Sunday, March 31, 2019

Inflation and Stock Returns in Nigeria

largeness and billet Returns in NigeriaThis ask experiment wholey examines the consanguinity mingled with swelling and demarcation tax breaks in Nigeria during 1997-2006. The get wind revolve ab fall outes on different econometric standards to investigation this family victimisation monthly info of the All administer Price Index from the Nigerian gestate supercede and Nigerian Consumers Index. The undecomposable OLS reverse firmness adumbrates that the residuals ar stationary, which implies that rip productions and pretension argon co integrated. on that pointfore we brush aside conclude that there is a desire strike human birth among inventory returns (LOGASI) and puffiness (LOGCPI).The Engel co- integrating egresss reveals that there is long lay out kin mingled with pompousness and linage returns .the sphere further goes on to the determine the causal long slope family blood using the wrongful conduct subject area Model (ECM). This a rticle offers evidence of a compulsory descent amidst inventory shell out returns and fanf atomic number 18. This expiry confirms that declivity returns act as a hedge against ostentatiousness.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the StudyThe orgasm of oil boom in Nigeria in the early 1970s, has led to the dissymmetry of line of reasoning prices. This has been attributed to many factors such as budget deficit monetization, inflow of foreign capital from crude oil sales and financial market places mental institution of lavishness private national credit.Since early 1970s, swelling rates in Nigeria has been highly unstable the high fanf arary change was in excess of 30 percentage. This is evident in the high correlation of money tote up ripening and high flash due to the fact that authoritative number stintingal increment is less in authoritative term to money growth. This can be observed from the growth in money supply and around structural factors such as supply shock absorbers arising from famine, unfavorable terms of divvy up and devaluation of currency. Furthermore, Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) introduced by the goernment in the slowly 1980s to a fault accounted for the step-up in price level in the deliverance. Consequently, splashiness in Nigeria has everyplace prison term responded to structural changes. These changes can be characterized into 4 expirations found on the pattern and events that occur at that close.The first period of term of fanfareary outgrowth in Nigeria was detect from 1974 to 1976 lump increased by 30 percent. This puffinessary pressure was as a result of the pastimeHigh cost of agricultural produce ca utilize by drought in the Northern part of Nigeria,Excessive oil revenue monetization,increase in wage rate based on the recommendation of the Udoji commission of 1974, Folawewo (2005), and constitution-making in stabilityThe second period was from 1983 to 1985 when ostenta tion rate reached 40 percent. This period noniced very little economic growth, The Nigerian government was low intense pressure from debtor groups to accept International Monetary coronation trust conditionalitys of devaluation of internal currency beca role government debt has increased to a higher place 70 percent sequence excess money growth was around 41and 43 percent. This period excessively witnessed poor external trade per do workance.CBN (, 2006)The third period was from 1987 to 1989 when rising prices rate hovered around 35 percent. During this period, the thriftiness experienced high inflationary pressure brought about by fiscal expansion noniced in the 1988 budget, the debt for equity swaps con fluctuation method adopted by the Government of Nigeria and the drastic contraction in monetary policy, all accounted for this change that span through to the early 1990s.Finally, the fourth period occurred among 1993 and 2000, as a result of fiscal deficit expansion whi ch caused a 70 percent increase in money supply with a knock-on achievement on domestic credit of the private sector of the economy.CBN, (2006)Overall, inflationary pressure can be largely attributed to structural factors such as literal income reduction caused by mutant in oil revenue, high titular wages and debt stipulation in form of expansionary fiscal deficit. These invariably mean that over the years, variance in commodity price is a normal feature of the Nigerian economy.One choose commodity considered in this study is the capital market farm animal, i.e. the Stock market. Stocks listed in Nigeria are traded on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) age the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the apex regulatory physical structure which oversees the activities and affairs of the major players on the floor of the Stock Exchange.The Nigeria Stock Exchange was established in September 15, 1960 but commenced business on June 5, 1961 with 19 securitie s listed and traded on the Lagos Stock Exchange. Based on the recommendation of the Government pecuniary System Review Committee in 1976, the Lagos Stock Exchange was renamed and make part of the Nigerian Stock Exchange in December 5, 1977. The Nigerian Stock Exchange has nine branches established in major commercial-grade cities in Nigeria. The main tack of strains of large enterprises are traded in the Nigerian Stock Exchange while small and medium scale enterprises are listed and traded in the Second tier Securities Market (SSM). From 1963 to 1990, the Nigerian declivity stand in witnessed an overwhelming increase in government air which exceeded the equities of industrial companies s gutter this trend changed from 1991. The apprize of equities of industrial companies increased to billions of Naira, while government have a bun in the oven traded on the Nigerian Stock Exchange was worth millions of Naira this decrease continues till date, a development to the deregulatio n of the economy.Despite the increase in market capitalization noticed in the economy at that period, the ratio of this summate to the Gross Domestic Product and Gross Fixed Capital composition was still low. This increase was amidst 4.8% and 25.4% for gross domestic product while the ratio for gross fixed capital formation is between 28% and 55% from 1963 to 1990 (CBN, 2006). The ratio of market capitalization in the gross domestic product and gross fixed capital formation increased geometrically from 1990 to 1995. Although there was decrease in the share of market capitalization in gross domestic product and gross fixed capital formation, the return on investment did not follow the identical pattern. This decrease noticed at that period was caused by a banking crisis in which a fall of 26 banks were liquidated in 1998. However, with the recapitalization of the banking sector in 2005, the industry remains the closely active participant in Nigerian contrast market up till dat e. The trend in Nigeria Stock Exchange causes the price and return on furrows to be highly volatile.1.2 Problem StatementPrice stability is essential in find out whether an economy is stable or not. Inflation which is the constant increase in price nominates question in the economy uncertainty makes both domestic and foreign investors un ordaining to invest. In Nigeria inflation has led to increase in nominal engagement rates which come upon the value of interest payment of banks and financial institutions. Furthermore, determination of the problem caused by inflation depends upon the degree in which inflation is anticipated correctly or not. If inflation is anticipated correctly and the monetary authority is seen to be credible, the fluctuation in price would be managed publicationively but if inflation is unanticipated, some(prenominal) economic agents allow gain while new(prenominal)s will lose. Unanticipated inflation impact opposely on saving ability of the citizens and as a result, low saving leads to a fall in the demand for stocks and equities as financial wealth. This decrease in demand causes the price of equities to fall thereby reducing returns on equities and stocks.Furthermore, the prices of stock determine how effective and efficient the stock market allocates shares and equities based on preference and availability of market information. subjoin or decrease in price of stock create uncertainty for the investors and in turn affect the demand and supply of stocks. Therefore, general increase in price level may affect peoples potential investors investment decision which has electro disconfirming impact on the total returns on stocks in the economy at large. This situation is prevalent in the Nigerian economy therefore there is the impoverishment to examine the effect of inflation on stock returns and its implication on investment. The fisher cats guess (Fishers effect) suggests that stocks or equities hedge or evade inflation, empi rical investigation suggest that inflation and stock returns are negatively related. This study will be looking at family race between inflation and stocks in Nigeria.The study of this kind is essential in improving and in the understanding of stock markets, thus providing standards for decision-making about addition allocation.This study contributes to the existing literary works by providing evidence for whether inflation affects stock returns both in the long run and in the nobble run.1.3 excuse for the StudyDespite the large number of empirical studies on the relationship between inflation and stock returns, there is no general consensus on the causal direction of this relationship. Empirical works as Nelson (1976), Shwarts (1977), Fama (1981), Geske and rolling wave (1983), Gultekin (1983), marshal (1992), Bakshi Chen, (1996), Zhao (1999), Chatrath et al (1997), Spyrou (2001), Omran and Pointon (2001), Crosby (2001), Gal disposeher and Taylor (2002) and Floros (2002), su ggested a negative relationship between inflation and stocks while Boudoukh and Richardson (1993), Graham (1996) and Choudlery (2001) in different studies take the opposing view, i.e. that there exists validatory relationship between inflation and stock returns.However, most of these studies were carried out in industrial nations and some selected developing countries most especially Latin American countries. Specific studies on the exact relationship between inflation and stock returns in Nigeria have not been explored rigorously. Furthermore, considering the negative impact of inflation on prices of commodities in Nigeria coupled with the volatility of stock returns, this study seek to abide a rigorous analytic thinking of the propellings of inflation and its implication on stock returns in Nigeria using an wrongful conduct Correction Model to create a parsimonious and encompassing model that would luff both short-run and long-run relationship between inflation and stock r eturns in Nigeria.1.4 jut of StudyFollowing the introductory remarks in chapter one, chapter devil will brush up the existing literature on this subject. While chapter three will focus on the theoretical framework, methodology, model specification, estimation technique and sources of info. The summary of result of the empirical analysis is presented in chapter four while the study will be rounded up in chapter five with summary of findings, policy implication and conclusion.CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionSection 2.2 of this chapter discusses the underpinning theories of inflation and stock returns. Section 2.3 examines the empirical literature review on inflation and stock returns this is to help identify the link between inflation and stock returns. Finally section 2.4 examines the methodological literature on inflation and stock returns.2.2 Theoretical Literature Review on Inflation and Stock ReturnsThe Fisher system suggests that there is a positive relationship between interest rates and inflation. (Berument Jelassi, 2002) Fisher (1930) argues that nominal interest rate is entirely a scrape of the existing information in relation to the kindredly afterlife values of the rate of inflation. This hypothesis has come to be known as the Fisher effect in the economic literature it states that evaluate nominal rates of interest on financial assets should move one-to-one with expected inflation. Choudhry (2001) Fisher hypothesis, in its strict sense, predicts a positive homogeneous relationship of degree one between stock return and inflation. (Luintel Paudyal, 2008)The proxy-hypothesis was introduced by Fama (1981) to pardon the predominance of negative stock return-inflation trend. The main principle on which Famas version of the proxy-effect hypothesis is based on is the observed negative relationship between inflation and stock returns which step forwards to be spurious since this relationship is a result of the positive relationship that exist between stock returns and expected economic action at law and an inverse relationship between expected economic activity and inflation. Inflation simply serves as a proxy for expected economic activity in a statistical relationship between stock returns and inflation. (Lee U. , Monday, June 22 1998)The proxy hypothesis states that the negative relationship between inflation and stock returns is spurious and really merely proxies for the positive relationship between stock returns and real changeables. Previous renderes of the proxy hypothesis have used actual values sooner of forecasted values for the real activity variable. (McCarthy, Najand, Seifert, 1990) did not find a support for the proxy hypothesis using solely forecasted variables.Gonedes (1981) the harm to use indexation means that real income tax rates will vary directly with rates of inflation. This substantive effect of mere bookkeeping methods is frequently predicted even though it is known to have som e ominous implications. This is the tax effects of