Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Churchill, Hitler, and the unncessary war Essay

Churchill, Hitler, and the unncessary war - Essay ExampleThe pact of Versailles, and the punitive damages enforced against Germany, should stnad for nothing. Patrick Buchanans book does its best to dismiss this complacency and show how British policymakers commit a number of blunders which led to the possibility of war becoming much more likely. One of the headway culprits of those blunders was Winston Churchill, largely lionized today. Throughout this insightful and instructive book, Buchanan takes on conventional wisdom and scores read afterwards point. Buchanan is best known as a conservative commentator in the United States. He has similarly run for president previously. He represents a Washingtonian wing of the Republican party, one which holds to the first presidents virtually famous line Avoid foreign entanglements. Buchanan is an ardent critic of American wars overseas and believes many of the conflicts which the U.S. has been mingled in in the 20th century have been largely avoidable and unnecessarily constitutely. As such, he is known as an isolationist, and this book confirms that fact. Buchanan draws on a wide reading of historical documents to make his point in this book. In his view, World War I was unnecessary, and partly caused by the British governments haughty deportment towards to the Kaiser (Buchanan, 10). Likewise, the Second World War was unnecessary. ... Buchanan takes an unconventional view on both the Kaiser and Hitler, but especially on Churchill who is often seen today as a secular saint. Much of the Churchill worship focuses on his oratory during the attacks on the United Kingdom. There can be little doubt that these were stirring performances and that the man was an articulate and sharp speaker. For example, one of his most famous radio addresses went as follows We shall go on to the end, we shall advertise in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in th e air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills we shall never surrender, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in Gods good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forrard to the rescue and the liberation of the old (Churchill) This is stirring stuff. It inspired millions of Britons not to break down up and to continue struggle in the Battle of Britain. It is clear that the man who had ordered the senseless slaughter at Gallipoli in the first-year World War, was a fine speaker. But strategically he was a poor thinker. He had wanted war for a long time and thought of himself as a warrior (Buchanan, 281). As Buchanan makes clear, he mastermind Britain into a disastrous war with Germany. By the end of the Second World War, Britain was so bankrupt it had to give up much of

Monday, April 29, 2019

Probation Officers and Parole Officers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Probation Officers and war cry Officers - Essay ExampleThey work towards fashioning sure that they endure made the law offenders to live profitable and useful lives. Depending on the legal status, the law offender may be on countersignature or probation. Law offenders who are given probationary sentence might or might not go through served jail term in the county jail. Once the offender is released, they are put on parole or probation depending on the record of their offence. Those that have served time in federal or state correctional deftness are placed on parole when they are released. Conditions are given to both types of offenders when they are released and a parole or probation officer supervises them for a specified period of time (California Occupational Guide, 1). Probation officers are excessively known as community supervisors in some states as they supervise people on probation. much a probation officer supervises those convicted of violent crimes because probatio n is granted to those with substantial drug abuse history and criminal primer coat (Banks, 165). Probation officers also offer training that includes rational behavior training it counsellinges on the officers using rationality principles to bend a probationer to change his/her attitudes and beliefs. The training influences hostile offenders to develop new behavior and beliefs, which probation officers reinforce. Parole officers unremarkably perform the same duties as probation officers, the only difference being that while parole officers supervise the offenders who have been released from prison, probation officers wok with the offenders in the prison ( fag Dept (U S) Bureau of Labor Statistics, 238). Parole officers are usually in the unit of the offspring authority, corrections and the federal department of justice accounts directly to their particular parole boards and their main task is inadvertence their clients. Before the discharge of an offender, parole officers pre pare arrangement and recommendation for their client. Parole officers approve such run as housing, counseling, social activities, employment and education (California Occupational Guide, 3). On the other hand, probation officers are usually at the courts and they execute pre-sentence investigations and organize shrouds on their clients. They also aid their clients to go back to the free society. They also carry out courts order, which may incorporate them to seize evidence, organize for drug testing, make arrests and carry out searches. Parole officers focus their effort on surveillance rather than rehabilitation though their systems are scarce. In urban areas, parole agents are commonly occupied in verifying curfews, drug testing and electric monitoring. Most parolees do not complete their parole supervision and they therefore end up going back to prisons, making the prisons full. The role of parole officers is to have all the legal authority carried out and to use firearms to s earch without diffidence of the forth amendment, order arrest without probable cause and confine without bail (Banks, 165). According to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), when the probation and the parole officers are running in jail and prisons, they supervise the improvement of the inmates. They may assess the inmates by means of psychological and questionnaires tests. They work directly with other agencies or officers to develop release and parole plans. Their report discusses the record of the inmate and the probability of the inmate committing another crime. This

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Framework for K-12 Science Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Framework for K-12 Science Education - Essay ExampleIt is apparently clear from the discussion that professional development opportunities are being offered with a view to equipping the teachers with the resources essential to implement the NGSS in their classrooms. Not all teachers, however, have been able to successfully incorporate NGSS practices in their respective(prenominal) classrooms. It can be said that standards and performance expectations aligned with the framework should consider that students cannot completely comprehend scientific and engineering concepts without being involved in the inquiry practices and the discourses that lead to the development and modification of such ideas. This is indicative of the state and significance of science today in the K-12 educational curriculum.Teachers should have a vast knowledge of and expertise in enquiry methodology and must be skilled in scientific research to pave the way for authentic scientific inquiries in the classroom . The National Science Teachers Association recommends the teachers of science to take the stand their comprehension and savvy of the tenets, process, and assumptions underlying the different methods of inquiry related to scientific knowledge and also to advance students participation in inquiries that are developmentally appropriate and that impact the need for the students to scientifically develop relationships and concepts victimization data, inferences and personal observations. A potential way in which teachers can acquire such knowledge and understanding is through participation in the Research Experience for Teacher (RET) programs. The purpose of RET programs is to equip the teachers with implicit in(p) knowledge in the conduct of practical research for ongoing application in their daily experiences in the class.

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Can terrorism be defeated Discuss in terms of both the military and Essay

Can terrorist act be disappointed Discuss in terms of both the military and non-military resolutions to the threat - Essay ExampleThese conflicting opinions argon now in the process of ripening and it is hoped that it will not be long before they fancy their application in practical terms. Discussion Older theorists flip proposed that terrorism can be defeat if certain principles argon followed. Terrorists often win because we respond to terrorism the way terrorists want us to respond. If our response is not in accordance with the terrorists will, they fail to achieve their objective. So, it should be realized that the choice is ours. If we can look at to refuse to act upon the will of terrorists, we can hope to defeat terrorism, although we cannot always prevent it (Fromkin, 1975). Such ideas wee dominated the minds of intellectuals of the past, but keeping in mind the present scenario of the world, we can infer that such ideas are far from reality. The previous two decades have seen a rise in the tendency to control terrorism using the military approach. The idea of intervening within states for the resolution of military conflicts appeared prominently in the supranational scenario in the early 1990s, when in the Gulf war and later in Cambodia the international community contend its role (Snyder, 2008). Subsequent years have seen a surge in such military measures and a collective effort on part of many countries to contain terrorism and limit it to its origins. They have, however, resulted in a growth of terrorist activities across the world, let alone stopping its spread. Our recent experiences of waging war against terrorism have besides made us realize virtually bitter realities of the life. Most modern discoveries in neuroscience, anthropology, human growing and paleoethnology have favored the idea that Homo sapiens are not inclined towards killing others of their declare species. The similarity between a killer in uniform and a killer with out uniform is striking. Both have to be fed with hatred in the process of de-humanizing them, during which they are trained to overcome their natural tendency to allow others to live (Ram & Summy, 2008). Such discoveries have conduct us to believe that the military approach is, in fact, not the solution to the problem of terrorism. Theorists of insurgency have focused on the element of preserving public sympathy during military actions to gain benefit after putsch of states. Similarly, an indirect approach to contain insurgency, which is termed the hearts and minds approach, emphasizes the need to gain public support by political meat (Snyder, 2008). Such observations have favoured the non-military approach for the solution of terrorism. Democracy is considered by some to be the solution for terrorism. This may be true in some cases, but again it has its birth limitations. In many European states where democracy is the rule, a number of terrorist groups have emerged, which not only fail to comply with the norms of democracy for their own expression but also use democracy as a tool to augment their deadly activities (Snyder, 2008). Such observations have led us to believe that perhaps, the non-military approach is too soft for terrorism oriented mentality. So, the lesson learnt during war on terrorism is that terrorism cannot be defeated instead, it can only be attenuated, reduced and controlled to some degree. Unrealistic hopes of completely sweeping

Friday, April 26, 2019

Report of Saudi Arabia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Report of Saudi Arabia - Essay ExampleIts system of administration is monarchy based and this continues to be so since its establishment and foundation. The Kingdom generates most of its wealth through oil exploration in the easterly provinces of the state. So large are the oil reserves that it has been categorized as having the second largest oil reserves in the world.Its government, therefore, relies mostly on revenue generated from oil exports to fund development activities in the Kingdom. Such capacious income from oil exports have enabled its government to transform the desert city into a modern economy make full with modern architecture and infrastructure, using the latest technology available.The kingdom of Saudi Arabia has an estimated creation of approximately 28 million. Out of this figure, approximately 17 million are citizens of the Kingdom, while 9 million are registered expatriates. The remain 2 million are illegal immigrants living in the kingdom (The World Fact Bo ok, 2013).The old age structure of a given population plays an important role in determining the most important socioeconomic aspects in development. For instance, a nation that constitutes majority of young population needs to consider expend in education facilities such as schools and colleges. Another importance for age structure is to help venture the political situation in the future. For example, high population of youthful citizen without employment may result to well-bred unrest in the country.The age structure of Saudi Arabia, therefore, is diversified in nature. The population between the ages of 0 to 14 years constitutes 28.8% of the total population with 3,913,775 being males and 3,727,767 being females. 19.8% of the population is between the ages of 15 to 24 years with 2,811,407 being males and 2,439,978 being females. Ages between 25 to 54 years command the majority population gathering

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Microfinance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Microfinance - Essay ExampleThus, it is essential to consider every region separately in rescript to come to the right conclusion. In the given paper we will analyze the effect of microfinance in India, Hyderabad.Microfinance is wide used in India and even had some despotic results at the very beginning Indias microfinance sector was once touted as a saviour of the poor and a good bet for investors. The high engineer for the industry came when SKSthen Indias biggest microfinance company with a $1.2 billion loan book, a third of it in the southern state of Andhra Pradeshwent public in July 2010. The $350m offering was more than 13 times oversubscribed. (Road to repurchase) However, according to the same source, the situation started worsening at once. It is essential to analyze the reasons of worsening and make recommendations. accord to the available statistics, the credit offered by Spandana and other Microfinance institutions working in the region of Hyderabad, was used by 37% of households. The percent is non very high if to take into account the purposes of taking loan (Chowdhury, 2007). Institutions do not state that credits were taken for business starting purposes. However, 30% of people who took loans said that they used this property mainly for this purpose, while 22% used these funds to buy facilities for the business they already have 30% of borrowers spent loan to buy new facilities for their households (Greater Hyderabad municipal Corporation).Here we can see some positive dynamics. The availability of Microfinance institutions loans changed annual percent of newly created businesses from 5.3 to 7. Competition did not bring any difficulties to the existing businesses (Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation)The expenses are different and depend on the purpose of credit. Data shows that those who took a credit

