Saturday, August 31, 2019

Sappho’s vs. Petrarch on the Body

Physical interaction is possibly the most intuitive emotion we have as a species. Sex and body image are absurdly prominent in todays culture, and have been since the beginning of written history. Sexuality is only a surface desire though. What lies beneath the surface is where a person's true beauty rests. The poets Sappho and Petrarch are two very early writers that often focused on the human body, sexuality, and desire but in different ways. Sapphds body of work is a reaction and praise to the exterior beauty of many individuals.Petrarch's sonnets are a repeated effort to unearth the root of divine beauty. Sapphds poems were more direct and in a relatable way. The way the Greek poet discussed was with words of physical feelings and reactions to emotions. She compared an individual named Anactoria that she desired to the famoud Helen of Troy, whose beauty has been expressed throughout literature for a long, long time. â€Å"†¦ although far away, / whose long-desired footstep, whose radiant, sparkling face / I would rather see before me than the chariots / of Lydia or the armour of men / who fght wars on foot† (Sappho 21).In this passage the Greek poet is longing for Anactoria, whom she once knew. In reminiscing about her Sappho recalls the way she walked, how her skin reacted to the light, and how she feels peaceful when she is around. Sappho is suggesting that one's beauty is partly contained in their body but also partly related to how that body is used. The essence that the woman in her poem 21 exhibits is her true beauty. In one of her poems her feelings for a recently married friend read, â€Å"†¦ and sweat pours down me and a trembling creeps over my whole body†¦ † (Sappho 20).In most of, but especially this poem in particular, Sappho s expressing her bestial, sexual urges. She is not always so lascivious. Often, the poet writes about more tragic subjects. In her poem 33 she describes her â€Å"tender heart† as  "heavy with grief†(Sappho 33). Sappho is suggesting that the absence of one of her ex-lovers is physically weighing her down. She is playing with that feeling of tension in the chest that people tend to have in matters of deep-seated emotions. It is common to read Sappho and notice emphasis on the body in her descriptions of both grief and bliss.Later in her life, Sappho uses the same analogy of her heart to escribe herself as an old woman, â€Å"My heart's grown heavy, my knees will not support me, that once on a time were fleet for the dance as fawns. † It seems that her heart never grew lighter from her younger years, or even grew into a more intense pain. Having access to so many of her works allows scholars to observe a development in the character Sappho. Her subject matter turns from delight in others, slowly to dismay in their absence.What does not seem to change much is her approach of the subject matter. She still materializes her emotions in the form of the p hysical body in her later poems. Petrarch deals with his bodily desires in a different manner. His most famous series of poems are more or less descriptions of a woman Petrarch had much love for and now sne made him teel. This collection is known as the ‘Canzoniere'. Petrarch's sonnets focus more on the emotional side of his desires, while still using his body as a reference for the reader.In a selection from one of his sonnets, Petrarch writes, â€Å"Love found me all disarmed and found the way / was clear to reach my heart down through the eyes / which have become the halls and doors of tears† (Petrarch 3, 9-11). Once again, the heart is used as a catalyst to connect with the reader by communicating the desire the speaker has for this woman's form. Her beauty is so amazing that Petrarch is subdued and begins to cry. Her image shocks him to the point his body too is affected by it.In another passage, â€Å"The way she walked was not the way of mortals but of angelic f orms, and when she spoke more than an earthly voice was that it sang† (Petrarch 90, 9-11). Petrarch puts the woman into a sacred light, comparing her to an immortal. Petrarch's generous praise of this woman, hough unrealistic, is an attempt to explain to the reader the divinity of his beloved Laura's unparalleled beauty. This woman is supposedly the epitome of beauty, or so Petrarch thinks, but what the numerous sonnets written about her are attempt to reveal is that beneath the beauty is only more beauty.Beauty on a level that cannot simply be written into words. Petrarch is suggesting that contrary to the popular belief at the time, a woman or any person's value does not lie in their physical beauty but the beauty of their essence and the purity of their soul. He was truly and deeply n love with this Laura woman and has made history in doing so. â€Å"Under the lovely peace of her tranquil brows / those two faithful stars of mine so sparkle, / that no other light can inflam e and guide / him who consigns himself to love nobly' (Petrarch 160 5-8).In this verse, Petrarch begins to talk about the peace he sees in Laura's eyes, but then refers to those eyes as his own. Is he claiming ownership, or is he suggesting he sees himself? It seems that he is trying to say that following the look of calm he sees in her eyes, and reciprocating that patience, he will eventually be led to a form of pure love. Both writers were making an attempt to get directly to the purest form of their personal infatuations in terms of describing their beauty on paper.Petrarch by poeticizing and connecting with Laura's spiritual and emotional purity while striving to avoid the hang-ups of physical distraction, and Sappho by referring to both her sexual and emotional urges towards her lovers, describing them from the obvious exterior, down to the movement of hips whilst walking. The difference is that what Sappho writes is a result of her pure emotions for these other women, while Pe trarch is striving to get to the roots of the emotion. He is trying to describe the divine spirit and essence of this lovely woman.Some would say this is disturbing behavior, while others see it as an eloquently written offering. He reaches to the core, where human desire draws from. He took what Sappho wrote to the next level. She was writing about how she felt in response to the core of feeling Petrarch tried to uncover. Her words often described her weariness and pain as a means to relate to her readers so they too could share in her agony. Other times what she would say connected to anther emotion most people are aware of. Passages describing sexual onvulsions could be related to be readers who have felt the same.These two early writers either ends of the same problem. Petrarch, trying to find the source of human passion and Sappho describing how that same source of passion excited her, or got the best of her. Either way, these prominent historical fgures were using the body as a way to relate teeling and emotion to the reader. Petrarch, Francesco, and Mark Musa.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Ancient Greek and Roman Republic Political Developments Essay