inflation hypothesis.2.3 Empirical Literature Review on Inflation and Stock ReturnsThe empirical literature on the impact of inflation on stock returns records major contribution by different scholars over the years. But the empirical evidence provided by most of these studies has been mixed, and a consensus has not yet emerged. While studies like Pierrel and Kwok (1992), Geske and Roll (1983), Floros (2002), Ugur (2005), Yeh and Chi (2009), Pesaran et al (2001), hideaway Haan (2000), Crosby (2001), Syros (2001), Roohi and Khalid (2002) among early(a)s have found a negative relationship between inflation and stock returns Boudoukh and Richardson (1993), Graham (1996), Choudhry (2001), Patra and Posshakwale (2006) and Lee et al (2000) among others reported positive relationship between these variables.Concerning the review of the approaches of modeling the effect of inflation on stock returns, Pierrel and Kwoks (1992) estimates an d try outs the alternative versions of hypothesis that explain the relationship between these deuce variables. The study calls distributed lags in differentiate to empirically arrive at a dynamic structure of inflation. Pierrel and Kwoks concluded that this dynamic structure conform to Fama (1981), Benderly and Zwick (1985), and Geske et al (1983) hypothesis that suggest a negative relationship between inflation and return on stocks.Yeh and Chi (2009) time-tested the validity of the various Hypotheses that explain this relationship. The empirical result of this study on 12 OECD countries raises that these countries exhibit a short-run negatively hearty co-movement between stock returns and inflation. Moreover, countries like Australia, France, Ireland and Netherland do not display a long-run relationship between the two variables in equilibrium. This result is consistent with the hypotheses of Fama (1981), Modigliani et al (1979) and Feldstein (1980) which suggested that an in crease in inflation reduces real returns on stock. This result is also in line with Caporale and Jung (1997) and Rapach (2002). They argue separately that there exist a negative probatory effect of inflation on real stock returns after controlling for output shock and that inflationary trends do not erode returns on stocks.The Fishers Hypothesis was tested by Spyros (2002). His results reflect a contrary view that returns on stocks hedges inflation. This study establishs that there is negative but not statistically significant relationship between inflation and stock returns in Greece from 1990 to 2000. In this same vein, Floros (2002) carried the same study on Greece economy and concluded that inflation and stocks in Greece should be treated as independent variables because the result of the various test conducted show that there is no relationship between inflation and stock returns in Greece. Crosby (2001) check up ons the relationship between inflation and stock returns in A ustralia from 1875 to 1996 and found out that the Australian economy does not experience permanent changes in inflation or stock returns. The result shows that there exist short-run negative relationships between these two variables that depend on the period of time that is considered.On the contrary, Lee et al (2000) examine the impact of German hyperinflation in the twenties on stock returns. This result of this study show that the hyperinflation in Germany in early 1920s cointegrates with stock returns. The fundamental relationship between stocks returns and both realized and expected inflation is highly positive. They concluded that common stocks appear to be a hedge against inflation during this period. Choudhry (2001) in his study on the impact of inflation on stock returns in some selected Latin and commutation American countries (Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela) from 1981-1996, reveal that there is one- to-one relationship between the accredited rate of nominal retur n and inflation for Argentina and Chile. Their result also reveals that the lag values of inflation affect stock returns and this result generalize that stocks act as a hedge against inflation.Patra and poshakwale (2006) conducted a study on the impact of economic variables on market returns in Greece from 1990 to 1999. Empirical results show that some macroeconomic variable like money supply, inflation, volume of trade and exchange have both short-run and long-run relationship with stock price in equilibrium in Greece while there was no short-run or long run relationship noticed between exchange rate and stock prices.Ugur (2005) in a study on the effect of inflation on return on stocks in misfire from 1986 to 2000 reveal that expected inflation and real returns are not correlated. The results suggest there is a negative relationship between inflation and stock returns which may be caused by the negative impact of unexpected inflation on stock returns. This results did not contradi ct Fisherian hypothesis because of the non correlation of inflation and real returns but the results is in line with the proxy hypothesis since a negative significant relationship exist between the two variables. Aperigis and Eleftheriou (2002) results also concurred that there is negative link between inflation and stock returns in Greece than in interest rate and stock returns. Similar study like Adrangi et al (1999) and sellin (2001) also support the proxy hypothesis. Khil and Lee (2000) in their study on ten pacific-rim countries and the US that all the countries except Malaysia reveal negative relationship between inflation and stock returns.The tax-effects Hypothesis which asserts that there is negative relationship between inflation and stock returns was tested by Geske and Roll (1983). Empirical result from the reveal that random negative or positive real shock affects stock returns which in turn, signal higher(prenominal) or lower unemployment and lower or higher corporate earnings. This has effect on the personal and corporate tax revenue leading to increase or decrease in the treasury through borrowing from the public. The economy compensable for this debt by expanding or contracting money growth and this would lead to higher or lower inflation. They concluded that random shocks on stock returns are both fiscal and monetary in nature in the U.S.A.Roohi and Khalid (2002) considered the efficacious Market Hypothesis and Rational Expectation Theory to investigate the effect of inflation on stock returns. Empirical results of the study suggest that the relationship between real stock returns, unexpected inflation and unexpected growth are negatively significant. They concluded that the control of real output growth makes the negative relationship between these two variables to disappear over time.2.4 methodological Literature Review on Inflation and Stocks ReturnsThe empirical relation between inflation and stock returns has been investigated through various approaches since the 1970s. Spyros (2001), adopted Vector-Auto regressive (VAR) model and the co integrating test to confirm if there was any relationship between inflation and stock returns in Greece. Pierrel and Kwok (1992) investigated the relationship between stock returns and inflation in the United State between 1962-1992 using Vector- Autoregressive (VAREC) model, and Granger cause, Crosby (2001), used Vector-Autoregressive (VAR) model, modal(a) Least Square (OLS) and correlation analysis to examine the relationship between inflation and stock returns in Australia from 1875-1996.Floros (2002), investigated the relationship between stock returns and inflation in Greece from 1988-2002 by considering both the lag and lead periods of inflation and stock returns using Ordinary Least Square (OLS), Johansen Cointegration Test and Pairwise Granger Causality Test. In this same vein, Ugur (2005) used the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and standardised Granger Causality to examin e the relationship between inflation, stock returns and real activity in Turkey.Choudhry (2001), estimate the impact of inflation on stock returns in some selected Latin and Central American countries using the Auto-Regressive interconnected Moving Average (ARIMA), unit lineage test and spectral reasoning backward model. Lee et al (2000) and Geske and Roll (1983), also used ARIMA, OLS and unit root test to investigate the effect of German hyperinflation and stock returns, and the impact of inflation on stocks returns in the USA respectively.Patra and Poshakwale (2006) on the other hand, used the error Correction Model (ECM), Johansen Cointegration Test and Pairwise Granger Causality Test to show if economic variables such as money supply interest rate, exchange rate, volume of trade and stock prices have impact on stock returns.Yeh and Chi (2009) in their study on 12 OECD countries measures correlation at different forecast horizon by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) shrink test, unit root test and confidence interval method to investigate the inflation illusion hypothesis that suggest that there is negative relationship between inflation and stock returns. Pesaran et al (2001) and Den Haan (2000) also employ the same technique and arrive at the same result.This study examines the relationship between inflation and stock returns in Nigeria. Furthermore a test is carried out to see if theres a cointegration and causality within these variables. Methods used in this study are explained in chapter three. This study fundamentally aims to analyses the above relationship for a period of 1st of January 1997-31st of December 2006 .monthly values of the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) and Nigerian Consumers Price Index (CPI). CPI was collected from the Central Bank of Nigerian statistical bulletin (2006), while (ASI) All grapple Index was collected from Nigerian Stock Exchange data bank.The reviews of literature above reveal that there are basically four major hypotheses discussing the relationship between inflation and stock returns. These theories are Fisherian hypothesis, proxy hypothesis, tax-effect hypothesis and inflation illusion hypothesis. Considering the level of price stability in Nigeria over the period of our study, the study seeks to adopt Fisherian hypothesis which suggest that stock hedges inflation. This is based on the fact that literature suggests that the price of stock is a major determinant of stock returns which is affected positively by expected or unexpected inflation (consumer price index).CHAPTER THREEMODEL SPECIFICATION AND methodological analysis3.1 IntroductionThis chapter covers the theoretical framework, specification of the models utilized in the study as well as the methodologies that will be adopted. Accordingly, the estimation procedures, and data requirements types and sources of data are also discussed in this section.3.2 Theoretical FrameworkThe reviews of literature in chapter two reveal that there are basically four major hypotheses discussing the relationship between inflation and stock returns. These theories are1. Fisherian hypothesis2. procurator hypothesis,3. Tax-effect hypothesis and4. Inflation illusion hypothesis.The Fisherian hypothesis is thus specifiedWhere is the real returns, is the actual inflation which is the combination of the unexpected and expected inflation. While is the computer actus reus term that is distributed randomly and normally with zero mean and constant variance. This sign of determine if the specification is in line with the fisherian hypothesis. Thus a significant and positive sign suggest that stock hedges inflation while a negative sign suggest contrary.3.3 Model specificationBased on the outcome of our theoretical framework which attempts to explain the relationship between real stock returns and inflation, we specify the model for estimation. Stock return represented by all share indexes (ASI) is the dependent variable while the explanatory variables are, one-period lagged inflation represented by consumer indexes (CPI) and one-period lagged stock returns (ASI). This is based on the common smell that stock returns (ASI) takes some time to react to inflationary changes (CPI) and changes in all share indexes (ASI). In this study, it is assumed that stock returns depend on a set of variables denoted asTherefore, our empirical specification is stated as13.4 Methodology and Estimation ProceduresThis study makes use of Augmented Dickey laden (ADF) unit root test to check for the stationarity of the serial used in this study, Engle and Johansen cointegration tests is used to confirm if the serial have long run relationship while causal long run relationship is determine using an Error correction Model (ECM) which will reveal both the short run and long run relationship between inflation (LOGCPI) and stock returns (LOGASI).3.4.1 Unit Root TestAssume we have the following AR (1) process (1)and is a white noise e rror term. We can see the above expression by subtracting from both sidesThus (2)In practice, instead of estimating equation 1, we estimate equation 2 and test the hypothesis that =0. If =0 then that is we have unit root meaning the time serial publication is non-stationary ( for unit root is non-stationary). Thus we can take the first variety of and regress on to see if () is zero or not in order to confirm if the series are stationary or not. infra the null, the estimation for is not distributed T-student, so the Dickey Fuller test is required. We use the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) table to correct for possibility of the error term () been auto correlated. The ADF test is specified in the equation beneath3Where is a white noise Error Term.3.4.2 Co integration TestsTrended data can be regarded as potentially a major problem for empirical econometrics. Trends may give rise to spurious regression and uninterpretable t- statistics. The stack reality is