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Rome civilization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

capital of Italy civilization - Essay Examplecapital of Italy urban center has existed over the last 12 centuries. The civilization moved from monarchy to aristocratic republic governments and lastly an overbearing empire. Rome became one of the most powerful entities in the world due to conquests, assimilations that were brinyly carried out in Southern Europe, magnetic north Africa, Eastern Europe and Northern Europe. roman prints in the metropolis believed that the city was founded in 753 BC, yet modern historians assert that the city was found from a small village in the year 625 BC. The city was governed by Kings, and several of them had ruled before the modern Rome city. The origin of the city is connected with Alba Longa, the main city of Latium that evolved from Troy in Asian Minor (Liberati and Bourbon 65). The evidence of human occupation of Rome city dates back at least 14,000 years. The ancient legendary ruler, Romulus and his close brother Remus decided to establish the city. by and by several bitter arguments, Romulus killed Remus and decided to name the city Rome. Rumulus invited several neighboring tribes and abducted young men whom he forced to establish Roman senate. The Ancient Rome society contributed greatly to civilization of the government, law, politics, literature, art and holiness (Lewis and Reinhold 20). Rome started as pastoral settlements in the Palatine hills and the Tiber River. Rome was strategically positioned since traders crossed it when travelling to the North and South of the Peninsula. Italian speaking communities such as Sabines, Umbrians and Latinns settled in different positions surrounding the Rome city. Etruscans was the dominant tribe in Rome at around 650 BC. During this time, Pons Sublicius Bridge was constructed to replace Tiber ford since Etruscans had most great engineers. Within years, Etruscans expanded to the south were they later encountered a deadly conflict with Greeks. In the early days, every mal e Roman citizen had to be registered and attend a census in Rome. He was required to disclose his wealth including children, riches, wives and slaves. The registration and census was geared at granting the citizen freedom since those who failed to comply were exchange as slaves. Census was a symbolic function since it made the Romans people who were capable of collective action. such(prenominal) society was characterized by high hierarchy in the society in the social ladder (Liberati and Bourbon 85). Roman republic At this time, Rome rebelled and gained self-independence from Etruscans and abandoned the traditional monarchy government system to Republic government that was cool of Senate. Magistrates were elected annually. Etruscans also had introduced the worship of gods such as Juno, and Jupiter (Lewis and Reinhold 45). After 500 BC, Rome was now a republican city and joined in rebellion against Sabines thus establishing control of the countries it had surrendered during the Mon archy. In 387 BC, Rome was destroy down by Senones from the Eastern parts of Italy who had successfully conquered the Roman army in Etruria. Later, Rome pushed southerly where the community engaged in the battle of Caudine Forks. Rome was later to be faced with Conflict of Orders that entailed policy-making struggles between the commoners, and aristocrats. The demand of equality by the Commoners (Plebeians) led to the enactment of the Constitution of Roman republic that gave the commoners some real power and limited rights. By the end of the 3rd century BC, Rome was a pre-eminent city of the Italian

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

New 3 Questions on Politics and Administration Essay

hot 3 Questions on Politics and Administration - Essay ExampleIt has however been showcasing itself as one that checks all over insularity of powers. An field of study that seemed to bring some controversy to this issue was the courts rejection of Bushs administration to detail prisoners of war. This led to the strain that the court would have been arguing in such a case due to lack of competency in the issues apprehended. According to Harriger (2011) and the concept of insularism of powers, the court has acted in a manner to indicate that it is really enforcing for the power separation. Looking at these trends, in accordance to Harriger (2011), this separation of powers and the push by the Supreme Court trends to some judicial activism in the cases of power separation. He as well contended to the fact that he court seemed more oriented towards separation of powers than judicial supremacy. There is a bit of ignorance on the fact that judicial supremacy and defending its suprema cy would be a collapse explanation of the activism of the court Harriger (2011). According to this author, the power war is between the congress and the federal government as well as the state governments. Harriger (2011) terms the behaviour of the courts in this case as a standard of judicial activism in the sense that they do so against some dispositional values. Separation of powers is then argued to be more centralised towards public affairs in the recent past than it was thirty years ago. The issue of federalism and separation of powers comes in if the party controlling the houses differ from the Presidents party. Divided governments have diachronicly been used to show the various historical attributes that determine the struggle between the administrator branches of the government. In the argument of the federalism about this struggle, there is an argument that all the government arms should be in such a manner that they can defend their own rights against invasion from t he other arms. In this regard, they argue of the issues within the geological formation that should better be served politically than in the courts Harriger (2011). Arguing on a federalist view, the constructions found in the constitution are not permanent and can be constitutionally solved. Looking at these arguments, it is evident that issues of separation of powers are directly connected to political battles in various arenas. Such issues are what led to the executive power showcased Bush as the Congress backed him up for the war on terror, considering that the houses were both controlled by republicans Harriger (2011). 2. Presidential powers According to Neustadt (1960) presidential powers are about the influence of the president to the country. The current American organisation is a vital organ in the countrys progress and elections are taken actually seriously. The current modern US President faces aid and service demands from quite some sources the executive, congress, par tisans, citizens and other countries. either these five organs are distinguished by what hey require of the president making this a habit of the president Neustadt (1960). The obligations of the president are cut out for him alone. The President has such an importance status in the government such that there is always being demanded of his services. In his article, Neustadt (1960) states that these powers are in most cases posterior the knowledge of the common man and thus will always remain at the mercy of the President. If compared to historical Presidents, the modern Presidency cannot much as the erstwhile

Monday, April 22, 2019

Research paper about legalizing cannabis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

investigate paper about legalizing hangmans rope - Essay Examplerlands, cannabis is openly tolerated and can be both purchased and consumed in one of several Amsterdam coffee houses. Inexplicably, the city has not been thrown into anarchy which, evidently, is what the opponents of cannabis legalisation are afraid of. The evidence demonstrates that legalizing cannabis would prove a benefit to society, evidence which is well-known without the scientific, political and public arena but this collective knowledge has yet to be acted upon. This intervention will examine the issue of legalisation drawing from European, British and American experiences. In addition, because cannabis is oftentimes associated with harder forms of drugs by legalisation opponents, it will briefly discuss plausible reasons why all drugs should be at least decriminalised if not made fully legal.A report created by Transform1, a non-profit UK drug constitution think tank, demonstrates how criminalization of certain drugs has created execration, undermined public health and promotes social exclusion while proving ineffective in eliminating domestic markets. The foundation recommends instead a society in which all drugs are regulated and controlled through the use of specialized pharmacies and licensed retailers instead of black market street vendors and an uncontrolled clientele. The reason for this, they say, is that the struggle on drugs has led to an uninformed hysteria among the general population, an irrational opposition to less harmful substances, a spike in organised iniquity and associated criminal activity. By regulating and controlling drugs, Transform suggests that prison house populations could be cut in half, considerably reducing the funds spent on maintaining and sustaining these populations. In addition, crime factors would be reduced as the primary activity of organised crime would now be regulated, crime wars would become obsolete and crimes associated with drug us e such as prostitution and burglaries for drug money would be further reduced as the price

Electronic and Mobile commerce Slp Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Electronic and Mobile commerce Slp - Assignment manakinThis paper describes the main types of electronic and mobile commerce applications available in the current market that agitate everyday consumer-experience.There are a number of dynamics that steering m-commerce. These dynamics include the colossal accessibility and popularity of wireless devices such as smart phones, the decreasing cost of wireless technology, the accessibility of newsbreak connectivity from any location, and bandwidth enhancements that increase the speed of data broadcast. M-commerce has experienced developing admiration in financial services, telecommunications services, retail, and culture services. Consumers in the current market, bank online, purchase goods and services, adjust their smart phone schedules, pay bills, obtain direction, sweep through GPS and look up traffic from wireless devices (Canada.ca, 2010).Mobile commerce (m-commerce) education and training is alternatively harder to find than other fields of commerce, since this field is new and regularly changing. Therefore, continuing education in more fields has been moving online at a faster rate as compared to normal classes studies. Companies are so far exploring how to monetize their business in this field. The Mobile Commerce segment assists students to easily access learning materials virtually different fields. M-commerce creates network, systems and consumer behaviors that integrate to make up the m-commerce ecosystem. This means the field is extensive, accessible to consumers with ideas that takes off. Since there are a reasonably extensive percentage of consumers who own smart phones and other electronic devices, most industries are presumable to be prosperous in mobile commerce (Canada.ca, 2010).Mobile commerce continues to grow, but will non be fully established until it becomes actual mobile information accessible everywhere, anytime and to consumers globally. Applying mobile commerce to reckon fiel ds generates both tremendous marketable

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Research prposal Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Prposal - Research Proposal ExampleIn the sequence of globalization most of the countries use the strategy of deregulation to reduce the government arrest on the internal help industry. Banking sector has also not been unexpended alone. Governments are also exercising lesser amount of control on the deposes. But to ensure that the banks are performing efficiently, the Central bank has a big procedure to play. It is the substitution bank of a nation in whose hands there lay the responsibilities of creating favorable environments for the bank to operate under. Efficiency of the banks in a country depends on the efficiency of the strategies adopted by the central bank of the country.When a nation adopts the strategy of increasing openness, its economy goes through a substantial careen as the domestic market of the country becomes exposed to international market and therefore to fierce controversy from international firms. Under this situation central bank of any country needs to make buttoned-down steps in order to make the domestic banks punishing enough to survive under strong competition as well as creating favorable environment for the operation of international banks. Particular in developing countries, central banks have to be very efficient in deal with the continuously ever-changing financial environment under intense liberalization. Unless and until the central bank becomes successful in fulfilling its major documental of maintaining financial stability, the countrys financial sector will move towards severe financial turmoil. (Papademos, 2008)Libya, a developing nation of Africa, has significantly participated in the process of globalization. Its banking sector has therefore been also not left alone. Intensive reform measures have been undertaken for the baking industry of the country to pave the way of integration of domestic banking sector with the global one. But here lays a big question regarding how far the banking industry of Libya

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Discuss the factors that can invalidate a contract Essay

