Taylor, aims to simplify work by following set principles. These principles routinize work; organising it into repetitive tasks in order to achieve maximum efficiency, giving managers responsibility and a span of control, (Morgan, 2006). TAYLORISM Rational organisational designs develop depending on the size of the business they are used with in. The simple design is often used within organisations with few staff, such as small retail stores. This type of design often has one member of staff, usually the manager, in control of the majority of other employees; the hierarchy design resembling a pyramid, showing the manager has a large span of control. This span of control shifts all responsibility for the organisation of work from the worker to the manager according to Morgan (2006), meaning employees only have to implement the work which is assigned to them by the manager. BUREAUCARCY As a business grows a more complex rational organisational design has to be enforced to ensure that efficiency is still maximised. The more intricate design is known as bureaucracy. The bureaucracy design uses the same principle of the simple design, although has a larger number of managerial staff and specific working departments, developing the chain of command. Bureaucracy design uses more rules and regulations than the simple design, due to the increased number of employees which have authority over other employees. This is so that there is a clear direction of discipline, resulting in all employees knowing who is in charge. This direction is the scalar chain; showing the line of authority due to the unity of command. Also it makes clear what each worker has to achieve, due to it being established by the specific departments. This also means that training for this specific job can be completed by workers, making them more efficient. This is of importance to rational organisations ; for instance, the McDonaldization theory established by Ritzer (2008) states that efficient workers can perform their tasks more rapidly and easily. This is also achieved in bureaucracies by working like clockwork; having staff perform a predetermined set of activities, rest at appointed hours, and then resume their tasks until work is over, as described by Morgan (2006). This is a typical example of how bureaucracies are designed to function. Businesses which have these design characteristics are described by Morgan (2006) as organisations that are designed and operated as if they were machines. It is argued that rational organisational designs help to cut costs and increase control for a business, overall maximising efficiency and having a positive impact on the business; evidenced by various real-life organisations. A typical example of a business today which has used a rational organisational design to achieve this is McDonalds. Ritzer (2008) helps to highlight the effectiveness of the organisational design McDonalds has implemented by quoting Ray Krocs thoughts on the arrangement; I was fascinated by the simplicity and effectiveness of the systemà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Each step in producing the limited menu was stripped down to its essence and accomplished with a minimum effortà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ This statement from Kroc identifies that McDonalds streamlined processes and organisation has maximised efficiency. By producing limited number of menu choices the business is able to assign set tasks to specified departments, to be completed at a set time; routinizing work. This increases control as the higher authority staff can over-see that the departments are completing their set tasks to ensure the food is made quickly and efficiently in order for customers to receive fast food from McDonalds. Also, by off ering a limited menu, McDonalds cuts costs and as suggested by Ritzer (2008) the limited number of menu items also allows for highly efficient ordering of food and supplies; the business does not use cash buying items which will be wasted due to fall in demand from customers and there is no extension of the streamlined process meaning the employment of further staff or purchase of equipment or supplies. Hotels such as the Travelodge have used rationalisation, in terms of value engineering. Davis (2007) states that businesses, such as the Travelodge, participate in an exercise called value management to optimise their process, trim costs and enhance quality. Value engineering is a result of this activity; where businesses cut costs by taking out the frills which not all customers want. For instance Davis (2007) focuses on how Travelodges dont have shampoo in the bathroom. By following this constituent of rationalisation, the organisation cuts costs, however does not necessarily reduce value for the customer as the business, like Travelodge, will have already weighed up cost versus benefit. The above examples show how rational organisational design is present in businesses today. However, it was first derived in the 1700s by Frederick the Great. Morgan (2006) talks about how Frederick developed rational organisation to increase control amongst his military. Frederick reduced soldiers to automatons by introducing ranks and uniformsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦regulations, increased specialization of tasksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦command language and systematic trainingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ By introducing these to the army, the men were taught to fear their officers; increasing the control that the higher ranks of the hierarchy had over the lower ranks. This turned the unruly mob into machines as they now completed commands set by Frederick. This is an example of how rationalisation has increased control, even in the earliest organisations. Despite rational organisational designs evidentially showing positives for businesses, there are likewise negative impacts on both the organisation and workers. If a business implements a rational organisation design then limitations do arise. These are addressed by Morgan (2006); there is great difficulty in adapting to changing circumstances, Ritzer (2008) states that although efficiency is generally a good thing it does cause dehumanization of workers as businesses drive for increased efficiency. This is evidenced an Anonymous BBC article (2010) stating that Bureaucracy hampers social workers', with a fifth of 4,141 social workers agreeing that they had sufficient time to work effectively with the young people on their case load and 50% of those who disagreed said that their workload was simply too large. This is related to the bureaucracy that the organisation has. Staff find it harderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦to spend time face-to-face with children and families due to the organisational design. This makes the workers feel dehumanized because they have too much paperwork, and not enough time to concentrate on the cases they should be dealing with. This is also supported by Morgan (2006) who states that mechanistic approachesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦can have dehumanizing effects upon employees, especially those at the lower levels of the or ganizational hierarchy and also that assembly-line work is simplyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦alienating. Mechanistic work, which stems from rational organisation also makes staff adopt mindless, unquestioning attitudes, which consequently results in some workers refusing job change, or a new responsibility because they have already a clear idea what is to be done by them due to the management and delegation rationalisation. Looking at this impact in the long term, it is likely that an organisation will find it difficult to change the bureaucracy it has already developed, causing changes in aims for the business also hard to achieve. This is another limitation of rational designs, which is suggested by Morgan (2006) when declaring those working in the organization take precedence over the goals the organization was designed to achieve. The theories and studies behind social organisation also show some negative impacts that rationalisation has. POSTIVE AND NEGATIVES ON BUSINESS/EMPLOYEES ARGUMENT USING SOCIAL DESIGNS IS IT DESIRABLE FOR JUNCTION HOTEL HOW? WHY? ENFORCING IT?

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Article 62 of the Vienna Convention Essay

The doctrine of fundamental change of circumstances, (rebus sic stantibus) is a principle of customary international law allowing a part to an agreement to withdraw or terminate it where there has been a fundamental change in circumstances. The main justification for this principle is that treaties often remain in force for many years, during which time fundamental changes may occur in the political or international environment which may require a departure from the provisions set out in the treaty. However, this principle has also been criticized for disrupting the binding force of obligations taken by states, particularly when bearing in mind that there is no compulsory jurisdiction forcing states who terminate a treaty on this ground, to have the legitimacy of their decision scrutinised before an international tribunal. Nevertheless, this principle has been codified in Article 62 of the VCLT, although its scope has been severely restricted. Article 62 (1) is drafted it negative terms, stating that a fundamental change of circumstances which has occurred since the conclusion of a treaty, and which was not foreseen by the parties, may not be invoked as a ground for terminating or withdrawing from the treaty unless: (a) the existence of those circumstances constituted an essential basis of the consent of the parties to be bound by the treaty; and (b) the effect of the change is radically to transform the extent of obligations still to be performed under the treaty. This is further restricted by Article 62 (2) which states that fundamental change of circumstances may not be invoked as a ground for terminating or withdrawing from a treaty if the treaty establishes a boundary or if the fundamental change is the result of a breach by the party invoking it either of an obligation under the treaty or of any other international obligation owed to any other party to the treaty. If these conditions are met, Article 62 (3) allows a state to suspend the operation of the treaty if it does not wish to terminate it or withdraw from  