Throughout history there have been countless individuals who have etched their experiences and depictions of events during their lifetime. The legendary Greek poet, Homer, is a perfect example of an individual who encompassed his culture into his writing. In the Iliad Homer unknowingly stated, â€Å"A generation of men is like a generation of leaves; the wind scatters some leaves upon the ground, while others the burgeoning wood brings forth- and the season of spring comes on. So of men one generation springs forth and another ceases†. This powerful statement shows the influence a generation of men could make. Similar to the leaves scattered upon the ground, the Ancient Greek and Roman Republic imprinted their political ideals for generations to come. Like spring, new precedents have been established with the intention of preserving and advancing those statutes that the ancient world has instilled in history. Both Ancient Greece and the Roman Republic have made countless political developments, especially in division of power, legislation and execution of power. To begin, both the Ancient Greek and Roman Republic have made several political developments in the division of power. Both the Roman Republic and Ancient Greece had a domestic strife over who should possess the power of its’ respected commonwealth. Despite experiencing comparable internal turmoil, both civilizations divergently developed solutions to end the power struggle. Initially, Ancient Greece had several forms of government. During the Mycenaean period (2000-1200BC) the majority of Greece consisted of monarchies. A monarchy is a form of government in which a king or queen has absolute power. Therefore all political power was held by one individual. Unfortunately, the city Mycenae was burned down, and there was a vast influx new invaders into Greece, the Mycenaean period reached its demise. Around the 8th century, poleis began to flourish in Greece. The polis according to Spielvogel, was a â€Å"community of citizens where all political, economic, social, cultural, and religious activities were focused†. Eventually more colonies began to establish their own independent poleis. As a result, each polis formed their own ideal of politics and government. Following the conclusion of monarchies, many oligarchies were established. Oligarchies were mainly aristocratic governments that held complete authority. The best example of an oligarchy is Sparta. As Spielvogel describes, Sparta was governed by two kings from two different families. In addition to the two kings there was a council of twenty-eight elders who were called, â€Å"gerousia†. Plus, there was an assembly of men, â€Å"apaella† and 5 â€Å"ephors† who were like judges. All 4 components were essential to divide the ruling power of Sparta. Unfortunately, oligarchies were neither as popular nor successful in other parts of Greece. Many citizens were disenchanted with oligarchies and tyrants began to try and take power. According to Spielvogel, tyranny in Ancient Greece was referred, to â€Å"rulers who seized power by force and who were not subject to law. † However, tyranny did not last because it began to resemble a monarchy. Again, the community did not want one individual to hold all of the power. As Theognis of Megora proposed: Their utter disregard of right or wrong, or truth or nonour-out of such a throng. Never imagine you can choose a just or steady friend, or faithful in his trust. But Change your habits! Let them go their way! One example would be the Cleisthenes who overthrew the tyrant Hippas. Cleisthenes reformed Athens pave the way for democracy. Just like the end of Hippias tyranny, many other regions experienced the new opportunity for more citizen participation in community affairs. Thus, tyranny opened the doors for democracy. By establishing the end of the reign of tyranny the opportunity to seize political power was manifested. As a result, a new model of government was erected, democracy. Democracy is a form of government run by the people or elected representatives. The first democratic government was created in Athens, in 510BC. Spielvogel explains that after the tyrannical reign of Hippias, the reform of Cleisthenes established the basis for Athenian Democracy. Spielvogel further describes the division of power in the nation. Cleisthenes made the demes, villages, and townships of Attic the basic units of political life. From there, ten tribes chose fifty members to form The Council of Five Hundred. The Council of Five Hundred controlled foreign and financial affairs and prepared the business for the assembly. Finally, the assembly consisted of male citizens who had the authority to pass laws after an open debate. By giving the citizens the power to make decisions, democracy was formed. Like Ancient Greece, The Roman Republic began as a monarchy. Many believed that many nobles overthrew the reign of Servius Tulius to maintain their position of power. After the demise of the monarchy, the Roman Republic developed an aristocratic republic which was run by an assembly of adult males who were controlled by the wealthiest citizens. Spielvogel proclaims that the wealthiest citizens elected the officials. The Senate then advised these officials. Therefore all political power was retained by wealthy men. As Sallust stated, â€Å"As soon as wealth came to be a mark of distinction and an easy way to renown, military commands and political power, virtue began to decline. This exemplifies that all the political power was held by those who were wealthy rather than those who encompassed the right qualities and values to represent the public. As a result, Rome was divided into two groups; patricians and plebeians. Both groups were citizens and able to vote. However only patricians could hold governmental offices. To distribute the power wi thin the plebeians, the Tribunes of the Plebs and the Council of the Plebs were created. Furthermore after the establishment of the Hortenson Law, both divisions could hold governmental offices. Spielvogel pronounced not only were positions created to control the sovereignty but roles were developed to maintain the right relationship between the state and the gods, â€Å"pantiffs†. All important acts of the state had to be approved by the gods. According to Spielvogel, around the 2nd century the senate was the dominate governing body of the Roman Republic. The senate was controlled by individuals in a high social class. As a result there was political turmoil over the rights and political power amongst the populares, opitimates, and equestrians. Spielvogel explains that around 133 BC the reform of Tiberius Gracchus began. He sought to help the small farmer. Unfortunately he was murdered, and his brother Gaius Gracchus took over. Gaius disrupted the dynamic of the senate by replacing some senators with equites. This strategic move allowed the equites to have more political power. According to Spielvogel a member of the nobiles, Sulla, decided to â€Å"eliminate most of the powers of the popular