Discuss the factors that can invalidate a contract - Essay faceThe requirement for proof of contact elements becomes essential in litigating instances when a troupe breaches the contract. The legal process pursuance contract breach ultimately results in remedy for damages incurred upon the wronged party. The action of contract breach ultimately results in invalidation of contractual elements. Numerous factors contribute towards the invalidation of contracts agreed upon by diametric parties, voluntarily (Koffman and MacDonald, 75-9). Factors contributing to invalidation of contracts There are different legal ways through which contracts could be gravel aside. These include a contract being declared void, and it never coming into existence. A contract could alike become voidable when one party declares the contract as ineffective contrive their own someone determination. The contract could also become unenforceable or ineffective. Unenforceability refers to situations where ne ither party could get remedy form courts upon breach, and ineffectiveness refers to court decision terminating contracts between different parties. These elements could be contributed by the factors discussed below. Misrepresentation This refers to situations where some parties show false statements and presents false information which makes other parties agree into the contract terms. Misrepresentation results in remedies of rescission or damages depending on the occurrence of misrepresentation. Misrepresentation can occur through words or study of one party implying falsehood, though not all elements of speech and conduct get to misrepresentation indoors the setting of contract law (Gordon v Selico, 5). Misrepresentation can take place on a lower floor triple different conditions which include Stating a fact wrongly Directing the false statement to a party of the contract The statement inducing suing party into agreeing contract terms following the statement. Misrepresentat ion, therefore, occurs when a party appears to falsely induce another party into a contract by providing false or partial information, resulting in another party agreeing into the contract. The wronged party, therefore, lacks sufficient information and agrees without proof of the involved facts. Opinions held by parties, however, do not mould misrepresentation as these remain opinions and not factual information regarding contract terms. There are different types of misrepresentation based on their occurrence Fraudulent misrepresentation This misrepresentation could be characterised by parties qualification representation intended to deceive others, and knowing the representation being as false. Fraudulent misrepresentation could constitute litigation under tort law within different legal frameworks. Negligent misrepresentation at common law This misrepresentation occurs when parties make representations without reasonable information regarding the truth of information. This misre presentation seeks to provide a remedy for situations where collateral contract or fraud cannot be proved. This commonly occurs where individual claim to birth special skills for performing various tasks, but fail to delivery as implied. Negligent misrepresentation under statute law This commonly refers to misrepresentation stated under various legal statutes and litigation occurs agree to the statute provisions. The parties involved must prove the presence of falsehood within the statement provident by the representing

Friday, April 19, 2019

Research Report - Media futures and new technologies Essay

look into Report - Media futures and new technologies - Essay ExampleThis examination considers the element pressure between media advances and the different complaisant drives that have molded development and utilization in the media journalism industry. At long last, study of a a couple of(prenominal) ways that technology matters is carried out. It serves to shape parts of social life and finish up by concentrating on select new media issues.Every medium has it mechanical capacities that influence the conveyance of content, blend in, and visual pictures. wooing in point, a music show performed by one of the most loved specialists could be send live by a radio station would hear the sound however not the efficiency to see the entertainers. A magazine could print a tale about the show and give photos to licence what the occasion looked like, however just afterward and without sound. A television system could convey live sound and feature however any content conveyance would b e ungainly, maybe constrained to a scrolling squinch at the lowest part of the screen. A television would likewise have sound and feature, yet it would be accessible just well after the first show date. The Internet is novel capable of destiny as an advanced coiffure that empowers these gimmicks print, sound, still photographs, and feature and do it live. Furthermore, those viewing the streamed show online could speak with opposite music fans through texting or tweets. It is presenting a type of intelligence that is unrealistic with television forms of the media industry. The innovative impediments of all(prenominal) medium set the parameters for the utilization. With digitization, however, distinctive media united to a solitary advanced mul timedia, making a few refinements less clear. The Internet whether got to through machine, cell phone, or amusement support is a bland stage of machine systems that considers the conveyance of all manifestations of media. Media, before the ascent of the Internet, can be considered fitting in with the time of

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Methodology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Methodology - Essay ExampleIn the training step, the characteristics will be derived from a recognized verbaliser sound then stored in a database that has a model or an outline like Password or Name. The stored information is then extracted by means of the model given by an unidentified speaker. The recovered data is then compared with characteristics extracted from the unidentified speaker sound. If the evaluation result is positive, then the unidentified speaker will be validated.The figure above 3.2.2 demonstrates dickens things how the word will be accepted from the speakers voice as well as how to distinguish the temper of the speaker. The speech identification will need from the speaker to record the word. The classifier will be employed so as to extract the characteristics of the voice of the speaker and then the representation will be made and relieve in the catalog. Just for the speaker identification the speakers voice will be recorded then features will be taken out an d will be evaluated against the other speakers models so as to accept or reject the personality of a speaker.The figure above 3.2.3 demonstrates the enrollment along with cheque phases, in the previous(prenominal) stage the speakers voice will be recorded so as to extract the attribute from his/her voice. aft(prenominal) that, the replica will be created for every speaker word and will be stored it in the database. During the verification stage, the speakers voice will be recorded, and then the traits will be extorted from the speakers voice. After that, the alternative will be made so as to accept or reject the speaker depending on the assessment of the extracted characteristic from a speaker along with the other recognized speaker models that were stored in the database. For this project, I employed Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for recognition of speech.3.1 Hardware depiction The software will be punish by means of some devices such as Microphone in addition to the computer, the microphone should

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS-case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS-case study - Essay ExampleCultural dimensions like Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism (IDV), masculinity (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), and Long-Term Orientation (LTO) etc can affect planetary business negotiation work at. Most of the societies argon unequal because of the variations in power occupyed by them and the different perceptions about the huge term and short term goals. Some societies do things collectively whereas separate societies do it individually. Moreover, some societies dole out males and females differently whereas some others treat them equally. The ability of some cultures or societies in avoiding uncertainty is more than other societies. Moreover, political, economical, social, technological, environmental and sub judice factors can also affect the cross cultural business negotiation process. The supranational negotiators should possess adequate knowledge about all these factors in hallow to conduct the nego tiation process in an effective manner. They should do their homework properly before going for the negotiation process. Terms of propagation Business negotiation is a complex task which requires lot of preparations and planning. Cross cultural business negotiations be even harder because of the high percentage of uncertainty and ambiguity in such(prenominal) negotiations. Most of the organizations will attempt the guidance of business consultants before actively participating in international business negotiations. I am working as an international business consultant and recently one of the biggest the Statesn firms approached me in order to seek my advice for expanding their business to the Chinese territory. My node was interested in joint venture business outline for entering into the Chinese territory. They already short listed few Chinese companies as their future partners and asked me to submit a report about how to negotiate with them. My client asked me to give more em phasize on the cultural aspects of international business negotiations since America and China have entirely different cultures. This report is prepared for my American client in order to make them aware of the role of culture in international business negotiations. Overview of the business office Both China and America have extremely diverse population. America is under a participatory regime whereas China is under an autocratic or communist regime. In other words, China and America are extremely different nations as far as politics culture, social setups, economy, legal frameworks, etc are concerned. Language, environment, social organizations, level of knowledge and authority possessed by the people, verbal and nonverbal communication means, secular conceptions etc are entirely different in these two countries. In my opinion, my client should have better ideas about all these things in order to conduct successful business negotiations with their Chinese counterparts. An intern ational negotiator should possess intelligence, creativity etc and he should have flexibility and diplomacy in his approaches. He should also possess skills such as problem solving, negotiations etc. He should also possess knowledge about different legal structures, governmental policies, possibilities of natural and manmade disasters. He should be hardworking and should do the

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Ri Paper For Internal Circulation Only Raffles Institution 2012 Essay Example for Free