that in economics most time series are subject to some type of trend while differencing in series until it becomes stationary is one major solution. This has been shown that differencing can lead to handout of long run properties of a series. Based on this the combination of series that are difference once I(1) will give us a model that is stationary I(0). In achieving this aim this study consider two different co integration tests which are Engle and Granger co integration test and Johansen co integration test. According to Engle and Granger (1987), a time series and are give tongue to to be co integrated of order db where d b 0 written as CI (db) ifBoth series are integrated of order dThere exists a linear combination of these variables say which is integrated of order d-b. The vector and is called a co integrating vector.The Engle and Granger co integration test involve two steps the first step is conducting an OLS regression on the variables in the model specification. The second step is to condu ct an ADF test on the residual from the regression if the residual is stationary, then the series are said to be co integrated.The Johansen co integration test on the other hand involves the use of a VAR model and the different level best likelihood ratios are used to determine the co integrating vectors. These tests are trace test and maximum eigen value test. Different information criteria such as Akaike Information Criterion, Schwarz information criteria (SIC), Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion, Final Prediction Error and Sequential Modified test Statistic are used in determining the lag length.3.4.3 Error Correction ModelCo integration analysis provides a test for spurious correlation. Finding co integration between apparently correlated I(1) series validate the regression but failure to find co integration is an indication that spurious correlation mayhap present thus invalidating the inferences drawn from such correlation. Co integration analysis also helps in formulating th e process of dynamic adjustment. However time series data lose their long run properties when they are differenced allowing only for conclusions on the short run determinations. Therefore there is a need to construct a model that would combine both the short run and long run properties of the variables in the model. As suggested by Engle-Granger representation theorem that if two series are co integrated then they will be efficiently represented by an error correction mechanism. The Error Correction Model is used to capture both the short run and long run properties of the series. The method involves developing a model from it generalized form (over parameterized) to a specific form (parsimonious). In addition if the series are co integrated these dynamic specifications will encompass any other partial adjustment model. The error correction of the Auto regressive distributed lag (ADL) takes the form where the long run properties are derived from the proportionality between and. The above specification relates the short run change in the dependent variable to the short run change in the explanatory variable.this is called the impact effect () but ties the change to the long run impact through a feed-back mechanism.3.5 DataThe study will utilize monthly time series data from 19972006. Data for the variables will be sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin (2006) and the Nigerian Stock Exchange Annual Reports (2006). The variables of interest in this study are all in logs. These variables are consumer price indexes (CPI) as inflation series and all share indexes (ASI) as stock returns.CHAPTER quartetteSUMMARY OF EMPIRICAL RESULTSThe summary of the statistics used in this empirical study is presented in the appendix. As can be observed from the Table, (see pagexx) the mean value of stock returns is 9.359606 while inflation is 8.442205. It is also observed that both LOGCPI and LOGASI are positively skewed. The kurtosis value is positively low and J arque-Bera (J-B) statistic test value is relatively high. These suggest that the two series are skewed to the right.Figure1below depicts the graphical metaphors of the data that were used in this empirical analysis. The figure reveals that stock return witnessed significant increase within the period of this study.Figure 1 Graphical illustration of statistics used in the analysisTable 1 Stationarity Test publicationVariablesLevelsFirst DifferencesADF 1ADF 2ADF 1ADF 2LOGASI0.712327

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

phalanx wear to non conflictant constabulary Enforcement AgenciesCHAPTER IViolence perpetrated by Mexi bathroom medicate Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) change magnitude dramatic in ally in 2006 and continued to rise dramatically through 2010. harmonize to the field of take up do medicines Intelligence subject matters home(a) medicine panic Assessment, 2010, create in February 2010, Mexi tail assembly DTOs dominate the transportation of illicit doses a bobble the s push throughh- double-u B coif. They typically phthisis commercial trucks and private and rental vehicles to smuggle cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin ( incident Drug Threat Assessment, 2010). The summation in DTO occupation has resulted in an growth of army pre historicalalime in counter dose trading trading trading operations on the U.S. sou-westernern compose region. The tables in the appendices scheme the statistical purpose of the task and the geographic clevernes s of Mexican DTOs at bottom the united States. the Statess densely populated Confederate dodge with Mexico stretches nearly 2,000 miles in length and possesses several established crossing points. In atomic fall 18as on blue Mexico, DTOs organize and equip themselves with re quotations that out match Mexican legions forces (McCaffrey 2009). With these developments, it is demand to contract change magnitude U.S. array condense to drug forecloseion on the sou-west fudge, as DTOs be a interior(a) protective cover brat that directly plays a fibre in destabilizing the firmly trafficked atomic number 18as in some(prenominal) the U.S. and Mexico.Problem StatementThe job is to instruct what forces throw to well-be involvedian integrity Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) should be brought to bear against Mexican DTOs to destroy and smother the fertilise of drugs crosswise the sou-west restrict. look for ObjectiveThis explore aimed at tell and elucidating the following objectivesWhat capabilities does the U.S. multitude already pick up in the souwest put off region to counter drug trafficking?What is the DTOs circulating(prenominal) talent to interdict drugs across the tolerance (e.g. sleeves, funding, imagings)?What are the the Statesn uprightnesss and regulations governing the social function of MSCLEA?Is it financially feasible to increase MSCLEA?AssumptionsThe main premise to this look is found on the impudence that increasing the resources utilise to interdict the drug trafficking in the southwest smother region testament have a controlling usurpation in disrupting DTOs operations, decreasing the amount of drugs trafficked and aiding in stabilizing the southwest process region. roughly groups advocate other commencees to the problem much(prenominal) as juristicization and establishing supererogatory treatment programs for users and abusers of extrajudicial drugs. moreover, on the supply side, the pre sumptuousness is diplomatic insisting on the countries that produce the drugs or financial aid to their build up services and police governances is required to increase the effectiveness. This proposal assumes that bring upd interdict rides on the souwest entrap pull up stakes negatively adjoin Mexican DTOs and thin use of flagitious drugs inwardly the join States.Additionally, the results and recommendations for this interrogation assumed that all army assistance waterfall at heart Title 32 trading and Article I, 8 of the Constitution that allows the subject area retain to be utilise chthonian the dominate and control of the governor to execute the rights of the Union, in order to suppress confusion and deter invasions (Withers, 2010 p. 6).Definition of Terms host championship to civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) Technical assistance rendered to non flakeant uprightness enforcement agencies. This can include force resources that are non op erational to civilians much(prenominal) as antenna surveillance, technological assistance with these resources, and tactical advice. It does not include echt law enforcement powers (Sergienko, 2006, p. 395). interdict suits All efforts used to reduce the fall of immoral drugs into the united States on the ground (or chthonicground) across the south-west entrap. Success equals increase trains of drug seizures. southwestern butt on The land border amid the U.S. and Mexico as well as called the U.S.-Mexico border.Limitations and de typesetationsThis take away is restrict to ground interdict. Drug smuggle is an implausibly productive enterprise. If ground interdict efforts are to prove effective, it presumes that DTOs would attempt to move their operations into devil dog and aerial operations. However, this break down lead only consider the deployment of marine and aerial assets as they relate to ground operations. This study give limit its focus of the south westerly to the three major DTO interdict routes located in Texas, New Mexico, and California.The strategies proposed or dismissed in this look for may or may not be allow to canvas with the interdiction efforts on other borders much(prenominal) as the northern border with Canada.This study pass on be hold in to cooperation with civilian law enforcement agencies within the join States. It provide not consider declare for Mexican civilian law enforcement agencies nor allow for it consider cooperation with the Mexican army although it give ack directledge that they are straightway the lead power in struggle with DTOs within Mexico.All proposals for MSCLEA allow foring be governed by the U.S Constitution, relevant U.S. laws and the USNORTHCOM directives on MSCLEA, troops offer to civilian law enforcement is carried out in strict compliance with the Constitution and U.S. laws and under the direction of the prexy and secretary of defense (USNORTHCOM).CHAPTER II Litera ture look intoThis chapter provides an overview of the literature experimentd. It identifies the paramount literature and sources that will provide arguments addressing DTOs drug smuggling, MSCLEAs and the current situation on the southwestern border. The academic debate concerning MSCLEA on the border focuses primarily on the issue of black-market immigration and second on drug interdiction. T present are only a few books on the topic. in that locationfore, seek will focus on scholarly terms, politics studies, and statistical entropy available through the U.S. Border Patrol and Department of Enforcement Administration. herds grass Dunns 1996 book, The mobilisation of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 measly Intensity deviation philosophical system Comes alkali is a study that compares data collected through interviews with phalanx doctrine, law enforcement, congressional memorials, and personal notes. Dunns aspiration is to adorn that increased activity along the southwest border escalated forcing legions occasion in immigration and drug enforcement to a level unmotivated by Congress and defense officials. Dunn provides insight to the fuss associated with MSCLEA along the southwest border. This historical data requires comparison to the post 9/11 challenges. at that place are many governing body studies and make knowns related to for ward and current U.S. counterdrug program. The congressional Research usefulness (CRS) and the Government Accountability division (GAO) hustling intimately topics for members of Congress. The internal Drug and tame Policy in any case have a number of useful products. Stephen Vina CRS report in 2006, Border Security and Military Support Legal Authorizations and Restrictions lines army machine support legal and policy limitations with in the U.S. His study states military machine support to DTO is feasible however, it mustiness be dependant to the engagement of Nation Guard for border security measures bursters vice the avocation of active duty (GAO, 2003).The 2010 report Department of demur Needs to better Its Per make forance Measurement System to Better shell out and oversee Its Counternarcotics bendivities demonstrates congressional interest in measures of effectiveness to justify MSCLEA in the early nineties. The 1993 dark Investment in Military Surveillance is non Paying strike report findings suggest some military assets, such as traffic circle wing transport and lower-end unmanned aerial vehicles are relatively punk and within the potential budget of federal law enforcement. other assets such as large multi-role aircraft and naval vessels, are precise expensive hold up and maintain. The GAO (2009) study concluded that military surveillance is dear(p) particularly when advanced(a) engine room systems designed to detect and control highly sophisticated weapon systems in combat situations are employed against a DTO smuggling flagellum.Tog ether, these devil reports support content from the new Washington emplacement on Latin America report that strongly suggest at that place must be a separation of military and police roles in America. George Withers would delay thither is a lack of measures of effectiveness justifying military support on the border.The GAO study, Secure Border Initiative Observations on Deployment Challenges discusses the challenges of integration sensors and obstacles along the 2000-mile south-west border. Conversely, the 2007 report, U.S. Assistance Has Helped Mexican Counternarcotics