assemblies and the tribunes of the plebs and restore the senators to the jury of the courts†. In the last 50 years of the republic many leaders came along changing the division of power for the nation. For instance, after Sulla, Crassus and Pompey restored the power of the tribunes and allowed equites back on the jury courts. This allowed the populares to have more political power. By the populares maintaining political power, they tried to distribute more political pull that benefitted the urban plebs. This demonstrates the need for more political power for the common citizen by using representatives. Afterwards there were several political leaders such as Caesar who used the senate and state as marionettes to manipulate the political system to favor their supporting party. But ultimately it was Octavius who ended the Roman republic by becoming Emperor. Next, Ancient Greece made political developments in legislation. As Spielvogel explains, Sparta underwent a legal reform when Lycurgus created a code of laws. From the very beginning of a Spartan’s life it was a legal requirement for the state to inspect the child. The unfit children were left for dead while others were forced into military preparation and then duty when they became of age. This was one of the first noted developments in legislation which promoted a stance for the support of the military. Laws were even established regarding clothing to promote resilience in warlike conditions. According to Xenephon Instead of making them effeminate with a variety of clothes his rule was to habituate them to a single garment the whole year through, thinking that so they would be better prepared to withstand the variations of heat and cold Another big development was the Reform of Solon. Solon changed political legislation when he eliminated birth as being a qualifier to hold office. He then created a class system based upon wealth. As Solon claimed, â€Å"I gave o the mass of the people such rank as befitted their need. † He did not allow the poorest class to hold any political office. As Spielvogel states, Solon made it possible for male citizens to bring court charges against any magistrate suspected of a crime. These were big political legislation developments because it promoted citizen involvement in public affairs. Another reform that strengthened citizen participation wa s Cleisthenes’ reform. This was a major step in political legislation because it allowed for the assembly to have the final say in passing laws. This new law set the groundwork for democracy. The Roman Republic also made many strives in legislation. According to Spielvogel in 450 B. C. the Twelve Tables of Law which included the procedures for going to court; provisions on family, women, and divorce, regulations concerning private property, rules governing relationships and injuries to others; and the provision prohibiting intermarriage between patricians an plebeians This was very important because it created uproar from the plebeians and caused a clash between the social orders. In response to this, the Hortensian law was established. This crucial law forced both social orders to follow all plebiscitas and allowed plebeians to hold office. This was an important development because it allowed for change in office and binded the community together. The Plebeians and patricians were now allowed to interact together in politics to strengthen society. According to Spielvogel, in response for the need of special laws the ius gentium was created. These laws applied to both foreigners and natives. Furthermore ius natural was established which formed the Roman law according to basic principles. Another major legislation that changed politics was Tiberius’s land reform bill. This bill redistributed the land and gave it to the landless. This shift allowed for more power for the equites. The legislative developments in the ancient world created a legal system and created order in a land full of diverse citizens. By establishing lawfulness and creating positions societies have been able to build upon this outline. For instance as Polybius stated The people then are the only court to decide matters of life and death; and even in cases where the penalty is money, if the sum to be assessed is sufficiently serious, and especially when the accused have held the higher magistracies In addition, Ancient Greece made political developments in execution of power. Execution of power is referred to the individual or group of individuals who influence the state. The military executed the power in Sparta. The military controlled every aspect of life in Sparta. A male citizen was forced to be in the military and was bred to die for their country. This was an important development because it was the first example of forced military participation. After years of kings and tyrants having sole command of the public, a swarm of reforms rumbled through the cities which tried to reclaim the power from the exclusive leader. Finally, around 500BC, Athens decided to transition the main executer of power to its people. The male citizens had the final word in passing laws. This was important and became a blue print for future nations. The Roman republic also made developments. In the beginning of the Republic it was the aristocrats who had control of the republic. For instance, the patricians held all political offices; as a result they decided to execute their power to favor the wealthy. Unhappy with the decisions made by the patricians, the Plebeians tried to execute their power and established the Twelve Tables of Law. Following this more laws were created, and Plebeians finally made it on the senate in order to gain authority and make judgments that would aid their social class. After the second century BC, two types of leaders came to power and tried to execute their ideals. The optimates fought to maintain nobile control domination of the senate, while the populares tried to distinguish the reign of the aristocrats. Eventually, equites finally received power and distributed the land to the landless. All of these struggles to execute power demonstrated how the public and the wealth influence political stances and government. Ultimately, Ancient Greece and the Roman Republic have made an impact in political developments including the division of power, legislation, and execution of power. The efforts of these former societies did not happen overnight or in vein. Like the famous proverb, â€Å"Rome wasn’t built in a day†, and neither were early political developments. Political developments in both of these ancient worlds had a snowball effect, where new advancements spread like wild fires to neighboring nations. As Homer said, â€Å"Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror†. This exemplifies that even when a new society is formed it builds upon the structure of its precursor and makes advancements. These ancient developments are the framework for politics today. Without these developments, today’s world would be a very different place.