it. Therefore, in order for Article 62 to apply, five conditions must be met. First, the change must be of circumstances existing at the time the treaty was made. Second, the change of circumstances must be â€Å"fundamental†. Third, the change must not have been foreseen by the parties. Fourth, the existence of those circumstances must have constituted an essential basis of the consent of the parties to be bound by the treaty in the first place. Fifth, the effect of the change must be radically to transform the â€Å"extent† of obligations still to be performed under the treaty. The possibility of terminating a treaty on grounds of fundamental change of circumstances was recognised in the Fisheries Jurisdiction case, but was not held to be applicable on the particular facts of that case. In this case, Iceland and the UK entered into an agreement to limit their fisheries jurisdiction to within their 12 mile continental shelf limit. However, as the law of the sea developed, greater fishing zones became permissible, and Iceland argued that these developments where a fundamental change of circumstances allowing them to withdraw from the treaty. The ICJ held that a change in the law is not sufficient to constitute a fundamental change of circumstance. A change in international law could however terminate the treaty on grounds of supervening impossibility of performance if the change made the carrying out of the treaty illegal. It was stated that changes in circumstances will only be regarded as fundamental if they â€Å"imperil the existence or vital development of one of the parties.† Moreover, it was added that â€Å"the change must have increased the burden of the obligations to be executed to the extent of rendering the performance something essentially different from that initially undertaken†. As these requirements had not been met, Iceland could not withdraw from the agreement. Similarly, the scope and application of Article 62 was also examined in the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Danube Dam) case. Here the ICJ stated that â€Å"The changed circumstances advanced by Hungary are, in the Court’s view, not of such a nature†¦that their effect would radically transform the extent of the obligations still to be performed in order to accomplish the Project. A  fundamental change of circumstances must have been unforeseen; the existence of the circumstances at the time of the Treaty’s conclusion must have constituted an essential basis of the consent of the parties to be bound by the Treaty. The negative and conditional wording of Article 62 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties is a clear indication moreover that the stability of treaty relations requires that the plea of fundamental change of circumstances be applied only in exceptional cases†. This reasoning was followed by the ECJ in the Racke v Hauptzollamt Mainz case. In this case, the ECJ considered whether the EC could suspend the operation of a trade concession agreement between itself and the former Republic of Yugoslavia on the grounds that the break-up of Yugoslavia into several new States were factors to be regarded as a political change, involving a fundamental change in the material circumstances underlying the consent of the contracting parties bound by the agreement. It was held not to be, because the change did not fundamentally alter the extent of the obligations under the agreement, which was essentially an economic agreement to promote the development of trade between the contracting parties. These cases demonstrate the severe restriction which is place on the scope of Article 62, and that it will require a truly exceptional case for the ICJ to conclude that the requirements of Article 62 have been met. In relation to the provisions of Article 62, a question has arisen as to whether these provisions could apply to the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty between the USA and the USSR in 1972, which was concluded in the circumstances of the Cold War. Can it be said that there has been a fundamental change in the circumstances which determined the parties to accept the treaty and which has resulted in a radical transformation in the extent of their obligations still to be performed under the treaty? In 2001, President Bush announced that he had given formal notice to Russia, that the US is withdrawing from the Treaty. The treaty sought to limit the development and deployment of nationwide ballistic missile defence systems. Explaining the withdrawal, President Bush referred to the terrorist events  of September 11 as a fundamental change of circumstances which have resulted in the US now being put in danger from rogue states or terrorists who may have acquired nuclear weapons. Consequently, US wants the freedom to develop effective defenses against missile attacks from such sources, and this can be done only if the restrictions of the ABM Treaty are removed. A further argument that can be made is that the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the removal of the Cold War threat may also constitute a fundamental change in circumstances allowing the US to withdraw from the treaty. However, the problem here is that despite the end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, both