Ri Paper For inwrought Circulation Only Raffles Institution 2012 EssayPassage 1 1. What is the source hoping to emphasise by italicising does non and can non in line 6? 1 elevate scantily be display case m atomic number 53y does non buy cheer does non mean capital cannot buy gaiety, says Elizabeth Dunn, a social psychologist and assistant professor at the University of British Columbia. Paraphrased The author hopes to emphasise (the contrast / difference between) what money often fails to do only when in truth has the potential to achieve. essential attempt to explain does not and cannot. Merely saying that in that location is a difference/contrast is stating the obvious. E.g. Does not is different from cannot. = 0m. 12. Using your get speech as far as possible, explain how we crash money wrongly (line 8). 2 Lifted a. we tend to value GOODS e very(prenominal)w here(predicate)(predicate) experiences, b. OURSELVES oer others, Paraphrased a. large number tend t o think that commodities/things must be tangible atomic number 18 more(prenominal) important than experiences,b. People value themselves everywhere others/self-centred OR spend on themselves quite a than others,c. THINGS over large number.c. People opt expending on objects rather than commonwealth. d. Inferred We ar disbursal on temporary pursuits and cravings that tend to disappear over term. MUST capture the comparison (the reason it is wrong is because the preference is wrong). Need not follow the ecological succession in the answer scheme. 3-4 points 2 tag 1-2 points 1 markd. the using up that falsifys us joyous, it turns out, is often spending where the money vanishes and leaves almostthing INEFFABLE in its place.1For Internal Circulation Only 3. Using your own words as far as possible,explain three reasons why experiences are inherently more social (line 28) 3 Lifted As experiences are inherently more social when we vacation or eat out or go to the movies i t is usually with other pack, we are liable besides to RELIVE the experience when we see those passel again. And past experiences can browse as a sorting of social adhesive point with throng who did not PARTICIPATE with us, providing stories and conversational fodder in a counsel that a newfound crack or speedboat rarely can.In addition, experiences do not usually trigger the like sort of noxious comparisons that material possessions do (lines 2835) Paraphrased a. Inferred Experiences naturally involve interaction with people and 1b. We are likely to cerebrate / revisit / reminisce / recollect the experience when we meet those people again. c. People can besides shackle with people who were not present / strangers / others (through the sharing of anecdotes/conversational material).11d. Experiences do not cause hurtful comparisons OR experiences do not make people envious/jealous/ inferred insecure.1MUST capture negative connotation.1m per point for any 3 of the above points. Maximum 3m.4. Why does the importr use apparent in the phrase even for seeming essentials like cars, houses and, clothes (line 41)? Use your own words as far as possible. 1 Lifted Paraphrased Much of the impetus for a. Such needs are (could be) comprehend to be crucial for discretionary spending everyday vitality even though they are not. OR even for seeming essentials like cars, b. Suggests that the author has doubts roughly whether houses, and clothes these objects are crucial. OR OR We major power MISTAKE that c.The author feels that it is wrong to associate bliss with material/luxury goods. motivation for happiness, or for having a better life, nevertheless it is control by something else, a world act MUST include the liking of doubt and the need to compete or to fit explanation. in. Denied sarcasm, cynicism, mockery Accepted doubting/scepticism (on its own), sceptical around this. 12For Internal Circulation Only 5. Explain what the writer means by talking a bout money and happiness in the same breath, it turns out, is not necessarily a surrender to unrefined materialism. (lines 47-48) 2 Lifted Talking about money and happiness in the SAME BREATH, it turns out, is not necessarily a SURRENDER to CRASS materialism Paraphrased a. Connecting / Linking money and happiness OR Talking about / discussing money and happiness to descendher b. is in reality not invariably giving in to OR a long-suffering to OR being a victim of c. a vulgar desire for material goods. OR riotous/shallow desire for luxury goods. 3 points 2 marks 1-2 points 1 mark.Passage 2 6. If you are a single male whimsical some in the Ferrari with nobody next to you, it is a egregious omission. (lines 14-15) a) Why does the writer refer to the Ferrari in line 15? 1 Pt Lift (not possible) Other trophies alone now do not bring the payoff one expects. Says Loewenstein, If you are a single male driving around in the Ferrari with nobody next to you, it is a glaring omissio n. evidence a. A Ferrari is an example of a trophy. b. A Ferrari is a well-known example of a high gearly desired product. c. A Ferrari signifies high status / wealth in society. Any of the above will be authorized.13For Internal Circulation Only b) What does glaring omission (line 15) imply here? Pt Lift (not possible) Other trophies patently do not bring thepayoff one expects. Says Loewenstein, If you are a single male driving around in the Ferrari with nobody next to you, it is a glaring omission. 2Inference Inferred from glaring a. It is strongly believed/popularly accepted that/very obvious Emphasise and highlight are not accepted because the question is not enquire for the writers intention. Inferred from omission, reinforcing stereotypes. b. that driving a Ferrari/luxury sports car will attract wo manpower / ladies / females / companions / partners. extend paraphrase of the quote is not acceptable.117. A life that was constantly happy was not a good life (lines 30-31). Explain why this is a paradox. 2 Pt Lift Part of the means of life is to need highs and lows. A life that was constantly happy was not a good life. Inference Must capture the clash. a. We aim/wish/expect for maximum/optimum happiness in our lives all the time AND any of the following Must capture what good life entails. b. Yet, a good life is one that has ups and downs, not just ups OR c. Yet, a good life is one with adequate/comparable negative experiences, not just positive experiences OR d. Yet, it is not just happiness that is good just the bad (of lows) is also seen to be good The key idea here is to question the value of constant as a good thing. Answers will get either 2 marks or 0 mark.114For Internal Circulation Only8. Summary Using material from paragraphs 2 to 5, summarise what Matthew Herper has to say about why wealth does not bring a constant understanding of joy,why happiness is overrated, and the family between money and happiness. Wealth does not bring a consta nt sense of joy asPt a.Lift Re-phrase Part of the reason is that people are not people do not know how to use their money very good at FIGURING out what to do to get happiness with the money, (lines 6-7) OR Main idea of a lack of knowledge people are inexpert when it comes to understanding how to use money about how to manage money. People generally OVERESTIMATE (line they submit phantasmagorical expectations of the 8) Students must capture the idea that it is off the mark. the amount of long-term PLEASURE they will get from a given object. (lines 89) The way people spend money can make them less happy. (lines 9-10) Other trophies obviously do not bring the (line 14)b.c.d. e.(Enduring) joy / happiness / positive outcomes that they can derive from something/object. The way people spend money can make them less happy. Other possessions also whitethorn not retiref. g.Do not accept prizes / plaques / satisfys PAYOFF one expects. (line 14) the rewards / utility / happiness we hope / wish to have. The primal problem is that the human Next, our brain is given to brain becomes CONDITIONED to pleasant/happy/joyful experiences as positive experiences. (lines 15-16) OR You can get used to anything, be it hanging by your toenails or do millions of dollars a day. (lines 19-20) Getting a puffiness of un anticipate money registers as a good thing, but as time passes, the response WEARS off. (lines 16-18) Mood may be set more by genetic endowment (line 20)h.with time, their effect on us weakens/dies off/subsides.i.Lastly, our happiness level may depend on our genes5For Internal Circulation Only j. k. than by anything else (line 20) But this raises another question. How primary(prenominal) is happiness anyway? (line 23) People with inveterate illnesses describe themselves as happy, but they would salve pay large sums for better health. And although healthy individuals are not lots happier than quadriplegics, they would pay large sums of money to keep the use of t heir limbs. (lines 23-26) Some of lifes most SATISFYING experiences (line 26) do not bring happiness. (line 27) Part of the moment of life is to have highs (line 30) and lows (line 30)A life that was CONSTANTLY happy (line 30) was not a GOOD life. (lines 30-31) more than other factors. OR predominantly / mostly Inferred However, the significance / destiny / crucial nature of happiness is still in doubt. Inferred Even supposedly happy people capture happiness inadequate Inferred as they are willing to pay to ensure certain privileges OR health.l.m.n. o. p. q. r. s.Besides, some of the most pleasant/rewarding experiences do not make us happy. A meaningful life should also have its joyous and sad moments. A life that is always / perpetually happy is not fulfilling.t.u.Do not award for point s in the absence of point r. However, there may be at least one Yet, there remains a significant fall in IMPORTANT relationship between between money and happiness in that money and happiness (lines 31-32) happy people tend to have higher happy people earn more. incomes later on in their lives. (lines 3334) ORSo, while money may not divine service make people happy, being happy may help them make money. (lines 34-35) Total 21 points, 11 words that cannot be lifted Points 14 12 13 10 11 89 7 56 34 12 Marks 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 16For Internal Circulation OnlyWealth does not bring a constant sense of joy as people do not know how to use their money a and have unrealistic expectations b of the enduring joy that they can derive from something c. Other prized possessions e also may not deliver the rewards we wish to have f. Next, our brain is trained to be accustomed to pleasant experiences g as with time, their effect on us subsides h. However, the significance of happiness is still in doubt k. Even supposedly happy people find happiness insufficient l and are willing to pay to ensure their health m. Besides, some of the most gratifying experiences n do not make us happy o. A l ife that is always happy r is also not fulfilling s.Yet, there remains a significant link t between money and happiness happy people earn more u. (16 points, 116 words) expression 9. Give the meaning of the following words as they are used in the passage. You may write your answer in one word or a short phrase. Passage 1 Futility (line 3) noun Philosophers and gurus, consecrate books and self-help manuals have all warned of the futility of equating material gain with true well-being Answer should capture Does not achieve purposeOR lacks meaning Negative connotation Intriguing (line 8) adj The intriguing explanation for the despicable wealth-to-happiness exchange rate is that the problem is not money, it is us. Answer should capture Arousing intense curiosity OR very interesting Intensity 1 mark Hopelessness Uselessness Lack of purpose or meaning Efforts are in vain Accepted Ineffectiveness Meaningless Pointlessness 0 marks Wastage unimportant venture Failure Impro bable Inability Foolishness Ability to arouse intense curiosity intrigue Deeply/very interesting Appeal strongly To captivate very interesting and unexpected Very interesting and surprising Capture interest Arouse curiosity Extremely interesting Thoughtprovoking Interesting recital of intensity is not very apparent Exciting Puzzling Ignorance Surprising Curious Intellectually bear upon7For Internal Circulation Only impetus (line 40) noun Much of the impetus for discretionary spending even for seeming essentials like cars, houses, and clothes comes from a desire to send certain signals about our buying power and our tastes. Answer should capture The idea of a push or drive.Quell (line 45) verb And $5,000 worth of new stuff, or even $500,000 worth, is unlikely to permanently quell that need. Answer should capture Suppressing. 1 mark (Sustained) drive Push need A moving force Impulse Stimulus Boost Accepted Catalyst Thrust spur track Spark Trigger Incen tive 0 marks Impulsive Penchant Impetuous Attack round Reason Subdue Suppress Quiet Satiate / Quench Satisfy Appease Fulfil (incidental / part / whole) Allay Pacify Assuage Vanquish / Defeat wrong context Stop / Halt / furlough Remove Overthrow / Overcome Repress Oppress Extinguish Destroy / Annihilate Kill chase away Diminish Literally Figuratively Approximately the idea of estimation, not accepted Ostensibly Actually effectually BasicallyPassage 2 Virtually (line 1) adverb Surveys have found virtually the same level of happiness between the very rich individuals on the Forbes 400 and the Maasai herdsmen of East Africa. Answer should capture For the most part. closely Practically Almost completely Almost wholly Almost entirely For the most part Just about Almost Effectively Essentially 8For Internal Circulation Only 10. Application Question Drake Bennett talks about how pro-social spending can lead to happiness while Matthew Herper argues that mo ney does not lead to happiness. Which writers views do you find more persuasive? Discuss the relevance of the arguments presented in both passages to you and your own society. 8 Answers that refer to only material from one passage would not be awarded more than 3 marks Explanation/evaluation should not just be a paraphrase of authors opinionsPossible points From Passage 1 Bennett 1 Extract For deep-seated psychological reasons, when it comes to spending money, we tend to value goods over experiences, ourselves over others, things over people. (lines 9-11) Possible explanations Spore context applicable In a society that is economically driven more than anything else, this is not a surprise. This drive, whether marked by early economic migration, post-war rebuilding, separation from Malaysia or simply judicature push, remains sustained, if not stronger. Material success is celebrated and sheer narcissistic usage is formalize by commercial as well as social media.Examples 2011 SMU study Sporean women are significantly more materialistic than their American counterparts. Relevance of 5 C cash, credit card, car, condo, commonwealth club notations despite more than a decade of use not so pertinent There is a rising turn of Sporeans spending on people rather than objects in 2007, Finance Minister Tharman had indicated clear revenue enhancement concessions for charity spending and to focus Singapore as a philanthropy hub. More people, not just the rich, are donating generous sums to their alumni schools, religious charities and other organizations catering tospecific demo art much(prenominal) as the elderly, physically disabled, terminally ill etc.There is also increase in charity through CSR, whether by spheric MNCs or Spore GLCs. Of course, the real intention behind the generosity is debatable but as corporations form a substantial percentage in a small workforce, the evidence is mathematically there that we, the management/employees of company X, Y, Z are altruistic and caring. There is a rising arc of social entrepreneurs opening restaurants to help the less fortunate and former prisoners.9For Internal Circulation Only 2 higher prosocial spending gifts for others and donations to charity was indeed correlated with higher selfreported happiness. (lines 18-20) Relevant well-known philanthropists such as popiah king Sam Goi, Elim Chew of 77th Street, remisier Peter Lim, Chinese Chamber of Commerce ex-president Chua Thian Poh, Mustaq Ahmad of Mustafa Centre etc have gone(p) on record to say so on newspaper interviews. Hong Kong bill posterionaire loves to donate to Singapore, especially for education charity, for the same purported reason.The education system also introduces students to prosocial spending. The persistence of students in doing charitable acts also declare oneselfs happiness and satisfaction obtained. Not so relevant This is not a technical disagreement. While the actual amount on pro-social spending coul d be higher, it is usually by a small group of uber-rich AND older persons. The majority of Singaporeans, especially youth, have gone on record in many academic surveys that high levels of nuanced selfish material consumption is more rewarding than engaging in others welfare.The intense hours and anxiety played out on studying/work necessarily need to see material purchases as a direct reward. Perhaps this material reward can THEN lead to social happiness by the envy/admiration they evoke e.g. for a Prada handbag, for the possession of a prized virtual weapon for a Diablo 3 PC online game character. This could be an causeless consequence of a meritocratic society. Most parents would also largely spend on their children and obtain grand satisfaction. 3 money spent on experiences vacations or theatre tickets or meals out makes you happier than money spent on material goods. (lines 21-23) RelevantPoints to support this willbe relatively difficult based on available Singapore studi es. Typically, Singaporeans vacationing will covet purchases from overseas theatre ticket purchases locally may indicate a need to belong to a certain materially privileged crowd rather than the sheer love of the arts. Nevertheless, any qualified evidence is welcome to support agreement however the hindrance is in establishing the level of happiness obtained. Not so relevant Typical youth world notes that playing World Of Warcraft or getting a new iPhone 4S is far more meaningful middle-aged men and their toy figure collections ladies of all ages on record saying that splurging on themselves, expensive cosmetic preaching more rewarding than anything else refer to any Friday URBAN section of The Straits Times.As mentioned in preferably point, first the money has to be spent on material goods and THEN the experience related or shared can increase your happiness as a corollary. 4 As experiences are inherently more social we are liable also to relive the experience Relevant the rise of alumni associations locally, help by social media, have greatly increased networking heritage and memorabilia gatherings are on the rise with10For Internal Circulation Only when we see those people again. And past experiences can work as a sort of social adhesive even with people who did not participate with us, providing stories and conversational fodder in a way that a new watch or speedboat rarely can 5 (lines 28-32)Talking about money and happiness in the same breath, it turns out, is not necessarily a surrender to crass materialism it can also be a route to a new and more humane way to think about vitally important things like consumption, satisfaction, enthronisation, and value. (lines 47-50) rich persons being key drivers behind these projects. conglomerate hobby groups would also be relevant such as cycling clubs, dragon boating groups or cosplay groups. Not so relevant There are hobby groups based on material goods such as car clubs or clubs for owners of toys. Material goods can also generate a sense of nostalgia.Relevant SMU Board chairman Ho Kwon Ping and wife Claire Chiang regularlypromote pro-social spending and business they are seen as new-age positive materialists and intellectuals. Christina Ong, boss of homegrown Club 21, is known for widespread charity outreach and growing her business, with impact pastime. Not so relevant For the majority of Singaporeans who lack such education or reflective practices, continuant monetary and property acquisition is the norm and only leads to a vicious cycle of debt, miscalculated risk-taking in investment etcFrom Passage 2 1 Extract People generally overestimate the amount of long-term pleasure they will get from a given object. Sometimes, Loewenstein notes, the way people spend their money can actually make them less happy. (lines 8-10) Possible explanations Spore context Relevant Just the consumer electronics industry here can attest to this spending on upgrading of Apple smartphones fro m 3Gs to 4 to 4S disposing of existing LCD for widescreen and 3D monitors, graphics cards in favour of new ones even though all are fully in operation(p) rising number of secondhand computer parts shops is evidence of increasing technology shopping, which ultimately leaves one unhappy and insecure in the face of inability to keep up with the latest.While the tech spending may supposedly be mostly for males, the females display this overestimation of long-term pleasure in full-bodied fashion couture purchases and cosmetics.The increase in level of credit card debt is also an indication of less happiness as a result of overspending. Not to relevant A basic level of income is necessary in Singapore to live a comfortable life. With a median household income of S$6000, anyone earning less would be hard pressed to live comfortably. In wired Singapore, having electronic goods is a necessity and can help attain more happiness in terms of education and interacting with peers. 2 The central problem is that the human brain becomes Relevant Just looking at government financial decisions which affect the majority of the population after a while,11For Internal Circulation Only conditioned to positive experiences. Getting a chunk of unexpected money registers as a good thing, but as time passes, the response wears off. An expected paycheck does not bring any buzz at all and does not contribute to overall happiness. (lines 15-19) Not so relevant Since the Singapore population composition keeps changing with addition of foreigners, for the majority of the new citizens, this buzz is sustained. As Singaporeans also travel more, they might be more aware of societies which are not as fortunate as Singapore.Relevant raising a family is universally seen as rewarding the Government keeps promoting childbearing YET almost the first twenty years of a local child causes much stress for parents working mothers post-maternity leave and the perennial maid/mother/mother-in-law manageme nt young couples griping about child care and choice primary schools until the child is in a choice pri school and moving on to a premier sec sch, the parents put themselves under great duress. There is growing feeling that work-life balance is unthinkable and people are focusing more on their careers.Not so relevant Hard to impel for majority local context but there is evidence that a positive change in attitudes to raising children is present, thanks to religious organizations, pro-family policies, national movements e.g. DadsForLife. There are people who are giving up their careers for the sake of their children. There is also a push for women to return to the workforce after raising their children initially. 4 happy people tend to have higher incomes later on in their lives. So, while money may not help make people happy, being happy may help them make money. (lines 33-35) RelevantThere are professional who have given up their careers to take up their passions such as opening restaurants and bakeries, and they are doing well. There is an increasing number of entrepreneurs who pursue their passions. The main issue here is that happiness is independent of money and they do not have any links. Not so relevant In 2012, Spore ranks high in benchmarks of physical comforts healthiest country in the world, richest country in the world BUT ranks 90th in Happiness Index.Almost the entire local crowd force can be on record for having technically higher incomes through their lives but the court of living never lets up. Singaporeans are not happy or not happy enough but they keep making money anyway. the public becomes numb to the governments welltimed monetary handouts and utility bill/town council fee reductions the public expects more consultative engagement for sustained happiness. Recent feedback from the public seems to suggest that people overlook what is good in Singapore and focus on only the negative in terms of healthcare,transportation, housing, and s tandards of living. Possible reasons could be a lack of sufficient information about life in other societies and countries.3Some of lifes most satisfying experiences do not bring happiness. For instance, having children actually makes people less happy over the short term (lines 26-28)12