My Path Through Culinary School Essay

The basis of this essay is to explain my planned path through culinary school. I have always loved to cook and found my nitch in the kitchen. I plan to improve my culinary skills and techniques so that I may have a successful career. I have experienced different careers and a significant amount of job experience, but after years of contemplating, my heart has led me to Le Cordon Bleu to further my education and receive an Associate of Arts degree in Occupational Studies. Once I complete my studies at Le Cordon Bleu, I plan to work at a well-established restaurant or hotel and work my way up from a cook to a chef. At the same time, I also plan to cater as a side business. After ten years in a professional environment, I hope to have gained the knowledge and skills it will take to become an executive chef at a high-end restaurant or owning and managing my own restaurant. I have always had a passion for cooking. I would consider my grandmother and grandfather my mentors because I would enjoy watching and helping them prepare meals. Some of my best memories are times when we would have family gatherings and staying up all night to cook for the next day. One Christmas I got an Easy-Bake Oven and since then I could not stay out of the kitchen. While I was in high school, I would always cook for my family and classmates. I excelled in my home economics class. I honestly did not think the food I prepared was as good as they made it out to be, but the more they praised me, the more I start experimenting with different recipes. Now, over ten years later, I am much more confident and ready to pursue a career in culinary arts because of the satisfaction it brings me. When I graduate from Le Cordon Bleu with my Associates degree, my short term goal is to work at a well-established restaurant or hotel. With time and experience, I plan to move up to becoming an Executive Chef. I also plan to cater on the side for special events and for people requiring a personal chef. I am sure that the opportunity of being educated at Le Cordon Bleu will pay off and I will reap the benefits of being a disciplined student.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Human development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Human development - Essay Example This paper will discuss how the views of Gesell and Piaget differ on the developmental changes that occur. Gesell believed that believed that the child’s personality is the product of slow gradual growth whereas Piaget believed that the acquisition of knowledge is a process of continuous self-construction (Silverthorn, 1999). According to Piaget, human development occurs gradually through a series of ordered sequential stages whereas Arnold Gesell’s concept of maturation is based on ‘intrinsic growth’ which takes place naturally and almost automatically. Piaget believed that growth of knowledge is a progressive construction of logically embedded structures. The lower less powerful structures merge with the higher more powerful ones as the development takes place up to adulthood. Gesell argued that the child’s development is influenced by two factors – child is a product of environment but genes are more important. The unfoldment takes place in a particular sequence which should not be ignored (Tennessen, 1997). Each child is unique and the rate of development varies. The development according to Gesell does not proceed in a staircase manner but is fluent and continuous (Packer, n.d.). The human life cycle is governed by natural laws but according to Piaget the child acts on and interacts with the immediate world to construct an increasingly elaborate concept of reality. Through experience a child may form some incomplete ideas, which may lead him to contradictory conclusions, and the process of resolving these may further lead to more complex thinking and learning. Gesell’s perception is based on the maturational theory which states that the chief principle of developmental change is maturation. He described in detail how behavior changes with age. Cognitive development refers to the changes in the cognitive structures and processes. It describes children as the active solver of problems and the child’s

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Minor assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Minor assessment - Essay Example firm, on the other hand, is facing defective products from claims by the Spanish firm. The contract that the two companies signed contains an arbitration clause and alternative dispute resolution provision with choice of law features. This contract defines several key issues to be observed by the two companies in their dealings as partners in the business: their conduct, litigation and dispute resolution. These include the following factors: Castilla S.L. and New Jersey Inc. will work on an exclusive basis to purchase and resell chattels in the region defined by the two entities. Both companies accept the appointment on the terms and conditions set forth herein that obligates the companies to fulfill the requirements of this agreement. The term â€Å"Product† will mean the chattels that will be sold by the two companies. The two companies reserve the right to delete discontinued products upon thirty days’ written notice to all stakeholders. 1) The companies can agree to solve the problems out of court as partners because this option is available in the contract signed by both parties. They can come together to analyze the causes of the delivery delays by the Spanish distributor and the defective product claims by the Spanish firm. This option will be very important because the companies have not worked together for long and these problems could be because of minor issues that can be solved and ignored. 2) The second option would be for the firms to implement fully the clause from the contract that requires that any of the partners should pay for the risks if it is it found out that the firm deliberately caused the risk. This can be done by conducting an investigation to the problems and the participation of the firms. 3) The third option would be for the companies to allow the court to help them solve the dispute because this option is also provided under the contract. Both parties have claims against the other. Therefore, going to court could be the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Personal Engagement with the Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Personal Engagement with the Media - Essay Example Initially, I used to watch movies as a family norm. they were for entertainment puposes only. However, I have grown to understand movies better and learnt that there is so much to more that I can gain. Sometimes, watching a movie leaves me inspired. Other times, a movie becomes a revealing moment that leaves me feeling overwhelmed. This self-reflection essay will focus on my personal engagement with the media. People watch movies for various reasons. However, they do it on their own volition. Movies play a critical role in peoples lives. Sometimes I may feel unmotivated. I just look for an inspirational movies and watch it. therefore, I personally engage with media and highly associate my emotions with the power of movies to entertain, inspire, mystify, amaze, arouse, and inform. Some movies are highly criticized by people. At times, I have heard people argue that certain genre of movies is boring. However, I am not easily influenced by people’s opinion about a movie. This is because I find myself enjoying almost every movie I watch. Moreover, I believe that every movie is made with a purpose. Sometimes, the purpose is easily understood. In other times you have to watch a movies several times to understand the message relayed. Moreover, movies play a great role in satisfying my emotional needs. Movies continue to play an important role. I think that most people, I included, watch movies because they want to feel something. There is something that movies offer that cannot be obtained from the real world. I was amazed when one of my friends who had lost his mother in a car accident invited me to his house.He blamed himself for the accident since