the US and Russia have continued to regard the treaty as remaining in force between themselves. The most obvious resolution to this problem would be for Russia to grant its consent to the US to withdraw from the treaty, or for both states to terminate the treaty by mutual agreement, according to Article 54 of the VCLT. However, it is unlikely that Russia will grant its consent for the USA to withdraw from the treaty. Therefore, the question of whether the US can unilaterally withdraw from the treaty arises. The only provision under the VCLT which may provide the US with the opportunity to unilaterally withdraw from the treaty is fundamental change of circumstances, under Article 62. In order for Article 62 to apply, five conditions must be met. First, the change must be of circumstances existing at the time the treaty was made. The first condition is clearly met as there certainly has been a change of circumstances from the height of the cold war in 1972 to the present post-cold war era. The Cold War has now subsided, and the Iron Curtain and the Soviet Union no longer exist. Second, the change of circumstances must be â€Å"fundamental†. This change can be said to be fundamental because in 1972, the threat from the Soviet Union was real and vivid, whereas the improvement in relations since then has greatly reduced this threat. This disparity between US and Russian military power  can be seen by the fact that the US spends more on its military than the next ten military powers (including Russia) taken together. Furthermore, few countries other than the US and Russia had nuclear weapons in 1972, and the majority that did were allies of the US. Any threat from other countries (let alone terrorists) was mostly a distant threat, not yet a reality. Third, the change must not have been foreseen by the parties. It is questionable whether the change in circumstances was not foreseen by the parties. It can be argued that the acquisition of nuclear weapons by other countries, some of which are a threat to the US was foreseeable. However, the threat from terrorists who may have now acquired nuclear weapons cannot reasonably be said to have been foreseeable. Fourth, the existence of those circumstances must have constituted an essential basis of the consent of the parties to be bound by the treaty in the first place. It can be said that the circumstances which constituted an essential basis of the US’s consent have changed, because the Soviet Union no longer exists, and Russia is no longer the threat it used to be. The only reason why the US signed the treaty was because of the threat from Russia, if there was no threat, it would not have consented. Furthermore, the persisting ideology of the two states at the time the treaty was signed was world supremacy, and so both states sought to limit the military and nuclear aspirations of the other by consenting to this treaty. It would now seem that the original nuclear arms race which instigated the treaty is over, since neither the US nor Russia are seeking to increase their arsenal of nuclear weapons, and it is doubted whether Russia would have the financial means to do so even if it wanted to. Therefore, it seems that the object and purpose of the ABM Treaty has ceased to be relevant in today’s world. On the other hand, it may be argued that despite the developments of the last 30 years, Russia has still not submitted to the emerging realisation that we are living in a US dominated world. It continues to maintain links with rogue governments and has nuclear parity with the US. Therefore, although it  is less of a threat than it used to be, it is still nevertheless a threat. Consequently, the counter-argument may be that the original threat which instigated the US to sign the ABM Treaty still exists, albeit in a weaker form. Therefore, it is a matter of debate whether the existence of the circumstances which initially formed the basis of the US’s consent have been fundamentally changed. Fifth, the effect of the change must be radically to transform the â€Å"extent† of obligations still to be performed under the treaty. This is the most difficult condition to satisfy and it is questionable whether it has been satisfied. It must be remembered that both the US and Russia have continued to regard the treaty as remaining in force between themselves, and the treaty has continued to carry out its purpose, i.e. the restriction of nuclear weapons. However, the justification given by the US is that the Treaty enshrines the past and should not prevent it from addressing the threats of today, or to pursue technology to defend itself. This argument may have some support from the statements made in the Fisheries Jurisdiction case, where it was stated that changes in circumstances will only be regarded as fundamental if they â€Å"imperil the existence or vital development of one of the parties.