Advantages of television Essay Example for Free

Advantages of television examineTelevision is as much a blow up of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural dissociate of daily life. 94 percent of European households accept a television and make TV reckon an integral let on of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while press etc. ) or as scatter of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most wads lives. As such TV publicizing is a powerful communication tool and as much a circumstances of television conceive, as the programmes themselves. Television is as much a leave of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural part of daily life. 94 percent of European households give a television and make TV masking an integral part of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while press etc. ) or as part of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most mints lives. As such TV advert is a powerful communication tool and as much a part of television viewing, as the programmes themselves.Television is as much a part of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural part of daily life. 94 percent of European households avouch a television and make TV viewing an integral part of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while press etc. ) or as part of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most packs lives. As such TV advertising is a powerful communication tool and as much a part of television viewing, as the programmes themselves.Television is as much a part of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural part of daily life. 94 percent of European households own a television and make TV viewing an integral pa rt of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while ironing etc. ) or as part of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most peoples lives. As such TV advertising is a powerful communication tool and as much a part of television viewing, as the programmes themselves.Television is as much a part of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural part of daily life. 94 percent of European households own a television and make TV viewing an integral part of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while ironing etc. ) or as part of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most peoples lives. As such TV advertising is a powerful communication tool and as much a part of television viewing, as the programmes themselves.Television is as much a part of everyday life as eating and drinking. It is in fact a very natural part of daily life. 94 percent of European households own a television and make TV viewing an integral part of their day (*). Whether it is together with friends and family, in between and parallel to other activities (while cooking, while ironing etc. ) or as part of a moment alone while relaxing, TV plays a central role in most peoples lives. As such TV advertising is a powerful communication tool and as much a part of television viewing, as the programmes themselves.

Monday, April 15, 2019

The Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 Essay Example for Free

The b every last(predicate)-shaped Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 EssayEconomists and scholars spend years dissecting financial markets and evaluating the causes of booms and busts. Throughout United States history there get down been multiple economic booms that were underestimated and followed by recessions. In the situation of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis many culprits have been set as causes, such as loose monetary policy, credit booms, de polity, over complexity, and greed. Since the economic boom was only if dependent on weak policies and misconceptions, this leads me to believe prevention was possible with adequate regulatory policy, risk judicial decision and clarifications for technical banks. Monetary PolicyThe Federal Reserve uses monetary policy to control the supply of currency in edict to determine interest pass judgment and manipulate currency values. Markets commonly favor level interest rates because people are able to pay less for capital. When the capital costs decline, banks and early(a) entities are able to build up leverage for financing activities. When banks become highly leveraged they begin to comeback on more credit and liquidity risks without providing addition collateral. This is sometimes in reckless proportions that drive foundation garment into possible closure and the need for bailouts (Investopedia, 2012). At the turn of the century during the infamous dot-com bubble, the telephone line market was flooded with new investors trying to take part in the newest financial craze. These investments were overestimated and premature, and as the gestate market crashed high interest rates nearly cripp direct the economy.The Federal Reserve reacted by impenetrable the interest rates in order to stabilize the economy and aid in its recovery. In response, consumers, bankers and former(a) investors took advantage of the cheaper borrowing costs and flooded the economy with capital (businessinsider, 2012). Aside from the United States, many countries economies behaved also and the global economy prospered. Cross-country borrowing and investing began to increase relative to the flow of capital. Historically cross country capital exchanges happen at disproportionate levels and create global financial imbalances amongst countries (IMF, 2012). At this point internal economies begin to blend and become globally dependent, increasing their vulnerability and sensitivity to market fluctuations.Housing rippleAt the start of the century the U.S. economy experienced a credit boom that was underestimated on regulatory, institutional and consumer levels. Low interest rates attracted consumers and increased the demand for asset acquisition. Real estate and other(a) salable assets increased in value (dailybeast, 2012). Traditionally investment bankers invested in Treasury bonds, but interest rates were so low the yields were not worth the investment. At this time there were drastic increases in root own ership and a booming market for mortgages. Investment bankers began to purchase individual mortgages as a room to acquire more debt leveraging to continue financing more mortgage purchases. These mortgages were grouped together with other comparable mortgages then they were reformed, rated and packaged as a marketable product know as a collateralized debt obligation (CDO). The CDOs had different levels of risk and outputs based on the estimations of heedlessness probability (NY times, 2012).To insure their investments, investors also purchased first derivative instruments known as credit default patronages (CDS). Credit defaults swaps are known as insurance policy contracts that treasure the investors investments by gambling on whether a company or family unitowner will default on debt obligations. The CDO and CDS markets were not new concepts, but had never experienced this level of investing in foregoing periods. In the past consumers generally purchased a CDS to go along with their bond or CDO investment. Since the CDS markets were facing hulking potential returns, external investors began to flood the market without having any principal ties. As these markets began to take hold, there was a realization of finite number of qualified homeowners (Wikipedia, 2012).Generally homeowners were required to meet certain qualifications in order to borrow funds for mortgages, also known as point mortgages. Since the prime mortgage market had receded, lenders were boost to lower their requirements for lending and began to allow subprime mortgages. These less responsible homeowners began to default on their mortgages, which turned investment bankers blow of mortgage payments into empty houses. Increases in foreclosures raise the supply of available houses, which lowers the fair market values of houses. The prime mortgage homeowners were left with houses that were highly devalued relative to their mortgages and began to abandon their mortgage obligations. Mo rtgage lenders, investment bankers, and impertinent investors froze their activities, as they faced possible bankruptcy.Regulatory/Supervisory InadequaciesDeregulation is believed to be the underlying cause of all economic downturns, as its scope of responsibility reaches all markets. In the 1930s the United States experienced a bank crisis that sparked a widespread distrust in the banking system and people withdrew their money from the depository institutions overnight. The jerky retraction of the money supply from the economy caused many banks to close and the economy to suffer. The Banking Act of 1933, also known as the Glass-Steagall Act, was created to insure depositors savings and restore confidence through the limitation of bank security activities and the affiliations among commercial banks and securities firms(Wikipedia,2012). The Glass-Steagall Act was successful for many years, but grew to be disliked by the banking community. In the 1980s-90s the foundation experienc ed economic booms and recessions that fueled the banks preoccupation with regulation.The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act was enacted in 1999, this removed barriers in the market among banking companies, securities companies and insurance companies that prohibited any one institution from acting as a combination of an investment bank, commercial bank, and an insurance company(Wikipedia, 2012). This act repealed part of the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 and allowed banks to function with limited regulation. During the House of Representatives debate, Rep. John Dingell argued that the bill would take in banks becoming too big to fail, which will result in a bailout by the Federal government.In light of the most recent economic boom, investors demanded greater return yields from their investments. This search led many people and entities to invest in unregulated securities markets. In some securities markets there were no regulations available, because the securities were to a fault complex and d ependent on the recently deregulated banking industry. Some examples of unregulated securities are credit default swap derivatives, collateralized debt obligations and predatory lending connected were tied to the housing bubble. This era of financial engineering and limited regulation could be the main cause for our financial crisis and its following recession.The financial crisis cost Americans trillions in investment losses, home equity declines, unemployment increases and lost wages. The broad spectrum of the global financial system is complex and involves almost everyone. It is difficult to confiscate the causes of the financial crisis to a short list, but many economists and scholars commonly agree and a select some major contributors to the crisis. Whether it be deregulation, loose monetary policy, or global financial imbalances the economy must return to some state of normalcy. In response to any mistake all participants should learn from the crisis and attempt to discipli ne a plan for prevention and sustainability.References* http//news.investors.com/ibd-editorials-on-the-right/103012-631374-financial-crisis-was-caused-by-bad-policies.htmixzz2DLcCmbVd * http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gramm-Leach-Bliley_Act* http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_crisis_of_2007%E2%80%932008 * http//www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2012/fincrises/pdf/ch6.pdf * http//www.imf.org/external/np/res/seminars/2010/ capital of France/pdf/obstfeld.pdf * http//www.investopedia.com/terms/m/monetarypolicy.asp* http//topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/c/collateralized-debt-obligations/index.html * http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_default_swap* http//www.businessinsider.com/the-consequences-of-easy-monetary-policy-2012-9 * http//www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/09/06/the-clinton-recession.html * http//thinkprogress.org/economy/2012/09/13/846281/financial-crisis-lost-trillions/?mobile=nc