Monday, August 26, 2019

Strategy Required to Improve Project Management Outcomes - Approved Case Study

Strategy Required to Improve Project Management Outcomes - Approved projects align with corporate strategy - Case Study Example It is very clear from the internal memorandum sent by the chairman to the senior project manager wherein he has shared his concern over declining number of such projects delivered in right time and budget although the project managers are capable of technical knowhow and follow principles based management practices. Let’s hope that ideas offered by all of us on how to implement latest project management principles and processes to better manage time and cost factors could help the our organization. Our objective is to provide inputs on effectively managing new projects through our individual ideas on why project success rate is falling down while keeping the principles of project management in view. The past experience in project management has not been remarkable. That’s why opinions of the team members have been sought by the chairman. Actually, the company is lagging behind the goals earmarked. It was expected by the top management that with the given expertise and technical hold, we will enter the global market very soon but overseas projects taken so far have not helped us in capturing foreign market; the gap between the goals and outcomes is widening. Our aim is to rework on current management theory to see that approved projects align with our organization’s strategy. Accountability needs to be determined so that in case a project fails, responsibility is fixed. A number of factors determine the success of a project. Sometimes, it is seen that dedicated support for the project is not provided by the senior members of the board. Without overall and individual level support by top brass of the organization, project starts staggering. When the project reaches certain stage, another urgent project comes by for getting attention of the project team as it has to be completed before the ongoing project. The role of the senior management becomes very crucial in the organization

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Supermax facilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Supermax facilities - Essay Example The reality cannot be worse for a prisoner in solitary confinement in a physically cramped condition for years with no social contact. The supermax reforms require an environment to which the inmates can relate both physically and socio-psychologically. It has to provide them with recreations, social interactions and activities in a way that would not contain even the subtlest hint of force. We have to stop the crude system of continuous watching and monitoring of each movement of the prisoners that reinforce in them the feeling of being no better than caged animals. More space needs to be created in these "modern-day dungeons" (Pupovac, 2008) that have become unmanageable for the sheer number of prisoners. I suggest humane practices like touching the prisoner with bare hand by the guards and not by wearing gloves and removal of the glass barrier to allow the prisoner to have a better communication with family and friends. These measures are necessary to convey to the prisoners that they are in the supermax for rehabilitation and not for cruel punishment. Training of the correctional administrators should include the very relevance of the prison system with emphasis on developing processes to make it more humane. In spite of the transition from the Big House to Contemporary Prisons and evolving race relations policy, racial discrimination is still visible in U.S. prisons.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Excel Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Excel Project - Essay Example In the graph provided below, it illustrates that the sales trend of the company is increasing. The trend in the sales growth of the company is rising from the August 2004 and dips down on March, April and July 2005. The sales peaked at $115,000 in the May 2006. Please note that the data for June 2006 is incomplete where it comprises only of three days data and it shall be disregarded. This is the reason for the sales decrease in June 2006. The sales strategies employed for 2006 is effective as illustrated by the big increase in sales from January 2006. The strategies utilized, such as discount levels, must remain consistent in order to assure the growth in sales performance of the company. It is recommended that the company consider developments in new product lines and/or expansion in the global market in order to further increase revenues. The highest performing country is USA where it generated 19% of the total net revenues of the company. This is followed by Germany at 18%, Austria at 10% and Brazil at 8%. The rest of the countries comprise less than 50% of the total net revenues of the company. The lowest performing country is Poland and Norway which generated less than 1% of the total revenues of the company. The company might consider focusing on the top 10 performing countries in order to exploit the buying power of the consumers. Focusing on lesser number of locations would create a more effective and efficient organization. It would minimize operations and logistics costs while increasing the marketing and distribution allocations. The countries with minimal growth shall be given up in order to free up the company’s resources. The top performing product category for the company is the beverage product. It has performed better from other categories for the year 2004 and 2006 while it is second category for 2005. The other performing products are dairy products followed by