† Moreover, it was added that â€Å"the change must have increased the burden of the obligations to be executed to the extent of rendering the performance something essentially different from that initially undertaken†. It can be argued that preventing the US from developing technology to protect itself from the threat from rogue nations and terrorists may indeed â€Å"imperil its existence or vital development†. Moreover, as Professor Mullerson points out, the purpose of the ABM Treaty and the extent of its obligations were not to prohibit national missile defence systems in abstract against all possible threats, but to prohibit such defence from the other party to the Treaty. Therefore, by preventing the US from defending itself from new nuclear threats, it can be said that the fundamental change has now altered the extent of the obligations of the US. This is because its obligations will have been transformed from an obligation not to defend itself against Soviet missile threats, to an  obligation not to defend itself from missile threats from rogue states or terrorists. Therefore, the fundamental change of circumstance provision in Article 62, when combined with the provision in Article XV of the ABM treaty itself which allows a state to withdraw where extraordinary events arise, and where its supreme interests are threatened, may give the US a legitimate basis for unilaterally withdrawing from the treaty. As Professor Mullerson points out, â€Å"it is clear that US-Soviet (Russian) legal relations cannot, by definition, remain the same as they were at the height of the military-strategic competition which was the axis of world politics†. On the other hand, it may be argued that despite the developments of the last 30 years, although Russia is less of a threat than it used to be, it is still nevertheless a threat. Consequently, the counter-argument may be that the original threat which instigated the US to sign the ABM Treaty still exists, albeit in a weaker form. An alternative solution to the situation is advanced by Professor Mullerson, who states that the doctrine of change of fundamental circumstances should be used not only as a method of upholding or terminating treaties, but it should be used more flexibly as a process for initiating renegotiation or modification of a treaty whose object and purpose no longer correspond to the needs of changed circumstances. Despite the arguments either way, if Russia ultimately acquiesces in the US justification for withdrawing from the ABM Treaty, it is possible that the reasons given by the US may be regarded as supplying a precedent for withdrawal by the United States or other countries from other arms control treaties on similar grounds. As we have seen from the above discussion, although Article 62 lays down the general criteria which may allow a state to terminate a treaty on grounds of fundamental change of circumstances, the scope and application of Article 62 remains very problematic. The fact that there is no compulsory jurisdiction forcing states who terminate a treaty on this ground, to have the legitimacy  of their decision scrutinised before an international tribunal further adds to these problems. In the few cases where Article 62 has been ar5gued before the ICJ, we have seen that a very strict approach has been adopted and that no state has ever successfully pleaded Article 62 before the ICJ. This may discourage states from testing the legitimacy of their decision to terminate a treaty on the basis of Article 62 before the ICJ, as will probably occur in the ABM Treaty debate. Perhaps an alternative solution would be to not only use Article 62 as a method of upholding or terminating treaties; but more flexibly as a process for initiating renegotiation or modification of a treaty whose object and purpose no longer correspond to the needs of changed circumstances.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Copland Summary Essay

Aaron Copland is a 20th century composer who was giving lectures at Harvard in 1951-1952. He was giving a lecture on the idea that listening is a great talent or gift one can posses. Copland believes that these listeners have the ability to listen, hear, and enjoy a piece of art based on an enjoyment factor or in primal terms, emotion. He also says that listeners should be able to evaluate critically such art, and come to their own conclusion or opinion. As you continue to read through his lecture, Copland states that in order to listen with skill, you need to be open-minded and reflect on the experience you felt. While closely paying attention to the experience, nothing should be telling the listener what they are going to hear. They should be able to comprehend the art and feel the, â€Å"Floodlight of one’s imagination,†(Paragraph two, Copland). While maintaining this ability to keep and open mind, a listener should be professional. However, at the same time retain an amateur status. This allows for a dual perception. It creates a lack of judgment and innocence, allowing for a more emotional interpretation. Copland believes that all artists alike find listeners pivotal in the artist community. This spiritual lending of ones self to art should concentrate the sentiments, not physically distance it self. Generally speaking, Copland finds the reaction of music intriguing. He ponders what this talented listener absorbs in art. Does he/she understand? If so, what in particular do they understand? He approaches the meaning of music or art, which he decides that it is many sided and will always be debated. This is because there are simply to many interpretations to consider. Music has become to, â€Å"professionalized.