Sunday, April 14, 2019

On the black hill family and identity Essay Example for Free

On the unappeasable hill family and individualism EssayThe fact that they remained bachelors, despite Lewis desperate longing for a woman in his feeling, is overly the work of Mary, who, knowing that Benjamin will neer want to marry, made Lewis promise never to marry unless Benjamin did too. Lewis is identified by his love of aviation and longing for adventure, but he is trussed d receive by family obligations. He is aware that his life would be different if not for the inescapable dumbfound binding him to Benjamin, stating Sometimes, I lie awake and wonder whatd happen if him werent thereThen Id have had my own life, like? Had kids? Ironically, it is his family that sets him free in the end and satisfies his desire for an heir and an adventure. This comes in the form of Kevin Redpath, the twins long lost nephew, who comes back to inherit the farm and in like manner give Lewis an opportunity to do what he had ever desired, to fly an aeroplane. These ten magnificent m inutes completes the missing part of Lewis identity, and all the frustrations of his cramped and frugal life now counted for nothing.No opposite family is described in such detail as the Joneses, but their neighbours, the Watkinses from The oscillate also shows how a family-style group affects the identities of the individuals in the family. The Watkins family is a rather complicated family, for Tom and Aggie Watkins open fire not have kids of their own and thence resort to adoption. The Watkinses show that despite having no biological ties, the family environment sewer also affect the characters and lives of individuals.The Watkins family is a typical poor low-class Welsh family, and the adopted children consist of Jim, Ethel, Sarah, Lizzie and Brennie hence turn out to be uneducated children, If anyone said, He was raised at The Rock , or She was reared at The Rock, you knew for sure the child was illegitimate or loony. This shows that the family environment plays a big part in who they are, and how other people view them. In the end, Sarah, Lizzie and Brennie all marry off and escape from The Rock.Lizzie pretended The Rock did not exist, and while Sarah still kept an eye on The Rock, her one great fear was of lapsing into poverty, distinctly a fear born out of her experience of childhood poverty. Lizzie and Sarah are examples of the opposite way which family commode affect children instead of falling into the conventionalitys of the family themselves, the children choose to escape and fear these patterns. This opposing respond to family pattern is also evident in David Maloufs Fly Away Peter, where Jim Saddler fears of inheriting his fathers savagery and tries to keep it at arms length.On the other hand, Jims biological children seem to inherit his traits. For example, Ethels son Alfie was identified as Jims son for the lad had Jims carroty hair and cauliflower ears. Alfie also grew up simple, the result of inheriting the combination of both Jim an d Ethels mental disabilities. As the novel progresses, Jim has another child, this time Mrs. Muskers. His daughter Meg is even more like him she grows up to share his love for animals, mistrust of outsiders. She even speaks like him, and clings to The Rock with fierce determination and optimism.Like the twins, Megs identity is molded greatly by her parent, and she continues his way of life even after his death. The Bickerton family is one of the more minor families in On the dark Hill. A high-class English family, the Bickertons owned the Lurkenhope estate and hence was possibly the around powerful family in the village. In contrast to the Watkinses, the family environment of the Bickertons is wealthy, refined, and educated, and hence the children of Colonel and Mrs. Bickerton, Reggie, Nancy and Isobel, are naturally identified as figures of the higher class.As a result, Reggie grows up to be an arrogant and overly-confident one-year-old man and went to war with a head full of c hilvaric notions of duty to caste and country. These chilvaric notions are most likely the influence of Colonel Bickerton, who has been persuading all young men to fight for their country. flat after coming home crippled, he made light of his injuries with upper class stoicism and his high-handed treatment of Rosie Fifield shows that his arrogance hasnt changed.On the other hand, his sister Nancy Bickerton shows traits of Mrs. Bickertons like the way her find seeks companionship in Mary, Nancy is bored by the gentry and finds great pleasure in the twins visits. Even the way she offers tea to the twin reflects her mothers China or Indian? Nancy is hence another example of an identity shaped by her parent and upbringing. Thus the identity-shaping forces of family are quite evident in the families of On the Black Hill.These are clearly portrayed through the characters of the Joneses twins Lewis and Benjamin, whose identities and lives are clearly shaped by their sanctify of birth, their roles in the farm and the house, the traits they inherit from their parents, their upbringing, as well as their bond to each other. Their way of spiritedness even after the death of Amos and Mary reveal how the impact of these family dynamics can last forever, also portrayed through the way Meg or Nancy each inherit their parents traits and behaviours.On the other hand, these impacts can also have an opposite effect, as shown by Lizzie and Sarah in the way they try to fight against the Watkinses family pattern of poverty-stricken lives by leaving The Rock. Through On the Black Hill, Chatwin patently demonstrates the relationship between ones identity and family, reinforcing the notion that our families make us who we are today. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.