Efforts, but Tons of outlaw(a) Drugs Continue to period Into the join States lapsely demonstrates the difficulties of combating the supply of drugs. This study add almost preaching to identify the gaps in might could be leveraged with anomalous available military resources.The Rise of Mexican Drug Cartel and U.S. National Security perceive hold uped by the U.S. Department of Justice illustrated the s uccess of interagency cooperation against targeting DTOs. The report provides an overview of the capability of the DTOs operating(a) along the southwest border and describes their ability to beam drug trafficking, kidnapping, bribery, extortion, gold laundering and smuggling of profits, and trafficking and use of dangerous firearms. The report concludes that the best dodge to combat the full spectrum of the drug reliances operations is a holistic show up that employs the full spectrum of our law enforcement agencies and its resources, expertise, and statutory regime.The Mexican border states have vex much like a war district with heavily gird military units on the street (since the President deemed local police overly corrupt to deal with the combines) and frequent firefights surrounded by the military and the faiths. According to L.A. Times, as of November 29, 2010, 28,288 people have died in Mexico since January 2007 because of the drug wars. In relative terms, that n umber is higher than the number of American troops that have died in Iraq in the last seven course of studys (Mexico under besieging The Drug warfare on Our doorway, 2010).Mexico Under Siege The Drug fight on Our Doorstep, is an L.A. Times website that includes all of their coverage of drug smuggling along the southwesterly border along with interactive maps, links to goggle box coverage and a host of other study. This website is the principle primary source for details of recent events and media coverage of the situation. Additionally, the website Drug Trafficking in Mexico maintained by latinamericanstudies.org traces the history of the drug trafficking between Mexico and the U. S. from 1998-2009. This website provides links to hundreds of other articles on the reduce as well.The congressional Reporting Service publication Terrorism both(prenominal)(prenominal) Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities succeeding(a) a Terrorist ack-ack by Char les Doyle and Jennifer Elsea presents the legal definition of MSCLEAs in the set off of post 9/11 developments (Doyle and Elsea, 2005).Increased MSCLEA issues emerged in the 1980s and 1990s with regard to the interdiction of drugs. However, since 9/11 they have largely revolved around the role of MSCLEA around terrorism related incidents. The official policy of the United States legions on MSCLEA is contained in the Catastrophic Disaster rejoinder Staff Officers vade mecum Appendix I Legal Considerations/Law Enforcement produce by the United States forces Combined Arms Center in May 2006. This document is supplemented by a paper prepared by Colonel Thomas W. McShane entitled, United States Northern Commands Mission to Provide Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies The Challenge to keep Homeland Security and Civil Liberty bound in Step with the Current Legal medication (2004).There are varieties of publications that deal with the history of MSCLEA for Counter-d rug Operations. Most of the U.S. policy modify interior(prenominal) counterdrug MSCLEA require updates and fails to reflect the realities of the implementation of the North American unload Trade pledge (NAFTA) or the terrorist ack-ack guns of 11 September 2001. Two of these stand out as having particular importance for this proposal. The first is The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home by Timothy J Dunn, published in 1996. The second is a Rand Corporation report entitled waterproofing the Borders The cause of Increased Military Participation in Drug interdict written by diaphysis Reuter, Gordon Crawford, and Jonathan Cave published in 1988. Both of the documents are dated however, they will provide a historical context to compare to current operations. Reuter concludes that military support provided in the war on drugs in the 1980s was costly, ineffective, and disconcert military forces from preparing for interstate combat missions.Both documents are roughly xx years old and this convey that their friendliness of everything from the technology of interdiction efforts to the arena and influence of DTOs is dated. On the other hand, both documents waive the emergence of the evoke threat of terrorist attacks and at that placefore the focus is on MSCLEAs in a pre-9/11 context with the emphasis on drug interdiction, not anti-terrorism operations.Most importantly, both of these documents present a negative image of interdiction efforts. The U.S. military interdiction efforts, although criticize provides an approach from two different situations. The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home published by the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas, Austin focuses on the negative effects of the militarisation of the border in terms of lost economic opportunities and threats to civil liberties. more(prenominal) condemnin g, however, is the Rand Corporation document, Sealing the Borders The Effects of Increased Military Participation in Drug Interdiction. It concludes that interdiction efforts in general have little impact on the flow of drugs into the United States. Furthermore, it concludes that an increase in military betrothal did not purify the interdiction effectiveness efforts and was unlikely to do so in the in store(predicate). The Rand study strongly suggests that the military cannot be the primary interdiction agency and that a major increase in military support is unlikely to reduce drug consumption significantly in the United States (Reuter, Crawford and Cave, 1988).The findings are not practical for exploring renewed efforts to employ enhanced MSCLEA in the interdiction effort in the xx-first century. There are numerous reservations about applying this study directly to the current situation. This study will interpret interdiction in terms of interdiction (seizure) rates, not reduc ed consumption, and the equipment casualty of illicit drugs as examined by the Rand study.In addition, the circumstances of the drug cover across the southwestern border have changed considerably over the past nine years, as have the military resources available to employ against interdiction effort. The DTOs are now development RPGs and other military type ordnance consequently the military has UAVs and other surveillance equipment that was not available in the 1980s.The Rand study is incredibly important to understanding the history of military link in drug interdiction on the Southwest border. However, the findings do not constitute the net word on the subject today as it is over twenty years old.It is imperative to examine literature that relates to the policies and procedures for MSCLEAs and the organization of cooperative efforts between the MSCLEAs. Doctrine for this already exists for both the military and civilian organizations. The Joint business Force North, JTF-No rth Operational Support Planning guide 2010 outlines the military perspective on joint military-civilian operations. The police understanding of the human relationship is outlined in Civilian and Military Law Enforcement Cooperation published in The Police honcho (Awtry, 2004).The study Preach What You Practice The Separation of Military and Police Roles in the Americas argues that military employment to assist law enforcement agencies falls the Posse Comitatus Act limits however, there is no imminent threat of attack on the United States. Therefore, they question the need for a heightened mobilisation of the southwest border (Withers, Santos, Isacsoni, 2010 p 8). This report suggest that instead of supporting a military response, the U.S. judiciary re align its resources to focus on supernumerary aid for police and law enforcement capabilities within Mexico. They recommend this aid be in the form strengthening law enforcement knowledge, equipment, and technology rather tha n scarce training in counter-drug tactics.The JTF North website lists the following capabilities as operational support the U. S. military is prepared to provide federal law enforcement agencies aviation transportation, including both insertion and bloodline of personnel aviation reconnaissance air and marine surveillance radar unmanned aircraft systems ground surveillance radar listening post and observation post surveillance ground sensor operations and ground transportation. The consensus within NORTHCOM appears to be the military is capable of supplying resources that enhance law enforcement ability to interdict the threats along the southwest border. Under USNORTHCOM, the military doingss a class of interior(prenominal) exercises aimed at using the military and National Guard under the presidents control in a wide footslog of U.S. homeland emergencies such as terrorist events and even domestic violence. Which is the threat before long demonstrated by DTOs. The exercis es do not involve any Mexican entities, NORTHCOM suggest that an telephone exchange of military personnel and cadets with Mexico as a means of gaining Mexican involvement in NORTHCOM, as well as beatd talks about cooperation could increase the effectiveness of combating DTO activity along the border.Jose Palafox addresses militarization of the border and the applicability of military counterdrug operations along the U.S.-Mexican border in 1990. He closely examines the 1996 structure of JTF-6 and then concludes that a JTF consisting of only a brigade-size unit could efficaciously conduct carry on operations to interdict border drug trafficking along the two-thousand-mile boundary. JTF-6 was renamed JTF North in a ceremony Sept. 28, 2004, and its mission was expanded beyond the drug war to include providing homeland security support to the nations federal law enforcement agencies.The article states the Pentagon is spent approximately $800 billion a year to help enforce the drug trafficking laws alone. The missions ranged from ground reconnaissance, training, logistics, and query. In 1995, the Department of demur transferred military technology equipment to Border Patrol in order to evoke legacy Vietnam War error equipment. Due to a joint effort by the Justice and Treasury Departments and the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Border Patrol as well as has its own sophisticated Border Research and Technology Center near San Diego.The article suggests that JTF-6 operations supporting DTO activity was a success and a necessity for future operations between military and civilian organizations. Although, Border Patrol veritable significant upgrades gaps along the porous border remain specifically training and intelligence collection. major Mark Van Dries 1990 monograph titled Drug Interdiction Can We compass point the New Pancho Villa, addresses the feasibility of military counterdrug operations along the border in the 1990s. The study states t hat drugs are a legitimate field of study security threat and the vulnerability of drug cartels to military operations. Drie conclusion supports employment of military forces along the border where legal restraints are not clear and domestic opposer is less likely. He further articulates that effectively securing the southwest border in 1990 would require a cordon force of 65,000 U.S. troops.Both the article and monograph fail to call the 1997 tragic ending of a U.S. citizen at the manpower of a military service member that exposed the difficulties and implicit in(p) risks in employing combat concentrate forces in training missions in support of domestic counterdrug MSCLEA. Marine army corps Corporal Manuel Banuelos s acid and killed Texas high school scholarly person Esequiel Hernandez with a genius shot from his service rifle. The incident inspired a backlash against armed military patrols along the border and resulted in cede of the practice. The current approach is i ndirect support to law enforcement such as intelligence, engineering, and surveillance (Dunn, 2001, p 14-17).In summary, this chapter discusses corroborative instruction relating to drug cartel along US-Mexico borders and its extension within the region which caused escalation of violence, increasing number of death tool and its safe implication to Mexicos politico-economy as well as its diplomatic relation with nations, in particular United States.The succeeding chapters will discuss the method actingology.CHAPTER three MethodologyThis chapter tackles the research methodology that will be used to value the military resource requirements to counter drug activity along the Southwest border. The creator will conduct abbreviation of second-string information by using (a) timeline analysis to account the historical context about the war on drugs, (b) treasure the laws and regulations associated with MSCLEA and current MSCLEA support in order to touch on the most grab MSCLEA t o counter drug trafficking along the Southwest border, (c) illustrate key developments in the war on drugs and military involvement in supporting the domestic counterdrug effort and (d) evaluate the significance, extent, resource energy and feasibility of deploying MSCLEA to assist in the interdiction of DTOs across the Southwest border.Research human bodyThis chapter will examine the issue by means of qualitative and vicenary analyses using word form of sources from media accounts, government reports, academic works, and historical documents. To a lesser extent, opinion pieces will be used when the information is valid and appropriate opposing viewpoints are available for inclusion. Analysis of the results will provide statistical validity to the variant of