† A listener sees the natural beauty of such art, not the origins, and exercise of it. They rely on, â€Å"instinctive comprehension.†(Paragraph 12, Copland) They simply don’t weigh the personalization of music. Above all else, Copland says we all listen on a, â€Å"elementary plane of musical consciousness.†(Paragraph 13, Copland). However intuitively we all listen, it should always revolve and come back to the personal experience felt at the time. The primal impulse felt that feeds our evaluation and perception. Concluding that Copland believes we all hear, listen, enjoy or dislike and art piece based on emotion. The way it was originally suppose to be perceived. For this is all fundamentally we hear music Copland states. In addition to Copland’s theory of listeners, I pose my own question on the professionalism of music itself. I believe that the death of creativity in music is dripping away, in particular to mainstream, popular music. This brings a major significance considering that this is what the, â€Å"masses† deem okay. The great amounts of skill and precision have almost completely eroded away in artist. Everything has become digitalized, simple, and what seems as if it’s mindless. Aside from, I find this problematic because back in 50’s, 60’s, and 70’s, writing and creating music took skill. The artist took time to perfect their instruments, learn them, and appreciate them. Because of these processes, I firmly believe this is why GOOD music was created. Actual work went in to it. Now days anyone can simply hop onto a computer, lay down a beat in 4/4, and fulminate about nonsense. I am not stating there is no skill in ALL digital forms of music; for example, an artist of the name Big Chocolate creates music with extreme time signatures, which takes musical skill to pull off correctly. To conclude, the main reason I pose this question is because I find it interesting that the death of the artist is happening. It is no longer art, but just mere product at that point, which I find depressing. When I listen to the radio, and only hear the beat and rhythm of a girl saying banana, in 4/4, and a man â€Å"rapping† with no fluency, or even sense, I ponder why this is acceptable.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Comparing Past Participles in Spanish and English

Comparing Past Participles in Spanish and English You dont have to look far to see the close relationship between English and the languages derived from Latin. While the similarities are most obvious in vocabulary, English also includes key aspects of its grammar that have analogs in Latin-based languages, including Spanish. Among them is the past participle, an extremely useful type of word that can be used, in English as well as Spanish, as either part of a verb form or as an adjective. Forms Taken by Past Participles Past participles in English arent always as obvious as they are in Spanish, because they often take the same form as the past tense, in that they usually end in -ed. In the verb form, you can tell when an -ed verb is functioning as a past participle in that it is combined with some form of the verb to have. For example, worked is a past-tense verb in the sentence I worked but a past participle in I have worked. Less commonly, a past participle can also be used in the passive voice: In The play is produced, produced is a past participle. Spanish past participles typically end in -ado or -ido, thus bearing a vague similarity to the English equivalents. But their form is distinct from the simple past tenses, which include words such as comprà © (I bought) and vinieron (they came). Both Spanish and English have numerous irregular past participles, especially of common verbs. In English, many, but far from all, end in -en: broken, driven, given, seen. Others dont follow that pattern: made, hurt, heard, done. In Spanish, nearly all of the irregular past participles end in -cho or -to: dicho, from decir (to say); hecho, from hacer (to make or to do); puesto, from poner (to put); and visto, from ver (ver). Here are some of the most common irregular past participles in Spanish: Abierto (from abrir, to open)Cubierto (from cubrir, to cover)Escrito (from escribir, to write)Frito (from freà ­r, to fry)Impreso (from imprimir, to print)Muerto (from morir, to die)Roto (from romper, to break)Vuelto (from volver, to return) Using Past Participles as Adjectives Another similarity between English and Spanish is that past participles are frequently used as adjectives. Here are a few examples that the two languages share: Estoy satisfecho. (Im satisfied.)Los Estados Unidos. (The United States.)El hombre confundido. (The confused man.)Pollo frito. (Fried chicken.) In fact, while it often is awkward to do so, most verbs in either language can be converted to adjectives by using the past participle. Because they function as adjectives in such Spanish usages, they must agree in both number and gender with the nouns they accompany. The same is true in Spanish when the past participle follows a form of either ser or estar, both of which are translated as to be. Examples: Los regalos fueron envueltos. (The gifts were wrapped.)Las computadoras fueron