Friday, April 12, 2019

The Legality Of Euthanasia In Today’s Society Essay Example for Free

The Legality Of euthanasia In Todays Society Es gradeIntroductionThis work focuses on the legality of euthanasia in todays high society. In the sequel various case secures have been discussed. In several(prenominal)(prenominal) countries terminally crazy affect cases are clamouring for euthanasia in array to put a invert to their torment. in that appraise is however a great difficulty involved in find singleselfing close. The pay backs and the courts are not pickings cognizance of tolerants pass alongs for euthanasia, muchover are deciding on their own as to which patient should be knock downed and when such(prenominal)(prenominal) a patient should be killed. This finish is generally by pith of withdrawing sustenance support systems.There have been several demands for legalizing voluntary euthanasia and physician assisted felo-de-se. Such demands have occurred all all over the world. However, the European woo of Justice decided in the year 2002, that no EU Citizen had the right to die. too, the US unconditional Court opined that no US Citizen had the right to die. This has resulted in individual countries having to deal with this problem on their own and a certain measure of acceptance is evident in the Netherlands, Japan, Oregon and Columbia.In general, dickens arguments are put forward in support of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide, namely, the mitigation of the in growable offend and discomfort caused by terminal illness and to enhance individual freedom. These twain f promoters are interpreted into consideration by the government in order to legalize euthanasia, for example, in the Netherlands, where suffering has to be att hold backed by a recurring request for mercy killing.Euthanasia is the touch on of drawing about an aristocratic death. It refers to acts, which terminate or shorten life painlessly in order to end suffering where at that place is no prospect of a cure. There are only two choices avail able to patients with fatal illness, both a slow death involving unrelieved suffering or euthanasia.Terminally ill patients suffer from picture or a false sense of unimportance, which tends to affect their judgment. Their decision-making may to a fault be influenced by amazement or dementia, which could be lessened with equal treatment. It is very important to remember that, patients who on admission say let me die usually after effective relief from symptoms are most grateful that their request was not acceded to. Terminally ill patients are also adjustable to a high train of hinderance as they value what little quality of life they have left.The legal position in respect of selective non-treatment was dealt with by the family of master copys in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland1, in which the applicant, a health pledge sought an order to withdraw life-sustaining treatment and provide medical checkup treatment that would enable a peaceful and dignified death with the minimum of pain. The family of the patient supported this application.The respondent, 21-year-old Anthony Bland, had been in a persistently vegetal state for more than three old age and though not whiz dead, he had no cognitive function. The unanimous judgment of all the atomic number 101s who examined him was that in that location was no hope of a cure. Under these hatful, it was thought suitable to stop further treatment. The judge granted this order, which was confirmed by both the Court of Appeals and the reside of Lords. The last mentioned held that a doctor, who has to awe for a patient who is unable to indicate his willingness to be treated, need not consort the patients life regardless of the quality thereof.In F v West Berkshire wellness Authority2 the Court held that medical treatment and artificial feeding, could be discontinued if the patients outperform interests were served. To determine what course of action would further the best interests of the patient, the court us ed the test laid down in Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee3, which involve the acquiescence of a large, informed and responsible group of medical practitioners. As the termination of life-supporting treatment in this case was in accordance with the criteria find out in a discussion paper by the British Medical Association4, these criteria were a) Rehabilitative efforts for at least 6 months after the injury b) the diagnosis of permanent PVS should only be considered confirmed after 12 months c) the diagnosis should be confirmed by two other independent doctors d) the wishes of the family should be respected5.The court demonstrate that there had been compliance with the Bolam requirement. In this case Lord Mustill highlighted the need for legislation relating to euthanasia stating that, The whole matter cries out for exploration in depth by Parliament and then for the establishment by legislation not only of a new fate of ethically and intellectually consistent rules, distinct from the general criminal honor, only if also of a last procedural framework within which the rules can be applied to individual cases6.In R (Pretty) v. coach of humanity Prosecutions7, Lord Steyn restated that change of the law on assisted suicide should be carried out by the legislature rather than by judges. Case law demonstrates the paradox that results from the current law. As Dame Butler-Sloss P. stress in B v An NHS Hospital Trust8, a competent patient may refuse whatsoever form of medical treatment, even life-prolonging medical treatment, for whatever reason. B was able to insist that the ventilator, which kept her alive, was to be disconnected.Nevertheless, Diane Pretty who was able to induct a competent and autonomous choice about the timing and direction of her death, was unable to put by dint of this decision due to a ban on assisted suicide and accordingly died in a way that she had tried to avoid. Moreover, Bland, was unable to make any choice, th erefore his existence was held to disengage the withdrawal of artificial feeding resulting in his death.In Re J (a minor)9 J, an infant had serious brain damage and large areas of his brain were filled with fluid instead of tissue. This resulted in convulsions and stoppage of breathing. He had been rigid on a ventilator twice and it was certain that he would develop spastic quadriplegia. Speech would be denied to him for ever and his life span was considered to be very short. In respect of his being cerebrateed to a ventilator in the future, two medical practitioners certified that it would not be in Js interest to be ventilated again.Accordingly, the court issued an order in agreement with these medical experts. An argument was raised against this court order, provided the Court of Appeal rejected it and observed that the court could not issue a life-ending order unless it was perfectly certain that the quality of the childs subsequent life would be intolerable to the child an d demonstrably so frightful that in effect the child must be condemned to die.Both AVE or active voluntary euthanasia and PAS or physician assisted suicide do experience place. The assisted Dying for the Terminally threatening Bill10, which allows doctors to resort to AVE under strictly limited circumstances, was recently introduced in the dramaturgy of Lords. The extant Case law confirms that the best interest model of decision-making is concerned not only with the physical intimately-being of the patient, simply also the psychological, moral, ethical and social interests.By implication, the non transparent nature of the best interests test implies that it is vulnerable to exploitation. First, there is a danger that the values of the decision-maker may prevail over those of the patient leading to paternalistic decisions. Second, references to the wider interests of the patient could bring about a masked development of third party interests. Moreover, this approach opposes t he spirit of the Mental subject matter bear 200511, which emphasizes the promotion of self-determination for adults who lack capacity. It permits anticipatory treatment decisions to be made before the patient set abouts incapacitated and it allows proxy decision-makers to decide on behalf of incapacitated patients.Causing a patients death by doer of a lethal injection differs from causing the death of a patient by refusing to provide treatment. The resembling line of pro-euthanasia argument is also constructed through a confusion of means and ends. This argument states that when death is the fateful outlet, the means used to achieve such death, whether by withdrawing life support systems or by administering a lethal injection, are morally irrelevant and should therefore be legally irrelevant12.This argument is unacceptable and the means that bring abut a persons death should necessarily matter not only morally but also legally. It is congenital to understand that the issue i s not one of dying but rather of how a person dies. The moral intuition of any person states that there are essential differences mingled with letting nature take its course, which also includes the withdrawal of life-support systems and treatment, and the outright killing of a dying person.Advocates of euthanasia contend that that the agency in which a person dies should be a backstage matter, whereas those who are opposed to legalizing euthanasia state that such arguments are fallacious. These opponents of euthanasia strongly subscribe to the catch up with that every persons death necessarily involves others, including healthcare professionals and that it also includes values of society and symbols. Furthermore, wherever euthanasia takes place, the manner in which death occurs will not be restricted to the patients self-determination and in-person beliefs because of the fact that euthanasia is an act that requires two commonwealth to make it workable and a complicit society to make it acceptable13.The very concept of legalization of physician assisted death has been subjected to a great deal of consult with regard to its benefits and disadvantages. These debates had been totally based on theory and hypothesis. In this context in the year 1977, the Supreme Court of the USA addressed this subject and stated that perhaps we should wait on the question of legalization until we know more. 14In the written evidence submitted by professor Margaret, she stated that at present there was fiver years of empirical knowledge in respect of the effects that the legalization of euthanasia had produced in the state of Oregon. Furthermore, there was available an even more detailed amount of empirical data from the Netherlands covering a cardinal year period in respect of euthanasia.She contended that these data sets clearly support the claim that the legal process can be chairled effectively, with the result that pervert of euthanasia does not occur and if at all it does take place, such instances are very infrequent. In the state of Oregon no incident of substantive abuse of euthanasia had been reported and the incidents reported in the Netherlands are practically none. The Legislation in respect of euthanasia is closely related to essential and crucial enhancements in palliative and hospice care15.The act of committing suicide has been considered to be possible only for a person endowed with a considerable amount of courage, but the relevant scientific literature considers such an act to be the act of a mentally imbalanced person. Moreover, it considers suicide to be an act of self destruction by a person who lacks lucid thinking and who is a lunatic. Similarly patients who request physician assisted death are usually those who have been suffering from either blunt depression or psychological imbalances16.The Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill was introduced in order to legalize, in respect of community who are terminally ill, w ho are mentally capable and whose suffering is unbearable, medically assisted death or, in instances where the patients are physically incapable of carrying out the concluding deed that would end their life, voluntary euthanasia in order to end their life. A scrutiny was made of the principle on which the Bill was to be based as well as the practical outcome of the report if it were to become law.Subsequently the experiences of countries that had formulated legislation to permit euthanasia were examined in depth and then an analysis was performed in respect of public opinion in the United res publica with regard to euthanasia.The principle of personal shore leave constitutes the basis for this Bill. The supporters of this bill strongly contend that people who are terminally ill should be assumption the right, conditioned by appropriate safeguards, to obtain medical assistance in order to die in the same manner that patients, whether terminally ill or otherwise, are permitted by right to decline life-prolonging treatment. However, opponents of this bill are of the opinion that these two situations cannot be compared and that ensuring safeguards would not be feasible and that intentional killing, regardless of the reason, should not be permitted. These opponents strongly resist any change to the law in this context17.Further, their Lordships held that at the practical level there were opposing views regarding the possible effects of the Bill in providing protagonist to some people or in causing harm to others. In this matter the General Medical Council communicated to their Lordships that a change in the law to allow physician-assisted dying would have profound implications for the role and responsibilities of doctors and their relationships with patients18.This bill grants immunity to medical round members, who comply with its terms, from prosecution for breach of professional oath or affirmation. Moreover this bill makes it possible for the terminally-il l patients to obtain such pain-relief as they require in order to alleviate the symptoms of their illness19. Unfortunately, this bill was defeated in the menage of Lords20.Several examples can be cited of persons who have pleaded for euthanasia to be permitted in respect of their near and unspoilt ones. One such instance is that of Bill Starr, whose wife Maureen Anne was suffering from Kirkby Alzheimers disease. Bill wanted his wife to be put out of her misery by resorting to euthanasia. This was due to the fact that his wife Maureen-Anne had drastically worsen in her health, which was a cause of anguish for both of them. Bill wanted his wife to die with dignity. He also stated that If this was an animal you would be able to put it out of its misery and the same should apply to humans. Her brain is shrinking and it is just downhill all the way from now. There needs to be a change in the law to allow euthanasia to go ahead for all those who need it21.Madeleine Zeffa Bivers son as ked the court to prosecute those who had helped her to commit suicide in Spain. Madeleine had written to the El Pais newspaper in which she expressed her desire to die with dignity. She stated that Please give me a glass of water, wine or whiskeyI want to die with my head held highThis is not a crime. It is not a murder.Despite assisting suicide being a crime in Spain, The Right to a Dignified oddment group asked some of its members to be present while she died and contended that there was nothing criminal about go moral support to someone who wished to kill themselves22.Eighty percent of the people in the United Kingdom are of the opinion that the law should respect the wishes of terminally ill patients in pain and permit a doctor to end their life. In the UK it has been observed that under certain circumstances, euthanasia is acceptable to the public. This has been the finding of the British hearty Attitudes Survey.Research conducted for the survey indicates that backing for vo luntary euthanasia depends strongly on whether someone is terminally ill, on levels of suffering and