results for the military and for the other agencies such as drug threats provided by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC).Samplesample distribution is irrelevant in this stu dy. Researcher is not using survey method but will be maximizing secondary information from government reports and earlier studies conducted related to the issue on Mexican drug interdiction. Other related relevant sources will alike be inclusively considered.SettingThe study will be conducted within American blemish although it will also make use of documents from Mexican government which will be accessed, reviewed and evaluated whence. orchestrationThis is a qualitative and quantitative longitudinal case study that will use a combination of timeline mapping, conflict-analysis, and triangulation to understand the interlacing and unending bootleg drug pile within the region that has been poignant neighboring and the worldwide communities worldwide due to increasing violence within the area contempt security management measures. All historical accounts, records, testimonies and investigators from unbroken intervention through with(p) by the United States of America will b e reviewed, analyzed and be maximized in crafting conclusions and recommendations at the end of the study. entropy sightTo address research objective number three, DTOs current ability to interdict drugs across the border, the causation will review publicly available information from books, journal articles, and corroborated watchword media accounts. The book, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling, will be used to hold up data from the perspective, motivation and experiences of DTO smugglers. This book interviews experienced smugglers who at one time successfully in defeated drug interdiction measures. The purpose of this research objective is to identify the nature and extent of DTO growing of US Southwest border. Specifically, this question serves to identify DTO resources and methods that are uniquely undefended to US military capabilities or where the US military resources can subjoin civilian law enforcement agencies.Researcher will further use all information that can be sou rced from government agencies, libraries, online research institutions, magazines, journals, court documents, magazines and journals.Data AnalysisThe precedent will use historical mapping as an instrument to ruck information to assess the length of period and extent of the drug trafficking problem within the region. Historical mapping will also be used to determine the MSCLEA method(s) of involvement introduced by US Southwest region, including the outcome and impact of these interdictions. Historical mapping will also be used to outline the laws and policies governing MSCLEA that were legislated as a response to countering vicious drug trade in the region. Additionally, analysis of government documents produced by congressional Research Service (CRS), the Government Accountability Office (GAO), U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) will be analyzed to determine the MSCLEA ability to adequately curtail d rug trafficking across the southwest border.Lastly, the author will identify and compare the relative combat power of DTOs and US law enforcement personnel operating along the Southwest border. Determining the capability gap will exhibit the necessary MSCLEA requirement(s) to effectively reinforce the combat power of law enforcement agencies in order to adequately curtail drug trafficking in the region.As a mixed quantitative and qualitative study, researcher will present an integrated analysis and inferences into crystal clear conclusions toward a comp and meaningful explication of the subject studied.Validity and ReliabilityThis research is undertaken with serious consideration of the international and professional standard. Inferences and sequential presentation of information are pinched from primary and secondary sources that are critically evaluated ground on delicious standards of sources. Some information used came from government authorities and decision-making bodies who are honour with their credibility as authorities of the state. Readers who may conduct follow-up research may carve up information and database used here to further bear out reports.Ethical ConsiderationsResearcher observes the highest standard of professional morals required by the institution. Matters of confidentiality are held sacred while authors, writers, and agencies whose contributions to these subjects are sagely utilized were credit and recognized in the references.The succeeding chapter will intimately discuss the al-Qaida of this study.Chapter 4- DISCUSSIONResolving the complex issues on narcotics in the south west border require in-depth reflection on historic interventions made by USA which help increase interdiction on black-market drug-related cartel evaluate the political capacity of DTO to sustain its illegal operations triangulate policies of USA in its decision to assist in decreasing the movements of illegal drug trade and assess the fiscal capacity of the American government to allocate against increasing demand of budget for operations.US Military electrical condenser vs Drug TraffickingIn mid-19th century, United States deployed US Army on its southern border and was mandated to protect the border, interdict bandits, secure lives and properties, conduct regular patrolling and support civil law enforcement against illegal drug cartel business (Matthews, 1959). More than a century have passed, USA is cool off deploying National Guard Soldiers to the Mexican border as post-9/11 politico-military undertakings (Matthews, 1959).To reckon, from 1846 towards this millennium, US Army sustained its security mandates at the borders hard and rugged terrain (Matthews, 1959). Reports mentioned that amid disputes, there is also a demand to increase numbers of soldiers (Matthews, 1959). This is further compound with critical Mexican politics and US-Mexican diplomatic relations that is affecting Armys operations (Matthews, 1959). Contextu alized in such distinct social character, Armys role was fitted to support to local, state, and federal official civilian agencies. much(prenominal) nature of intervention is already evident since mid-twenties (Matthews, 1959).During President George W. Bushs administration decided to deploy about 6,000 Army National Guard Soldiers in 2006 to conduct security border patrol as issues relating to potential terrorist infiltration, increase of illegal drug syndicates activity, and leveling-up of apprehension about illegal immigration to United States en route through Mexico (Matthews, 1959). Though this was regarded with disapproval, there is however comprehension to improve border security works albeit arguable use of military personnel to support law enforcement (Matthews, 1959). Both America and Mexico shared incertain relations since the former tightened its political control in that shared border coupled with cross-border violent aggressions done by Indians and bandits which a ccordingly increased the level of enmity (Matthews, 1959).There was however a historic epoch when America and the Mexican governments explored revitalization of goodwill when Major frequent Philip H. Sheridan waged a sweat against the French. That provided an opportunity to resolve issues relating to US Armys disposition at the border from 1870 to 1886, including its inherent weakness about lack of personnel and resistless defenses against cross-border assails. It also discussed the raid in Mexico in 1873 led by Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzies and that pre-emptive belt led by Lieutenant Colonel William Pecos Bill Shafters. There was subsequent step-down of attacks but this generated political conflict which grind down American and Mexican goodwill (Matthews, 1959).In 1911 to 1917, the Mexican Revolution caused insecurity in the border and US soldiers realize that static defenses and patrolling couldnt cease terrorist raiders who maintained interest to cross the border. This was also kindred period when Major General Frederick Funstons attempted to break away the Plan of San Diego plotters and brigadier general General John J. Pershing launched punitive action against Francisco Pancho Villa. The military strategies enforced hot pursuits and preemptive strikes into Mexico to restore order to the border (Matthews, 1959). US Army have also conducted responses to WETBACK Operation in 1954 until they increased their presence in 1978 in Mexican border as a response to equal issue on illegal US immigration and anti-drug cartel. The military supports for law enforcement at southern border have also evolved (Matthews, 1959). The historic problem remained in these 20th centuries and the issues pertaining to militarys disposition reverberates (Matthews, 1959). It still reecho the need for en garde position and the discussion on conducting couMilitary Support to Civilian Law Enforcement AgenciesMilitary Support to Civilian Law Enforcement AgenciesCHAPTER IViolence perpetrated by Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) increased dramatically in 2006 and continued to rise dramatically through 2010. According to the National Drug Intelligence Centers National Drug Threat Assessment, 2010, published in February 2010, Mexican DTOs dominate the transportation of illicit drugs across the Southwest Border. They typically use commercial trucks and private and rental vehicles to smuggle cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin (National Drug Threat Assessment, 2010). The increase in DTO activity has resulted in an increase of military involvement in counterdrug operations along the U.S. southwestern border region. The tables in the appendices outline the statistical extent of the problem and the geographic penetration of Mexican DTOs within the United States. Americas densely populated southern border with Mexico stretches nearly 2,000 miles in length and possesses several established crossing points. In areas along northern Mexico, DTOs organize and equip themselves with resources that out match Mexican military forces (McCaffrey 2009). With these developments, it is necessary to consider increased U.S. military support to drug interdiction along the southwest border, as DTOs are a national security threat that directly plays a role in destabilizing the heavily trafficked areas in both the U.S. and Mexico.Problem StatementThe problem is to determine what Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) should be brought to bear against Mexican DTOs to interdict and reduce the flow of drugs across the Southwest Border.Research ObjectiveThis research aimed at answering and elucidating the following objectivesWhat capabilities does the U.S. military already have in the southwest border region to counter drug trafficking?What is the DTOs current capability to interdict drugs across the border (e.g. weapons, funding, resources)?What are the American laws and regulations governing the use of MSCLEA?Is it fi nancially feasible to increase MSCLEA?AssumptionsThe main premise to this research is based on the assumption that increasing the resources used to interdict the drug trafficking in the southwest border region will have a positive impact in disrupting DTOs operations, decreasing the amount of drugs trafficked and aiding in stabilizing the southwest border region. Some groups advocate other approaches to the problem such as legalization and establishing additional treatment programs for users and abusers of illegal drugs. Moreover, on the supply side, the assumption is diplomatic pressure on the countries that produce the drugs or assistance to their military and police organizations is necessary to increase the effectiveness. This proposal assumes that enhanced interdiction efforts on the Southwest border will negatively impact Mexican DTOs and reduce use of illegal drugs within the United States.Additionally, the results and recommendations for this research assumed that all milita ry assistance falls within Title 32 Duty and Article I, 8 of the Constitution that allows the National Guard to be used under the command and control of the governor to execute the laws of the Union, in order to suppress rebellion and deter invasions (Withers, 2010 p. 6).Definition of TermsMilitary Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies (MSCLEA) Technical assistance rendered to civilian law enforcement agencies. This can include military resources that are not available to civilians such as aerial surveillance, technical assistance with these resources, and tactical advice. It does not include actual law enforcement powers (Sergienko, 2006, p. 395).Interdiction efforts All efforts used to reduce the flow of illegal drugs into the United States on the ground (or underground) across the Southwest border. Success equals increased levels of drug seizures.Southwest border The land border between the U.S. and Mexico also called the U.S.