Friday, August 23, 2019

Use of Quick Response Codes in Health Care Research Paper

Use of Quick Response Codes in Health Care - Research Paper Example A quick response code is a matrix barcode, which can be read using a smartphone that has the right bar code reading application. In health care, the bar code is encoded with heath information or data of an individual. In order for a first respondent to access an individual’s data on the bar code during an emergency, the smartphone or other enabled devices can be used to scan the bar code (Davis, 2012). Although this technology in health care might play a big role in emergency cases, there are various concerns such as privacy and ethics concerns, raised by its use, which might discourage most health care institutions and individuals from adopting it. Body The history of the quick response codes is traced in Japan. This is where the Japan-based company ‘Denso Wave Corporation’ invented this technology in 1994. Initially, this technology was not meant for use in health care. Instead, the company invented this to help in tracking Toyota vehicles and vehicle parts, dur ing the process of manufacturing. However, in the most years, packaging companies and consumer advertisers have been responsible for the infiltration of the QR codes in the USA. Today, QR codes are found on the internet, on mails from advertisers, on books, and on billboards. In this case, the bar codes have data about the advertised products and the company, as well as the URL’s of the company. Most recently, QR codes have crossed the border from advertising and marketing industry to the health care sector (Maeder & Martin-Sanchez (2012) In health care, this technology is still new, therefore, has not been adopted by most health care institutions. Knowledge of the technology and expertise still lacks, since this technology is still in its initial stage of implementation. For instance, in the USA today, the implementation of this new technology is underway in the Marin County, in the state of California, through a partnership with Lifesquare. The health care professionals in this county are being equipped with iPhones with enabled bar code readers. On the other hand, Marin residents are encouraged to register their personal and medical information in the quick response bar codes available in CVS stores. Lifesquare requires the individuals to stick the bar code stickers to areas it recommends, such as wallets, and mobile phones, among others, where these can be accessed during an emergency (Davis, 2012). In this case, the health data read by the first respondent is directly fed into the emergency systems of the relevant health care institution. According to Garcia-Betances and Huerta (2012), the major advantage of using QR code is that it is a simple technology, which does not require special tags in its use. The QR code is a type of a 2D code, thus it is easy to generate and print the bar code on different surfaces, including paper, and plastic surfaces, among others. This does not require use of any complex equipment. Therefore, with basic training, in dividuals lacking information on how to use the QR codes can learn this within a short period. Additionally, the QR codes in health care are capable of reducing cases of erroneous reading of patient health information, leading to misdiagnosis and wrong prescriptions. This is because, QR codes are easy to read and decode since this technology is not a complex. As long as an individual has a smartphone or a device capable of decoding a bar code, they can access the health data on a patient’s bar code. Garcia-Betances and Huerta (2012) note that since the 2D-based readers are camera-based, these have a much

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Origin and Evolution of Christianity Research Paper

Origin and Evolution of Christianity - Research Paper Example Aspects of Christianity such as religious beliefs had been in existence even before the birth of Christ. The Old Testament, which was written before the birth of Christ has several prophecies on coming of Messiah whom Christians believe, is Christ. The history of Christian teachings became clearly spelt from the first century and is recorded in the New Testament. Christianity borrowed heavily from Judaism and other pagan concepts. A feature such as observation of Sunday as the Sabbath day was borrowed from non-Christian Romans while Christmas concepts were borrowed from Babylonians. Temples previously used by pagans were also turned into Christian places of worship referred to as churches. Christianity is currently the largest worldwide religion that is based on the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ who is believed to be the son of God. This paper focuses on the origin and history of Christianity and lays emphasis on Catholicism and Protestantism, which are the major Christian groupings. Non-Christians first used the term Christians as a form of mockery to refer to followers of Jesus in Antioch. Descriptions of the early church are recorded in the gospel and epistles within the New Testament. The life and teachings of Jesus are also recorded in the New Testament while the prophecy of His birth is recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible, a book used by Christians for spiritual guidance. Jesus of Nazareth is believed to be the pioneer of Christianity. However, Jesus’ disciples and other followers such as Mark and Paul established concrete Christianity. Paul prayed a vital role in establishing the basis of Christianity and he preached not only to Jews but also to Non-Jews.... Factors leading to the split were related to theological disputes especially on doctrinal issues. The major three groupings include Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. The Early Church The early Christian church comprised of Jewish Christians who followed Judaism and the Hellenistic Christians who were liberal and were not strict observers of Judaic laws. Early Christianity can be divided into apostolic period and the post-apostolic period. The early church greatly followed Jewish traditions. Circumcision was considered a prerequisite for gentiles to be accepted into Christianity. However, the early Christians disagreed on aspects such as the nature of Jesus and on whether to follow Mosaic laws (Jackson Web; Esler 22-25). Apostolic Period The apostolic period was the time that followed Jesus’ death. The Christian Church in this period was referred to as the apostolic church and was led by Jesus’ apostles and relatives who were fundamentally Jews. Je sus was also a Jew and had started a ministry of teaching and performing miracles at the age of thirty after his baptism by John the Baptist. After His death, the apostles continued with his work. He travelled throughout Judea preaching in synagogues, which made him to be referred to as a teacher (Ahmad Web). While doing his ministerial work, Jesus chose twelve disciples to assist Him in His teachings. The Disciples followed His teaching strictly, as they believed that He was the Messiah prophesied about in the Old Testament. During His ministry, several people became His followers, which frightened the Jewish political readers. He worked for three years after which the Romans who were