on how death occurs. There is much greater support for a doctor being permitted to end someones life rather than a relative doing so, or for suicide assisted by a doctor.However, public support for euthanasia is lacking or is negligible in cases where an individual does not face death as a result of their condition. This survey was conducted after the previous years attempt to change the law failed.The conclusion reached by the Survey was that The disjuncture betwixt the current law on assisted dying and majority public opinion thus seems unlikely to simply disappear. draw to mount further attempts to change the law in some ways at least looks set to continue23.When a physician induces easy death to terminally ill patients by administering lethal drugs, then such a process is known as Euthanasia. Physician assisted suicide takes place when a doctor intentionally helps a person to c ommit suicide by providing such a patient with drugs for self-administration, at that persons voluntary and competent request.This act puts an end to or shortens the life span of patients who suffer from incurable diseases. Patients with terminal illness can either undergo a slow and ghastly death with unbearably sufferings or they can die with dignity and without pain by resorting to euthanasia. It becomes a permissible pickax when comfort care ceases to be effective for the terminally or incurably ill24.The term comfort care refers to palliative and supportive treatment used in hospice programs and elsewhere. This comfort care has to be made the measuring medical treatment for patients who have rejected therapeutic or life-sustaining treatment or who are suffering from a terminal illness. Comfort care relieves symptoms, improves the quality and meaning of the patients stay life and eases the process of dying. Physician assisted death becomes a legitimate option only as a treatme nt of last resort and after customary procedures for comfort care have been found substandard by competent patients in the context of their own situation and values25.In the cases of Vacco v scape and Washington v Glucksberg, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the constitution had not granted any right to physician-assisted suicide its decision clearly approved the use of intensive palliative care and seemed to permit experiment at the state level so that this earnest and profound debate could continue26.The injury suffered by actor Christopher Reeve27 and his response to his condition has been the subject of numerous news stories. The public sees a man who previously enjoyed a physically active lifestyle, but who now relies on a respirator to breathe, and on other people to provide for his every physical need. twist Hansen28 and Teny Fox29 are examples of people who have not only contributed to the society in significant ways, but who have also captured the imagination of the publ ic in their courageous journeys to help others suffering from spinal cord injuries and cancer respectively.The actions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian30, a doctor dedicated to aiding the terminally ill in their chase for death, repeatedly places this issue about the value of life before the public and the courts in the United States.Flach31 defines mental health in terms of resilience. He proposes that when we experience disturbance in our lives, it is through resilience that we are able to move through our experiences in good mental health. He argues that it is how well we are able to integrate each new experience and circumstance into our lives that leads to successful adaptation throughout our lives.In her book, Resilient Adults Overcoming a Cruel Past, Gina O Connell Higgins32 examines the lives of forty individuals who have suffered cruelty and abuse in their childhood, but who have led purposeful, successful adult lives. O Connell Higgins identifies attachment to a parental successor a s an important factor in the development of self-esteem in the subjects she studies.Research on resilience had shown that resilience is significant in the lives of many individuals suffering extreme trauma from abuse and other circumstances it will also contribute to the well being of an individual facing physical pain or disability. Certain other behaviors and attitudes also contribute to compulsive adjustment to chronic pain. Kelly and Clifford33 studied the impact of tale group therapy on subjects with the chronic pain of Fibromyalgia. They found that this therapy allowed the subjects the opportunity to re-examine and restory sic their lives, to not get stuck in repeating the story of helplessness, and to harness their own resources (p. 276).It is an established fact that people are able to judge the possible threat in the event of any crisis and they can balance their ability to cope with the crisis or event based on their analysis of the amount of threat involved34. At this juncture, a relationship between coping up with helplessness and increase in the degree of disability in chronic pain patients was found by Lenhart and Ashby35.Byrant36 has propounded a four-factor model of perceived control that avoids negative events, tackles negative events, strives to achiever positive outcomes and values positive events. His theory is that not only the terrible illness or disability but also the patients perception of their ability to cope that has great importance.Other forms of interventions have been found helpful for people coping with diseases including cancer. Researchers reported that Interpersonal Therapy techniques focusing on interpersonal relationships, role transitions, and grief reactions were beneficial for such patients37.Julia Faucett38 studied the effects of chronic pain on social supports, family relationships and incidences of depression. Her study showed that the negative response of family and friends to the patients pain significantly cont ributed to depression. Although euthanasia proponents argue that pain validates the right for Physician-assisted suicide, research suggests that the link between the desire for suicide and pain is much more complicated than a one to one correlation. This link between depression and suicidal ideation is commonly found in cancer patients39.It not chronic pain, in isolation, that leads to a desire for Physician Assisted Suicide. This process is determined by social, familial and personal issues and several studies have revealed that the measurement tools intended to determine the symptoms for cancer patients, and their entire family, should be so developed as to help caregivers to attend to the needs of cancer patients and their families during the course of the illness40.Fife41 found that the meaning individuals give to having cancer affected how they dealt with the disease in their lives. She found that the more social support patients perceived they have had from family, fiends, and medical professionals the more positive meanings the patients had regarding the impact of the illness on their lives.In Aronsons study of quality of life in persons with septuple sclerosis and their caregivers, she concludes that Determining those elements that have an impact upon an individuals quality of life may help inform decision-making in the planning of interventions, treatments, and services aimed at enhancing quality of life42.ConclusionPhysician assisted death is a one time process and it should be made available to the patients suffering from terminal illnesses to reduce their suffering and permit them to exercise their rights to self-determination. Chances of indiscriminate usage of this device are high. To encounter this problem a proper and meticulously designed mechanism has to be implemented to avoid abuse of this provision. It is therefore essential to legalize physician-assisted death, but with sufficient protections to shield susceptible patients43.Societal opi nion regarding the morality of suicide has been ambiguous since historical times. In the early Roman and Greek civilizations, suicide was of frequent occurrence. With the development of Christianity, suicide was deemed to be a sin. However, in other cultures, suicide was accorded the status of honourable death. Hara-kiri was a private ceremonial form of suicide resorted to by the Japanese in order to safeguard their honour. In the Netherlands, physician assisted suicide is permitted by law. In the Netherlands legislation was passed in 1993, which exempted physicians from prosecution if they had assisted in suicide, provided they had adhered to the procedures prescribed by the law44.BibliographyAlter, C.L., Fleishman, S.B., Kornblith, A.B., Holland, J.C., Biano, D., Levenson, R., Vinciguerra, V., Rai, K.R. (1996). Supportive environ intervention for patients receiving chemotherapy. Psychosomatics, 37, 425-431.Aronson, Kristan J. (1997). Quality of life among persons with multiple s clerosis and their caregivers. Neurology, 48, 74-80.Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Act 2005. parliamentary copyright planetary house of Lords 2005. HL Bill 3654/1.Airedale NHS Trust v Bland. (1993) 1 alone ER 821 (CA).Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) 2 ALL ER 118 (1957) 1 ELR 582.Burt RA. 1997, The Supreme Court speaks-not assisted suicide but a constitutional right to palliative care. N Engl J Med. 337 1234-6.B v An NHS Hospital Trust (2002) 2 All ER 449.Byrant, Fred B. (1989). A four-factor model of perceived control avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring. diary of Personality, 57, 773-797.Callahan D. When self-determination runs amok. Hastings Center wrap up 1992 22(2) 52-55.Davey, G.C.L. (1993). A comparison of three cognitive appraisal strategies the role of threat devaluation in problem-focused coping. Personality and mortal Differences. 14, 535-546.Faucett, Julia A. (1994). mental picture in painful chronic disorders the role of pain and con flict about pain. diary of Pain and token Management, 520-526.Fife, Betsy L. (1995). The measurement of meaning in illness. mixer Science Medicine, 40, 1021-1028.Flach, Frederic. (1988) Resilience Discovering a parvenue Strength at Times of Stress. late York, New York, New York Fawcett Columbine.F v West Berkshire Health Authority. (1989) 2 ALL ER 545 (1990) 2 AC 1.Hansen, plough Taylor, Jim. (1987). Rick Hansen Man in Motion. Vancouver Douglas McIntyre.House of Lords Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill HL tidy sum I promulgate Ordered to be printed 3 March 2005 and published 4 April 2005 Published by the Authority of the House of LordsHusbands euthanasia plea. January 4, 2007. Ashfield Observer. 2007 Johnston Publishing Limited. Document ASHFOB0020070105e31400004. Retrieved from http//global.factiva.com/ha/default.aspxKelly, Patricia and Clifford, Patrick. (1997). Coping with chronic pain assessing memoir approaches. Social Work, 42, 266-277.Kiser, Jerry D. Janua ry 1996. Counselors and the Legalization of Physician Assisted Suicide. Counseling and Values. v 40. n2 ISSN 01607960. p. 127-31.Lenhart, R.S., and Ashby, J.S. (1996). Cognitive coping strategies and coping modes in relation to chronic pain disability. Journal of Applied reformation counseling. 27, 15-18.Massie, M.J., Gagnon, P., Holland, J. (1994). Depression and suicide in patients with cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 9, 325-340.Mental Capacity Act 2005, ISBN 0105409057.O Connell Higgins, Gina. (1994). Resilient Adults Overcoming a Cruel Past. San Francisco Ca Jossey-Bass Publishers.Pfeifer, J.E., Brigham, J.C. Robinson, T. (1996). Euthanasia on trial examining public attitudes toward nonphysician-assisted death. Journal of Social Issues, 52, 119-129.Quill TE, 1993. destruction and dignity. New York W.W. Norton.R (Pretty) v. Director of Public Prosecutions (2002) UKHRR 97, (2002) 35 EHRR 1, (2002) 2 FLR 45.Re J (a minor) (1990) 3 ALL ER 930.Reeve, Christopher. (1998). Still Me. New York Random House Publishing.Regulating Physician-Assisted Death, 1994, retrieved 25 January 2007 from https//content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/331/2/119.Scrivener, Leslie. (1981). Terry Fox His Story. Toronto McClelland Stewart.The Assisted Dying for Terminally Ill Bill 2005. The National Council for Palliative Care. Retrieved from http//www.ncpc.org.uk/ morals/assisted_dying.htmlTremlett, Giles. Euthanasia row The colourful life and controversial death of Jacques Brels muse Judge investigates sons claim Madeleine was helped to kill herself. January 19, 2007. Madrid. The Guardian copyright 2007.Vachon, Mary, Kristjanson, Linda, Higginson, Irene (1995). Psychosocial issues in palliative care the patient, the family, and the process and outcome of care. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 10, 142-150.Ward, Lucy and Carvel, John. Euthanasia Four out of five want to give doctors right to end life of terminally ill patients in pain. January 4, 2007. The Gu ardian Copyright 2007.Written establish, Memorandum by Professor Margaret Battin of Utah University, USA, House of Lords, Select Committee on the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill, spate III certify Individual Submissions.1 Airedale NHS Trust v Bland. (1993) 1 ALL ER 821 (CA).2 F v West Berkshire Health Authority. (1989) 2 ALL ER 545 (1990) 2 AC 1.3Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) 2 ALL ER 118 (1957) 1 ELR 582.4 British Medical Association Treatment of Patients in persistent Vegitative State.5 ibidem6Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) 2 ALL ER 118 (1957) 1 ELR 582.7R (Pretty) v. Director of Public Prosecutions (2002) UKHRR 97, (2002) 35 EHRR 1, (2002) 2 FLR 45.8 B v An NHS Hospital Trust (2002) 2 All ER 449.9 Re J (a minor) (1990) 3 ALL ER 930.10 Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Act 2005. Parliamentary copyright House of Lords 2005. HL Bill 36 54/1.11 Mental Capacity Act 2005, ISBN 0105409057.12 Callahan D. When self-determinat ion runs amok. Hastings Center Report 1992 22(2) 52-55.13 Ibid.14 Written Evidence, Memorandum by Professor Margaret Battin of Utah University, USA, House of Lords, Select Committee on the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill, Volume III Evidence Individual Submissions.15 Ibid.16 Written Evidence, Memorandum by Professor Margaret Battin of Utah University, USA, House of Lords, Select Committee on the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill, Volume III Evidence Individual Submissions.17 House of Lords Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill HL Volume I Report Ordered to be printed 3 March 2005 and published 4 April 2005 Published by the Authority of the House of Lords London 18 House of Lords Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill HL Volume I Report Ordered to be printed 3 March 2005 and published 4 April 2005 Published by the Authority of the House of Lords London 19 Ibid.20 The Assisted Dying for Terminally Ill Bill 2005. The National Council for Palliative Care. Retrieved from http//www.ncpc.org.uk/ethical motive/assisted_dying.html21 Husbands euthanasia plea. January 4, 2007. Ashfield Observer. 2007 Johnston Publishing Limited.Document ASHFOB0020070105e31400004. Retrieved from http//global.factiva.com/ha/default.aspx22 Tremlett, Giles. Euthanasia row The colourful life and controversial death of Jacques Brels muse Judge investigates sons claim Madeleine was helped to kill herself. January 19, 2007. Madrid. The Guardian P. 23. Copyright 2007. The Guardian.23 Ward, Lucy and Carvel, John. Euthanasia Four out of five want to give doctors right to end life of terminally ill patients in pain. January 4, 2007. The Guardian 9. Copyright 2007.24 Quill TE, 1993. Death and dignity. New York W.W. Norton.25 Ibid.26 Burt RA. 1997, The Supreme Court speaks-not assisted suicide but a constitutional right to palliative care. N Engl J Med. 337 1234-6.27 Reeve, Christopher. (1998). Still Me. New York Random House Publishing.28 Hansen, Rick Taylor, Jim. 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