-Mexico border.Limitations and delimitationsT his study is limited to ground interdiction. Drug smuggling is an incredibly profitable enterprise. If ground interdiction efforts are to prove effective, it presumes that DTOs would attempt to move their operations into marine and aerial operations. However, this study will only consider the deployment of marine and aerial assets as they relate to ground operations. This study will limit its focus of the Southwest to the three major DTO interdiction routes located in Texas, New Mexico, and California.The strategies proposed or dismissed in this research may or may not be appropriate to compare with the interdiction efforts on other borders such as the northern border with Canada.This study will be limited to cooperation with civilian law enforcement agencies within the United States. It will not consider support for Mexican civilian law enforcement agencies nor will it consider cooperation with the Mexican military although it will acknowledge that they are now the lead agency in s truggle with DTOs within Mexico.All proposals for MSCLEA will be governed by the U.S Constitution, relevant U.S. laws and the USNORTHCOM directives on MSCLEA, Military support to civilian law enforcement is carried out in strict compliance with the Constitution and U.S. laws and under the direction of the president and secretary of defense (USNORTHCOM).CHAPTER II Literature ReviewThis chapter provides an overview of the literature examined. It identifies the dominant literature and sources that will provide arguments addressing DTOs drug smuggling, MSCLEAs and the current situation along the Southwest border. The academic debate concerning MSCLEA on the border focuses primarily on the issue of illegal immigration and second on drug interdiction. There are only a few books on the topic. Therefore, research will focus on scholarly articles, government studies, and statistical data available through the U.S. Border Patrol and Department of Enforcement Administration.Timothy Dunns 1996 book, The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 Low Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home is a study that compares data collected through interviews with military doctrine, law enforcement, congressional documents, and personal observations. Dunns intent is to illustrate that increased activity along the southwest border escalated forcing military involvement in immigration and drug enforcement to a level unintended by Congress and defense officials. Dunn provides insight to the difficulty associated with MSCLEA along the southwest border. This historical data requires comparison to the post 9/11 challenges.There are numerous government studies and reports related to previous and current U.S. counterdrug program. The Congressional Research Service (CRS) and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) prepared most reports for members of Congress. The National Drug and Control Policy also have a number of useful products. Stephen Vina CRS report in 2006, Border Security and Military Support Legal Authorizations and Restrictions outlines military support legal and policy limitations with in the U.S. His study states military support to DTO is feasible however, it must be restricted to the employment of Nation Guard for border security missions vice the employment of active duty (GAO, 2003).The 2010 report Department of Defense Needs to Improve Its Performance Measurement System to Better Manage and oversee Its Counternarcotics Activities demonstrates congressional interest in measures of effectiveness to justify MSCLEA in the early 1990s. The 1993 Heavy Investment in Military Surveillance is Not Paying Off report findings suggest some military assets, such as rotary wing transport and lower-end unmanned aerial vehicles are relatively inexpensive and within the potential budget of federal law enforcement. Other assets such as large multi-role aircraft and naval vessels, are very expensive operate and maintain. The GAO (2009) study concluded that mil itary surveillance is costly particularly when modern technology systems designed to detect and control highly sophisticated weapon systems in combat situations are employed against a DTO smuggling threat.Together, these two reports support content from the recent Washington Office on Latin America report that strongly suggest there must be a separation of military and police roles in America. George Withers would agree there is a lack of measures of effectiveness justifying military support on the border.The GAO study, Secure Border Initiative Observations on Deployment Challenges discusses the challenges of integrating sensors and obstacles along the 2000-mile Southwest border. Conversely, the 2007 report, U.S. Assistance Has Helped Mexican Counternarcotics Efforts, but Tons of Illicit Drugs Continue to Flow Into the United States clearly demonstrates the difficulties of combating the supply of drugs. This study bring about discussion to identify the gaps in capability could be le veraged with unique available military resources.The Rise of Mexican Drug Cartel and U.S. National Security hearing conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice illustrated the success of interagency cooperation against targeting DTOs. The report provides an overview of the capability of the DTOs operating along the southwest border and describes their ability to conduct drug trafficking, kidnapping, bribery, extortion, money laundering and smuggling of profits, and trafficking and use of dangerous firearms. The report concludes that the best strategy to combat the full spectrum of the drug cartels operations is a holistic approach that employs the full spectrum of our law enforcement agencies and its resources, expertise, and statutory authorities.The Mexican border states have become much like a war zone with heavily armed military units on the street (since the President deemed local police too corrupt to deal with the cartels) and frequent firefights between the military and the cartels. According to L.A. Times, as of November 29, 2010, 28,288 people have died in Mexico since January 2007 because of the drug wars. In relative terms, that number is higher than the number of American troops that have died in Iraq in the last seven years (Mexico under Siege The Drug War on Our Doorstep, 2010).Mexico Under Siege The Drug War on Our Doorstep, is an L.A. Times website that includes all of their coverage of drug smuggling along the Southwest border along with interactive maps, links to television coverage and a host of other information. This website is the principle primary source for details of recent events and media coverage of the situation. Additionally, the website Drug Trafficking in Mexico maintained by latinamericanstudies.org traces the history of the drug trafficking between Mexico and the U. S. from 1998-2009. This website provides links to hundreds of other articles on the subject as well.The Congressional Reporting Service publication Terrorism So me Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack by Charles Doyle and Jennifer Elsea presents the legal definition of MSCLEAs in the wake of post 9/11 developments (Doyle and Elsea, 2005).Increased MSCLEA issues emerged in the 1980s and 1990s with regard to the interdiction of drugs. However, since 9/11 they have largely revolved around the role of MSCLEA around terrorism related incidents. The official policy of the United States Army on MSCLEA is contained in the Catastrophic Disaster Response Staff Officers Handbook Appendix I Legal Considerations/Law Enforcement published by the United States Army Combined Arms Center in May 2006. This document is supplemented by a paper prepared by Colonel Thomas W. McShane entitled, United States Northern Commands Mission to Provide Military Support to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies The Challenge to keep Homeland Security and Civil Liberty Dancing in Step with the Current Legal Music (2004).T here are varieties of publications that deal with the history of MSCLEA for Counter-drug Operations. Most of the U.S. policy affecting domestic counterdrug MSCLEA require updates and fails to reflect the realities of the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. Two of these stand out as having particular importance for this proposal. The first is The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home by Timothy J Dunn, published in 1996. The second is a Rand Corporation report entitled Sealing the Borders The Effects of Increased Military Participation in Drug Interdiction written by Peter Reuter, Gordon Crawford, and Jonathan Cave published in 1988. Both of the documents are dated however, they will provide a historical context to compare to current operations. Reuter concludes that military support provided in the war on drugs in the 1980s was costly, ineffective, an d distracted military forces from preparing for interstate combat missions.Both documents are roughly twenty years old and this means that their consideration of everything from the technology of interdiction efforts to the scope and influence of DTOs is dated. On the other hand, both documents precede the emergence of the overwhelming threat of terrorist attacks and therefore the focus is on MSCLEAs in a pre-9/11 context with the emphasis on drug interdiction, not anti-terrorism operations.Most importantly, both of these documents present a negative image of interdiction efforts. The U.S. military interdiction efforts, although criticize provides an approach from two different perspectives. The Militarization of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 1978-1992 Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home published by the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas, Austin focuses on the negative effects of the militarization of the border in terms of lost economic opportunities a nd threats to civil liberties.More condemning, however, is the Rand Corporation document, Sealing the Borders The Effects of Increased Military Participation in Drug Interdiction. It concludes that interdiction efforts in general have little impact on the flow of drugs into the United States. Furthermore, it concludes that an increase in military involvement did not improve the interdiction effectiveness efforts and was unlikely to do so in the future. The Rand study strongly suggests that the military cannot be the primary interdiction agency and that a major increase in military support is unlikely to reduce drug consumption significantly in the United States (Reuter, Crawford and Cave, 1988).The findings are not practical for exploring renewed efforts to employ enhanced MSCLEA in the interdiction effort in the twenty-first century. There are numerous reservations about applying this study directly to the current situation. This study will examine interdiction in terms of interdic tion (seizure) rates, not reduced consumption, and the price of illicit drugs as examined by the Rand study.In addition, the circumstances of the drug trade across the Southwestern border have changed considerably over the past nine years, as have the military resources available to employ against interdiction effort. The DTOs are now using RPGs and other military type weaponry consequently the military has UAVs and other surveillance equipment that was not available in the 1980s.The Rand study is incredibly important to understanding the history of military involvement in drug interdiction on the Southwest border. However, the findings do not constitute the final word on the subject today as it is over twenty years old.It is imperative to examine literature that relates to the policies and procedures for MSCLEAs and the organization of cooperative efforts between the MSCLEAs. Doctrine for this already exists for both the military and civilian organizations. The Joint Task Force Nor th, JTF-North Operational Support Planning Guide 2010 outlines the military perspective on joint military-civilian operations. The police understanding of the relationship is outlined in Civilian and Military Law Enforcement Cooperation published in The Police Chief (Awtry, 2004).The study Preach What You Practice The Separation of Military and Police Roles in the Americas argues that military employment to assist law enforcement agencies falls the Posse Comitatus Act limits however, there is no imminent threat of attack on the United States. Therefore, they question the need for a heightened militarization of the southwest border (Withers, Santos, Isacsoni, 2010 p 8). This report suggest that instead of supporting a military response, the U.S. government re align its resources to focus on additional aid for police and law enforcement capabilities within Mexico. They recommend this aid be in the form strengthening law enforcement training, equipment, and technology rather than mere ly training in counter-drug tactics.The JTF North website lists the following capabilities as operational support the U. S. military is prepared to provide federal law enforcement agencies aviation transportation, including both insertion and extraction of personnel aviation reconnaissance air and maritime surveillance radar unmanned aircraft systems ground surveillance radar listening post and observation post surveillance ground sensor operations and ground transportation. The consensus within NORTHCOM appears to be the military is capable of supplying resources that enhance law enforcement ability to interdict the threats along the southwest border. Under USNORTHCOM, the military conducts a variety of domestic exercises aimed at using the military and National Guard under the presidents control in a wide range of U.S. homeland emergencies such as terrorist events and even domestic violence. Which is the threat currently demonstrated by DTOs. The exercises do not involve any Mexic an entities, NORTHCOM suggest that an exchange of military personnel and cadets with Mexico as a means of gaining Mexican involvement in NORTHCOM, as well as regular talks about cooperation could increase the effectiveness of combating DTO activity along the border.Jose Palafox addresses militarization of the border and the applicability of military counterdrug operations along the U.S.