rotas. (The computers were broken.)Estoy cansada. (I am tired, said by a female.)Estoy cansado. (I am tired, said by a male.) In Spanish, many past participles can also be used as nouns, simply because adjectives can be freely used as nouns when the context makes their meaning clear. One sometimes seen in news stories is los desaparacidos, referring to those who have disappeared due to oppression. Frequently, adjectives used as nouns are translated using the English one as in los escondidos, the hidden ones, and el colorado, the colored one. This phenomenon also appears in English, although less commonly in Spanish. For example, we might talk about the lost or the forgotten where lost and forgotten functioning as nouns.) Using the Past Participle for the Perfect Tenses The other major use of the past participle is to combine with the verb haber in Spanish or to have: in English (the verbs probably have a common origin) to form the perfect tenses. Generally speaking, the perfect tenses are used to refer to actions that are or will be completed: He hablado. (I have spoken.)Habr salido. (She will have left.) ¿Has comido?  (Have you eaten?) As you can see, the past participle is one of the ways that verbs in both Spanish and English gain their versatility and flexibility. Watch for uses of the past participle in your reading, and you may be surprised to see how often the word form is put to good use. Key Takeaways Past participles function very similarly in English and Spanish, as they are both verb forms that can function as adjectives and sometimes as nouns.Past participles combine with haber in Spanish and have in English to form the perfect tenses.Regular past participles end in -ed in English and -ado or -ido in Spanish.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Assisted Dying Essay

Assisted Dying Essay Assisted Dying Essay Assisted Dying PHI: 200 Mind and Machine July 23, 2012 Assisted Dying Physician-assisted dying and euthanasia are compromising dilemmas between what is forbidden and what should be acceptable when the dying is at the end-of-life cycle. The idea of accelerating death is a topic that generates disharmony for physicians, lawmakers and those involved in the palliative and end-of-life care circumstances. So is it inhumane to force the terminally-ill to suffer while they prefer to hastening death by a physician? According to Susan Wolf’s paper on her father’s death, she is one person would never want to accelerate the causing of death by euthanasia or assisted suicide. Let me start by stating my personal belief on this subject. I am a proponent of physician-assisted dying and euthanasia and believe that people have a right to a make decision, if capable, to longer go through treatment and end their life peacefully. I stand firm behind my statement assuming that the terminally-ill patient has been presented with every possible option available to them and comes to their own decision to end pain and suffering through assisted dying. So I try to place myself in Susan’s position to see if I would respond in the same manner as her. It is quite the conundrum. It becomes difficult for me to imagine sitting by a loved one’s bedside watching them suffer every day and not support their conscious choice to end their life. Although death is not difficult for me to grasp, I do not think I could have any part in the facilitation of dying other than respecting their decision. Who is for me to say that a person should take every medical option possible to prolong the inevitable? But with the decision to let people take control of their own life, who will then will take the burden to assist in the process†¦an answer I do not have. I feel that Susan lacked accountability in her duty as a designated proxy decision-maker when she realized the health professionals poorly informed her father about maintaining comfort after termination of artificial nutrition and hydration. She made no notion to help him understand what information she was aware of to help him understand his options. She quotes, â€Å"convinced now that he had no choice, my father soldiered on† (Wolf, 2008, p. 24). Perhaps it was for selfish reasons or held onto the idea that it seemed like a story with conflicting versions and possible trajectories (Wolf, 2008, p. 24). Perhaps she held on to tight to her ethical beliefs and left it to the professionals to answer for his slow progression in death. My response to this is that first, I am a strong proponent of ending suffering to all sentient beings. If an incident occurred were information was held from my loved one or presented in an unclear manner, it would be my duty to ensure I bring in additional resources to help communicate options that would cease suffering. Regardless of my personal stance on assisted dying, I feel a stronger sense to collect, research, and bridge any gap of communication that could help someone. Although there could be some missing pieces to this