Trends in Healthcare Essay Example for Free

Trends in Healthcare Essay In the history of the United States there have been an overall transformation of the way the public experiences health care. Paul Starr eloquently explains trends that have affected the health care system in his books The Social Transformation of American Medicine and Remedy and Reaction. An in depth overview of the history of medicine gives a greater understanding of the trends that shape the system we experience today. The first major trend that shaped medicine is the delivery of medicine to the public from the 1800s to present. In the early 1800s individuals received medical care by individuals that were not properly trained and did not have proper knowledge of sanitary care for patients. In the 1850s the invention of the stethoscope, ophthalmoscope, laryngoscope, microscope x-ray, and EKG provided a transforming medical community that began relying on technology of care to provide better diagnoses and care. With the invention of these medical devices, patients moved from caring for individuals in their homes to the hospital facilities and contributed to a higher survival rate. With the development of more hospitals to care for the sick, we also began to see the formation of multiple hospitals to tailor to multiple religious denominations. The next major trend discussed in the trend in the way we finance health care. Financing for health care in the private sector began to change in 1929 when Blue Cross was formed at Baylor University for school teachers in Dallas, TX. There was a dual purpose for this program. It provided coverage for individuals so that there would not be financial consequences as a result of hospital care. In essence it was a safety net to also ensure hospitals received payment for services rendered. The insurance company assumed the risk, based on the profitability of a claim. In 1939 another program was developed called Blue Shield. Blue Shield was designed by a group of physicians as a way of reimbursing physicians services and medical and surgical services. The coverage did not include coverage for pharmaceuticals. Monetary payment was made to an insured which could be assigned to a provider. We also saw the development of the Federal  Government third party payers such as Medicaid or Medicare. Especially today we are seeing the move toward more regulation and the possibility of requiring health coverage for all with a penalty if the coverage is not purchased. The third trend we see in health care is the utilization of health care. In the early 1800s care was primarily provided to patients who were likely facing a detrimental condition for which there was no care. Methods were not in place to provide surgeries that were sanitary and technology had yet to provide equipment to diagnosis conditions. In the 21st century we see a trend to move toward preventative care. More and more health insurance companies are offering incentives on deductibles as a way to encourage annual visits so as to possibly lower health care costs for major illnesses that could arise and could possibly be prevented in identified earlier. Health care is a field that is forever changing, and it could not be truer than when we turn on the news to see the latest headlines regarding Obamacare. There has long been a struggle on how to best provide coverage availability to Americans without infringing on their freedom of choice. Health care continues to be one of the most costly challenges we face, and as we have seen in the past decades, it is a topic that is ever transforming.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Poppers Falsifiability As A Criterion Of Demarcation