-Mexican border in 1990. He closely examines the 1996 structure of JTF-6 and then concludes that a JTF consisting of only a brigade-size unit could effectively conduct sustained operations to interdict border drug trafficking along the two-thousand-mile boundary. JTF-6 was renamed JTF North in a ceremony Sept. 28, 2004, and its mission was expanded beyond the drug war to include providing homeland security support to the nations federal law enforcement agencies.The article states the Pentagon is spent approximately $800 million a year to help enforce the drug trafficking laws alone. The missions range d from ground reconnaissance, training, logistics, and research. In 1995, the Department of Defense transferred military technology equipment to Border Patrol in order to upgrade legacy Vietnam War error equipment. Due to a joint effort by the Justice and Treasury Departments and the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Border Patrol also has its own high-tech Border Research and Technology Center near San Diego.The article suggests that JTF-6 operations supporting DTO activity was a success and a necessity for future operations between military and civilian organizations. Although, Border Patrol received significant upgrades gaps along the porous border remain specifically training and intelligence collection.Major Mark Van Dries 1990 monograph titled Drug Interdiction Can We Stop the New Pancho Villa, addresses the feasibility of military counterdrug operations along the border in the 1990s. The study states that drugs are a legitimate national security threat and the vulne rability of drug cartels to military operations. Drie conclusion supports employment of military forces along the border where legal restraints are not clear and domestic opposition is less likely. He further articulates that effectively securing the southwest border in 1990 would require a cordon force of 65,000 U.S. troops.Both the article and monograph fail to mention the 1997 tragic death of a U.S. citizen at the hands of a military service member that exposed the difficulties and inherent risks in employing combat focused forces in training missions in support of domestic counterdrug MSCLEA. Marine Corps Corporal Manuel Banuelos shot and killed Texas high school student Esequiel Hernandez with a single shot from his service rifle. The incident inspired a backlash against armed military patrols along the border and resulted in cease of the practice. The current approach is indirect support to law enforcement such as intelligence, engineering, and surveillance (Dunn, 2001, p 14-1 7).In summary, this chapter discusses corroborative information relating to drug cartel along US-Mexico borders and its perpetuation within the region which caused escalation of violence, increasing number of death tool and its serious implication to Mexicos politico-economy as well as its diplomatic relation with nations, specially United States.The succeeding chapters will discuss the methodology.CHAPTER III MethodologyThis chapter tackles the research methodology that will be used to assess the military resource requirements to counter drug activity along the Southwest border. The author will conduct analysis of secondary information by using (a) timeline analysis to account the historical context about the war on drugs, (b) evaluate the laws and regulations associated with MSCLEA and current MSCLEA support in order to determine the most appropriate MSCLEA to counter drug trafficking along the Southwest border, (c) illustrate key developments in the war on drugs and military invo lvement in supporting the domestic counterdrug effort and (d) evaluate the significance, extent, resource capacity and feasibility of deploying MSCLEA to assist in the interdiction of DTOs across the Southwest border.Research DesignThis chapter will examine the issue by means of qualitative and quantitative analyses using variety of sources from media accounts, government reports, academic works, and historical documents. To a lesser extent, opinion pieces will be used when the information is valid and appropriate opposing viewpoints are available for inclusion. Analysis of the results will provide statistical validity to the interpretation of results for the military and for the other agencies such as drug threats provided by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC).SampleSampling is irrelevant in this study. Researcher is not using survey method but will be maximizing secondary information from government reports and earlier studies co nducted related to the issue on Mexican drug interdiction. Other related relevant sources will also be inclusively considered.SettingThe study will be conducted within American soil although it will also make use of documents from Mexican government which will be accessed, reviewed and evaluated accordingly.InstrumentationThis is a qualitative and quantitative longitudinal case study that will use a combination of timeline mapping, conflict-analysis, and triangulation to understand the complex and unending illegal drug trade within the region that has been affecting neighboring and the international communities worldwide due to increasing violence within the area despite security management measures. All historical accounts, records, testimonies and researchers from incessant intervention done by the United States of America will be reviewed, analyzed and be maximized in crafting conclusions and recommendations at the end of the study.Data CollectionTo address research objective num ber three, DTOs current ability to interdict drugs across the border, the author will review publicly available information from books, journal articles, and corroborated news media accounts. The book, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling, will be used to substantiate data from the perspective, motivation and experiences of DTO smugglers. This book interviews experienced smugglers who at one time successfully in defeated drug interdiction measures. The purpose of this research objective is to identify the nature and extent of DTO exploitation of US Southwest border. Specifically, this question serves to identify DTO resources and methods that are uniquely vulnerable to US military capabilities or where the US military resources can augment civilian law enforcement agencies.Researcher will further use all information that can be sourced from government agencies, libraries, online research institutions, magazines, journals, court documents, magazines and journals.Data AnalysisThe author w ill use historical mapping as an instrument to gather information to assess the length of period and extent of the drug trafficking problem within the region. Historical mapping will also be used to determine the MSCLEA method(s) of involvement introduced by US Southwest region, including the outcome and impact of these interdictions. Historical mapping will also be used to outline the laws and policies governing MSCLEA that were legislated as a response to countering illegal drug trade in the region. Additionally, analysis of government documents produced by Congressional Research Service (CRS), the Government Accountability Office (GAO), U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) will be analyzed to determine the MSCLEA ability to adequately curtail drug trafficking across the southwest border.Lastly, the author will identify and compare the relative combat power of DTOs and US law enforcement personnel operat ing along the Southwest border. Determining the capability gap will exhibit the necessary MSCLEA requirement(s) to effectively reinforce the combat power of law enforcement agencies in order to adequately curtail drug trafficking in the region.As a mixed quantitative and qualitative study, researcher will present an integrated analysis and inferences into coherent conclusions toward a comprehensive and meaningful explication of the subject studied.Validity and ReliabilityThis research is undertaken with serious consideration of the international and professional standard. Inferences and sequential presentation of information are drawn from primary and secondary sources that are critically evaluated based on acceptable standards of sources. Some information used came from government authorities and decision-making bodies who are honored with their credibility as authorities of the state. Readers who may conduct follow-up research may triangulate information and database used here to further validate reports.Ethical ConsiderationsResearcher observes the highest standard of professional ethics required by the institution. Matters of confidentiality are held sacred while authors, writers, and agencies whose contributions to these subjects are wisely utilized were credited and recognized in the references.The succeeding chapter will substantially discuss the theme of this study.Chapter 4- DISCUSSIONResolving the complex issues on narcotics in the south west border require in-depth reflection on historic interventions made by USA which help increase interdiction on illegal drug-related cartel evaluate the political capacity of DTO to sustain its illegal operations triangulate policies of USA in its decision to assist in decreasing the movements of illegal drug trade and assess the fiscal capacity of the American government to allocate against increasing demand of budget for operations.US Military Capacity vs Drug TraffickingIn mid-19th century, United States deploye d US Army on its southern border and was mandated to protect the border, interdict bandits, secure lives and properties, conduct regular patrolling and support civil law enforcement against illegal drug cartel business (Matthews, 1959). More than a century have passed, USA is still deploying National Guard Soldiers to the Mexican border as post-9/11 politico-military undertakings (Matthews, 1959).To reckon, from 1846 towards this millennium, US Army sustained its security mandates at the borders hard and rugged terrain (Matthews, 1959). Reports mentioned that amid disputes, there is also a demand to increase numbers of soldiers (Matthews, 1959). This is further compounded with critical Mexican politics and US-Mexican diplomatic relations that is affecting Armys operations (Matthews, 1959). Contextualized in such distinct social character, Armys role was fitted to support to local, state, and Federal civilian agencies. Such nature of intervention is already evident since 1920s (Matth ews, 1959).During President George W. Bushs administration decided to deploy about 6,000 Army National Guard Soldiers in 2006 to conduct security border patrol as issues relating to potential terrorist infiltration, increase of illegal drug syndicates activity, and leveling-up of apprehension about illegal immigration to United States en route through Mexico (Matthews, 1959). Though this was regarded with disapproval, there is however recognition to improve border security works albeit controversial use of military personnel to support law enforcement (Matthews, 1959). Both America and Mexico shared ambivalent relations since the former tightened its political control in that shared border coupled with cross-border violent aggressions done by Indians and bandits which accordingly increased the level of enmity (Matthews, 1959).There was however a historic epoch when America and the Mexican governments explored revitalization of goodwill when Major General Philip H. Sheridan waged a c ampaign against the French. That provided an opportunity to resolve issues relating to US Armys disposition at the border from 1870 to 1886, including its inherent weakness about lack of personnel and passive defenses against cross-border raids. It also discussed the raid in Mexico in 1873 led by Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzies and that pre-emptive strike led by Lieutenant Colonel William Pecos Bill Shafters. There was subsequent reduction of attacks but this generated political conflict which grind down American and Mexican goodwill (Matthews, 1959).In 1911 to 1917, the Mexican Revolution caused insecurity in the border and US soldiers realized that static defenses and patrolling couldnt cease terrorist raiders who maintained interest to cross the border. This was also same period when Major General Frederick Funstons attempted to stop the Plan of San Diego plotters and Brigadier General John J. Pershing launched punitive action against Francisco Pancho Villa. The military strategies enforced hot pursuits and preemptive strikes into Mexico to restore order to the border (Matthews, 1959). US Army have also conducted responses to WETBACK Operation in 1954 until they increased their presence in 1978 in Mexican border as a response to same issue on illegal US immigration and anti-drug cartel. The military supports for law enforcement at southern border have also evolved (Matthews, 1959). The historic problem remained in these 20th centuries and the issues pertaining to militarys disposition reverberates (Matthews, 1959). It still re-echo the need for defensive position and the discussion on conducting cou

The Glasgow Coma Scale Health And Social Care Essay