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Church And State In British Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Church And State In British Society - Essay Example He expressed his concern, however, that secularists and atheists would capitalize on attempts to separate church and state by saying religion was in an increasingly precarious position in British life (Church and state could separate in the UK, says Archbishop of Canterbury 2008). Religion and belief in God are facing a tough time at present in many countries. Atheists are growing in numbers and they argue for the separation of religion and politics. Secularists and atheists can attack the religion in the absence of political protection according to the archbishop. Soper & Fetzer (n. d) have mentioned that religion, which was at the center of political conflict in Europe a century ago, became less important politically in the middle decades of the twentieth century (Soper & Fetzer n. d, p.3). it is a fact that the influence of religion on politics becoming feeble at present. The massacres committed by some communal groups on behalf of religion have opened the eyes of British communit y to think in terms of the dangers associated with the blending of religion and politics. 9/11 and the recent Mumbai terrorist attacks clearly indicate how dangerous if religion interferes with the politics. In short, the British politics is historically associated with religion and the influence of religion on politics is coming down for the time being. Even the religious leaders found no harm in separating religion and politics even though they have certain concerns about the how the secularists and atheists utilize it.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Adding customer value to your financial organisation for competitive Essay

Adding customer value to your financial organisation for competitive advantage - Essay Example These perceptions extensively influence their decisions on their interests to purchase from, work with, and market or support these companies. In the present competitive market and unpredictable economic environment, customer value may be an organization’s greatest asset – an aspect that makes a company to survive and beat their competitors in the market. Therefore, effective customer value is crucial to aid the company manage its public image by communicating and establishing strong relationships with other companies and stakeholders. This paper will investigate how Deutsche financial company in Australia can add customer value and importance of customer value in maintaining the competitive advantage of an organization. Additionally, it will investigate different ways of enhancing customer value to enhance the profitability of an enterprise. Background Customer value is an effective concept of marketing and business that aims at analyzing the customer satisfaction from the products and services provided. Customer value attempts to analyze the tendency that clients will turn out to be a permanent customer offering an ongoing organizational business. Our organization analyzes the value of customers to strengthen the customer base, investigate performance of product and effectively market products. The value of customer is a crucial means in which the board has always wanted to attain satisfaction of customer. The competitive nature of the business and government policy is an external issue that brings the issue before the board to increase the repeated purchase and increase the competitive advantage of the organization. Satisfaction of customers has been the main aim of the organization because of market saturation (Barnes, Blake and Pinder, 2009, p. 37). The board agrees that growth is mainly possible through market share attainment, from rivals. In addition, when clients perceive the value of customer to be extensive, they always share the experi ence and spread the public image of the organization via a word of mouth, leading to increased sales. The value of customer has occurred since the business world inception and customer loyalty is significant factor of business in various industries. Various 1990s studies have revealed that organizations can utilize value of customer to enhance the margin of business. Similarly, applied market literature suggests increased expectations for strategies of building loyalty. The theory of expectations-confirmation of satisfaction of customer suggests that satisfaction of customer about a service and product is centered on the expectations of the clients for such products, together with the expected product performance. The value of customer exploration tries to measure clients’ satisfaction; methods entail investigations about satisfaction or customer disconfirmation. Disconfirmation happens when expectations of customer differ from the possible satisfaction that products can offe r. Negative disconfirmation suggests that services do not satisfy the expectation of the customers, while positive disconfirmation indicates customer expectations are met. Discussion Financial services is an increasingly developing worldwide industry and entails various products and services types such as those related to insurance, management of funds, banking, trading of securities and superannuation. Irrespective of the form of market, marketing role has a crucial popular significant theme – that is to create critical value of customer which is more effective over the available alternatives whereas at the same time establishing organizational value. Marketing