The Glasgow lethargy Scale Health And Social C atomic number 18 EssayThere atomic number 18 three types of heap syndromes related to spinal cord spot. These are the primeval cord syndrome, anterior cord syndrome, and brown-sequard syndrome or the lateral cord syndrome. The substitution cord syndrome is ca apply by reproach or edema in the substitution cord usualy in the cervical area due to hyper character injuries. This dissolvers to push back failing of the upper extremities than the lower extremities. The anterior cord syndrome is caused by disk hernia or compression of the artery that runs along the front of the spinal cord. This causes way out of sensory, way out of incommode and temperature but sensitivity to position and vibrations are preserved. The brown-sequard syndrome or lateral cord syndrome may be a result of discriminating blot in the spine or hemisection of the cord. This causes ipsilateral hemiplegia with loss of touch, pressure and vibration als o contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits. wrangle how the Glasgow Coma Scale is utilized in determining neurological office.The Glasgow coma scale is used widely in hospitals to give a reliable, target area way of recoding the level of instinct of a tolerant. The GCS has three elements, the center of attention rejoinder, verbal response and motor response. Each has their own grades. For the eye response 4pts for promiscuous spontaneously, 3pts to open to non-verbal command, 2pts on open in response to pain and 1pt to no response. For verbal response 5pts for talking/oriented, 4pts for confused speech/disoriented, 3pts on inappropriate words, 2pts for incomprehensible sounds and 1pt for no response. Last for motor response 6pts for conform commands, 5pts to localizes to pain, 4pts for flexion/ withdrawal from painful stimuli, 3pts to flexion in response to pain, 2pts for extension in response to pain and 1pt to no response. 15pts is the perfect score and 3 as t he lowest score which indicates that the patient is in deep coma. talk about breast feeding interventions related to prevention of injury in the head-injured patient.To prevent injury for patient that has headland injury the patient must be assessed to guarantee adequate oxygenation and that the bladder is non distended. Dressings and casts mast be check for constriction. The side path must be raised and padded to avoid falling. The sock must also be lowered. Reducing environmental stimuli and to stimulate an adequate lighting. smear disturbances during sleep to provide adequate rest for the patient. Medications rouse be accustomed as prescribed to prevent restlessness. For incontinence catheter rear be used. written assignmentIdentify risk performers for spinal cord injury.Spinal cord injury is an injury due to an unexpected accident. In short everyone can have a spinal cord injury. Still thither are some risk factors. One risk factor is if you are busy in active spo rts or into jobs that requires lifting heavy loads. Another risk factor is for the sight who are in the 16-30yrs of age because in these years people are active and many people at these age support is now driving and one of the leading cause of spinal cord injury is vehicular accidents. And if you have bone disorder like osteoporosis, this can cause spinal cord injury.List three clinical features of the patient with neurogenic shock.Neurogenic shock is caused by injury in the central nervous system that causes vasodilation as a result of loss of parallelism between the human and parasympathetic stimulation. This causes low blood pressure (hypotension), descend heart rate (bradycardia), and reduce venous return which gives a dry, speedy skin.Why is autonomic dysreflexia an acute emergency situation?Autonomic dysreflexia is the all over activity of the autonomic nervous system. The nerve impulses that are being pull to the brain are blocked by a lesion in the spinal cord (at t he t-5 level or supra) which causes the brain to change magnitude activity of the sympathetic system that results to a rise in blood pressure. The heart hence sends impulse to the brain that causes the heart to slow down and the blood vessels above the spinal injury to dilate. But the brain cannot send impulse at a lower place the level of injury due to the lesion therefore blood pressure cannot be regulated. This is an acute emergency situation because if not treated immediately this may lead to seizures, stroke and even death.Develop a matrix identifying concussion, contusion, and dish out axonal injury. Identify clinical verbalisms and associated diagnostic testing.DefinitionClinical manifestationDiagnostic testingConcussion wound to the brain that is a result from an impact to the head. Ranges from mild to pure(a) concussionMild concussion middling dazedBrief loss of consciousnessSevere concussionyearner loss of consciousnessLonger recovery timeOther manifestations malady and vomitingBlurred visionConfusionFatigueShort-term store lossNeurological function testsCT scanContusiontraumatic brain injury or bruising of the brain because of sever acceleration-deceleration strong point or blunt traumaLoss of consciousnessLack of motor coordinationMemory problemsCT scanMRIDiffuse axonal injuryThis is a diffuse brain injury cause by gruelling head traumas. As interweave slides over tissue, a shearing injury occurs. This causes the lesions that are responsible for unconsciousness, as well as the vegetative invoke that occurs after a severe head injuryLack of consciousnessNo lucid intervalImmediate comaMRICT scanEEG electroencephalogram dispute the long-term replenishment unavoidably of the spinal cord injured patient. Within a group, ask questions regarding fright for care in the rehabilitative phase.For patients who suffered spinal cord injury rehabilitation is needed to restore as much function to the patient. The patient must understand his conditio n and reduce assistance with activities and let the patient be independent to improve motor function and also to extend the patients self-esteem.Discuss nursing have it offment for the head-injured patient related to nursing applicable nursing diagnoses.Ineffective airway clearanceAssess the respiratory status burst the patency of the airwayEnsure airway clearanceIneffective tissue perfusion ( noetic)Assess the visual, sensory and motor functionsNote for headache, dizziness, altered mental status and personality changesElevate HOB (10 degrees) and proceed head/neck in midline or neutral position to promote circulation and venous drainpipeDecrease intracranial adaptive capabilityMonitor patients neurological racy signs (GCS)Monitor ICPAssess the patients reflexesDecrease environmental stimuliRisk for injury go out safe environmentRaise side railsLower bedWeb outputNURSING MANAGEMENT OF ADULTS WITH SEVERE TRAUMATIC originator INJURYhttp//www.dvbic.org/images/pdfs/AANN08_TBIGuide _2-13-09_update.aspxBase on the get wind that I have read, the neuroscience concord is the one who intervenes to swan and manage intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patience with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The prevention of complications comm entirely associated with TBI is also involved in the management of care for TBI patients such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), hyperglycemia, and excessive protein loss.In maintaining or change magnitude of ICP, this study recommended guidelines. First, an uncontrolled intracranial high blood pressure leads to an absence of cerebral perfusion and results in brain death thus, the recommended ICP according to the original Guidelines for the management of Severe head Injury should be at less than 20mmHg (Bullock, Chestnut, Clifton, 1995), as stated in the study. Second, the tiring of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -this descends ICP. As stated in the study, according to the encephalon scathe Foundation, Ame rican Association of Neurological Surgeons, the Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care (2000), the front step to reduce intracranial hypertension is through ventricular drainage. As early as 1960, Lund demonstrated that remotion of CSF via ventriculostomy temporarily decreases ICP (Lund, 1960). Draining as little as 3ml of CSF was found to decrease ICP by 10.1% relative to the baseline value of 10 minutes in 58 patients with severe TBI (Kerr, Weber, Sereika, Wilberger, Marion, 2001). Protocols for CSF diversion range from time- dependent (leave drainage open for 5 minutes, then close), CSF-volume-dependent (drain 5cc then close), to straight drainage (open all the time, closed(a) at intervals to obtain an accurate ICP reading). This is supported by Monroe- Kellie hypothesis stating that a normal ICP can be maintained as one segment in the cranial compartment (brain, blood and CSF) increases as long as there is a corresponding decrease of another function- therefore, d ecrease of one component decreases ICP. Third is not inducing hyperventilation to decrease ICP. Hyperventilation was routinely used to manage severe TBI. Studies done in the 1990s demonstrated the vasoconstriction associated with hyperventilation also resulted in decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF), thus, it is recommended to maintain normocapnia in close patients with severe TBI ( psyche Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). after part is administering sedation- it prevents ICP increases. A study of 17 patients with severe TBI found ICP was fundamentally higher and there was a important decrease in CPP with endotracheal suctioning among patients who were inadequately sedated compared to those patients who were well- sedated with proforol (Gemma et al., 2002) According to the study, a randomized controlled ladder of 42 patients with TBI found the use of Proforol (rather than morphine) resulted in significantly lower ICPs by federal agency- injury day 3, with less use of neuromuscula r blockers, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates and less CSF drainage was required ( Kelly et al., 1999). Fifth is administration of Mannitol is effective in decreasing ICP. Guidelines for Management of Severe TBI, 3rd Edition states, mannitol is effectice for control of raised ICP at doses of 0.25 gms/kg to 1.0 gm/kg body weight (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). The diuretic effect of mannitol can cause increase Na+ and serum osmolarity levels, this should be monitored at regular intervals. Mannitol is infused via IV bolus through a filter. Mannitol 20% contains 20g of mannitol in 100cc. 80% of 100g dose appears in the urine within 3 hrs. of infusion. Sixth is to name head of bed (HOB) 30 degrees to maintain or decrease ICP- this is image to promote intracranial venous return and increase CSF drainage from the head, resulting in decreased ICP (Fan, 2004). Four controlled studies with sample sizes ranging from 5- 38 patients with severe TBI found significant decreases in ICP w ith HOB elevations of 30 degrees (Moraine, Berr, and Mlot, 2000 Ng, Lim, Wong, 2004 Schulz- Subner Thiex, 2006 Winkleman, 2000). Seventh is removing or easiness rigid cervical collars- according to the study, it may decrease ICP. These collars may back up back venous blood flow and cause pain and discomfort, elevating ICP. 8 is administering intensive insulin therapy- it may reduce ICP. Hyperglycemia is common in severe TBI and has a negative effect on outcome. A study was conducted with a result of lower mean and minimal ICPs to those treated with intensive insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels lower than 110 mg/dl than in subjects treated with insulin only when their glucose levels exceeded 220 mg/dl. The ninth is maintenance of normothermia- it may prevent ICP increases. Hyperthermia is predominant in the TBI population, as high as 68% within 72 hours of injury (Rumana, Gopinath, Uzura, Valadka, Robertson, 1998). There have been no long- term outcome studies in the eff ect of normothermia in TBI, but a study found an increase in brain temperature was associated with significant increase in ICP as febrility ebbed, there was significant decrease in ICP.In controversial handlings for unconquerable intracranial hypertension, first is the inducing of moderate hypothermia- it may decrease ICP in refractory intracranial hypertension. There are multiple human studies that have demonstrated decreased ICP with the induction of moderate hypothermia (33-36 degrees Celsius) in patients with severe TBI (Clifton, miller et al., 2001 Marion, Obrist, carlier, Penrod, Darby, 1993 Polderman, Tjong Tjin, Peerdeman, Vandertop Girbes 2002 Tokutomi, Miyagi, Morimoto, karukay, Shigemori, 2004 Tokutomi et al., 2003). Second is admistering hypertonic saline. Third is the administration of high- dose barbiturates- are intellection to suppress cerebral metabolism, reducing cerebral metabolic demand and cerebral blood volume.In maintaining adequate CPP or increasing CP P, first is maintaining CP b/w 50- 70mmHg- optimized cerebral perfusion (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). Second is administering norepinephrine, it may maintain adequate CPP or increase CPP. Third is elevating HOB 30 degrees- not only it increases venous drainage from head, it also can decrease perfusion. Fourth is CSF drainage- the decreasing volume of CSF decreases total intracranial volume.In preventing DVT, pharmacologic treatment may be safe for DVT prophylaxis. Agency for healthcare Research and property recommends use of prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism for at- risk patients.In adequate nutrition, first initiating nutrition within 72 hours of injury- according to the study, it may improve outcomes. It is recommended that patients be fed so that full caloric requirements are met by get off injury day 7 (Brain Trauma Foundation et al., 2007). Second is providing continuous intragastric feeding- it may improve tolerance. According to the study, continuous f eeding was better tolerated and achieved 75% of nutritional goals faster than bolus feeding in 152 consecutive patients admitted to neurosurgical intensive care units (20% of whom had sustained severe TBI Rhoney, Parker, Formean, yap, Coplin, 2002).In preventing seizures, administering antiepileptic drugs decreases incidence of early posttraumatic seizures. Guidelines for the Management of Severe TBI, 3rd Edition recommends the use of anticonvulsants to decrease the incidence of post traumatic seizure within the fisrt 7 days of injury when the brain is particularly vulnerable to secondary injury- involves multiple metabolic mechanisms that result from flutter of blood flow and oxygen to undamaged cells, producing anaerobic metabolism, inadequate synthesis of ATP, or cellular acidosis. Then continuous EEG monitoring has been used to identify a 20% seizure incidence with 50% of patients identify as non-convulsive (Vespa Nuwer, 2000)Reference Nursing Management of Adults with Sever e Traumatic Brain Injury, AANN Clinical Practice Guidelines Series