Poppers Falsifiability As A Criterion Of Demarcation The problem of demarcation has long preoccupied philosophers of science who wished to differentiate pseudo-science from science itself. Many solutions have been attempted, but it is still, in my opinion, Poppers falsfiability which addresses the demarcation problem most effectively. This paper will therefore argue for a revised use of falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation. To argue this point, a clear explanation of Poppers falsfiability criterion will be attempted, as well as an examination of the criticisms falsifiability has received, specifically in relation to the Duhem-Quine problem and Kuhns problem of incommensurability. This paper will then conclude with a discussion of ad hoc modifications and ultimately demonstrate that falsifiability can convincingly demarcate science from pseudo-science. Early on in his book Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, Popper notes that the Logical Positivists differentiated science from pseudo-science by its empirical method; in other words they believed that science relied on induction from experience while non-scientific disciplines did not. This, according to Popper, was untrue, since fields such as astrology, a pseudo-science, also used induction from observation to justify their claims, relying on things such as horoscopes, biographies, etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Unsatisfied, Popper notes that although some pseudo-scientific claims might be just as truthful as scientific ones, the problem of demarcation needed to be solved so that philosophers, scientists and the public alike could distinguish scientific theories from those which merely pretended to be scientific. Verifiability was seen as a solution to the problem of demarcation for philosophers such as Wittgenstein, but not for Popper, whoargued that pseudo-scientists relied very much on verifiability in order to convince their peers of the scientific status of their theories. This point is illustrated in Poppers anecdote in which Alfred Adler supports his theory of inferiority feelings by his thousand-fold experience. This personal experience convinced Popper that the very ability of pseudo-scientific theories, such as Marxism and Freudianism, to incessantly confirm their predictions, in other words with overwhelming verifiability, was in fact the strongest argument against them. Verifiability, therefore, could not be an adequate criterion of demarcation. Before further exploring Poppers explanation of falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation, it is important to draw a distinction. While Popper uses the terms falsifiability and testability interchangeably, this paper will not. Falsifiability, in this paper, will be seen as the possibility of a concept being both theoretically and practically falsifiable, while testable will be restricted to things only falsifiable in practice. This distinction is important as it entails that, if falsifiability is to be used a criterion of demarcation, theories which can only be falsified in theory, such as Newtons second law, can in fact reach scientific status. Indeed, although there is no place in the universe in which no forces will be exerted on a body, Newtons second law remains falsifiable (not testable) and therefore can still be viewed as scientific. Testability would be too restricting as a criterion of demarcation. Popper explains that the value of falsifiability lies in its risk. If a theory is falsified, it is subsequently refuted by the scientific community. Pseudo-sciences, it is argued, attempt to avoid falsifiability either by providing unfalsifiable predictions or destroying their falsifiability through ad hoc modifications, a procedure he calls a conventionalist twist. The first case, that is providing unfalsifiable predictions, is exemplified in Poppers view of Astrology. Astrology makes predictions and prophecies in such a vague manner, that it is impossible to falsify their predictions. For example, predicting that today Libras will counter an emotional block in one of their long term goals is not falsifiable: practically any event can be interpreted as an emotional block in a long-term goal. By escaping falsifiability, astrology has in fact prevented itself from reaching scientific status. Poppers second remark on pseudo-sciences, that it is about those which escape falsifiability through ad hoc modifications, has been much more controversial, inspiring much criticism from other philosophers of science. However, before addressing the issue of ad hoc modification, this paper will address the criticisms of falsifiability known as the Duhem-Quine problem and Kuhns problem of incommensurability in order to prove a much needed revision of Poppers falsifiability. The Duhem-Quine problem is a strong criticism of Poppers falsifiability. It was first proposed in Pierre Duhems The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. The Duhem-Quine problem revolves around the idea of holism, which explains that any given system, such as a proposed scientific theory, relies heavily on its components ability to work together as a group. Duhem proposes that the theories of physics cannot be tested in isolation, as the testing theories of physics themselves require the use of auxiliary hypotheses, a stance known today as confirmation holism. This argument can effectively be extrapolated to all the sciences, thus entailing that the testing of scientific theories relies on the use of materials and methods which themselves rely on other theories. For example, when testing a theory that predicts the position of certain stars, one uses a telescope, a tool built on the assumption that our theories on electromagnetic radiation are both correct and accurate. The Duhem-Quin e problem thus proposes that the testing of isolated theories is impossible, a proposition which can be seen as an attack on the use of falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation between scientific and pseudo-scientific theories. The act of falsifying can be understood as comparing a theorys predictions to the results of experimentation. If the theorys predictions are found to be different from the experimentation results, the theory is falsified. This is problematic for subscribers to confirmation holism who accept the fact that falsifying a theory can only establish that there is an error in either the theory or our background assumptions, and not where, or even what, the error is. Therefore, if it is assumed that the testing of any theory relies on many different background theories, all scientific theories could escape falsification by simply transferring the error to its background theories. Referring back to the telescope example, if a theory inaccurately predicted the position of Pluto, this theory could escape falsification simply by stating that the error lies not in its prediction but within the theory of electromagnetic radiation. This is problematic for Poppers use of falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation as the falsification of an isolated scientific theory would be impossible. This, in turn, would mean that the testing of theories, scientific or pseudo-scientific, holds the inherent characteristic of escaping falsification, making falsification an impossible criterion of demarcation. To answer the Duhem-Quine problem, Poppers use of falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation must be revised. It must be conceded that the process of testing a scientific theory in isolation is unfeasible, as our methods of testing themselves rely on background assumptions. Yet, it does not make falsifiability obsolete as a criterion of demarcation, just more exhaustive. Unlike as Popper had suggested, it is not sufficient for a theory to be falsifiable for it to be scientific. All isolated theories, scientific or pseudo-scientific, attempt to escape falsification by pegging the source of error on the background assumptions of testing. Moreover, it is not adequate to propose that all background assumptions upon which the testing of a theory is based must also be falsifiable in order for that theory to be scientific, as this would be too restricting. Every theory is built upon an infinite number of assumptions, a problem analogous to underdeterminism, and inevitably all theories wou ld be pseudo-scientific. For example, the testing of Newtons laws of motions is based on the unfalsifiable assumption that the human observation of motion is accurate. It is for this reason that I believe scientific theories must not be viewed as isolated propositions, but rather as part of a scientific system which requires the provision of at least one falsifiable method of testing. This is a criterion which the pseudo-science of astrology, for example, fails to meet, as astrology provides no falsifiable method of testing its predictions, while Newtons laws provide falsifiable equations (ex: F=ma) as a method of testing its predictions. It is thus concluded that only scientific systems are falsifiable. Another criticism of Poppers falsifiability has been the argument that falsification does not produce an accurate picture of science, that falsificationist methodologies incorrectly depict science as a sort of pyramid of knowledge, where scientific knowledge is accumulated over time (brick by brick) to provide an ever-progressing image of how the universe works (the pyramid itself). This view of science, heavily endorsed by Karl Popper, is the subject of criticism in Thomas Kuhns book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, where the l[?] problem of incommensurability is introduced. Thomas Kuhn argues that science, as a historical discipline, is in reality not an accumulation of knowledge, but rather a collection of normal science and scientific revolutions. In order to fully appreciate Kuhns argument, it must first be understood what Kuhn meant by paradigm. For Kuhn, a paradigm stands for the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques and so on shared by the members of a given community (Kuhn 175) in this case, the scientific community. Kuhn defines normal science as the period where scientists methodologies and goals are unified within a paradigm; Aristotelian physics would, for example, be a period of normal science where scientists agreed on sciences goal and methodology. Establishing this, Kuhn then proceeds to label science-as-accumulation as a myth. It is argued that different periods of normal science are incommensurable: they cannot understand each other methodologies, goals, taxonomy, etc. and as such, science cannot be seen as progressive di scipline, seeing that its history is simply a collection of different methods, goals and values which have irrationally changed over time. [Scientists] neither test nor seek to confirm the guiding theories of their paradigm (Bjà ¸rhusda) but simply adhere to the rules of science within their paradigm. If this view is accepted, it must be concluded that falsification could not demarcate science from other disciplines, such as the pseudo-sciences, as science is seen not as a discipline requiring falsifiability, but rather a discipline which solely adheres to ever-changing regulations, goals and methodologies. This problem of incommensurability across different paradigms poses a serious problem to Poppers use of falsifiability as criterion of demarcation, although it might not be seen at first. If it is accepted that the goals, regulations and methods of science are ever-changing, falsifiability cannot be viewed as a fixed requirement of science, much less a criterion of demarcation. After all, how could falsifiability provide us with an accurate picture of science if scientific theories do not hold permanently the unchanging desire to be falsifiable? Once again, a revision of Poppers use of falsificationism as a criterion of demarcation is needed. Although I do recognize that the history of science is, to a certain degree, a collection of incommensurable paradigms, I do not believe that the history of science is a correct representation of science as a discipline. I would argue that science is in reality a normative concept, and more of a goal than a historical accumulation of theories. Many philosophers of science, such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn and even Imre Lakatos all mistakenly believed that the history of science and science itself are identical concepts, although in my opinion, the history of science is most accurately described by Imre Lakatos. Imre Lakatos argued that, much like Kuhn, scientists did not produce single, isolated theories throughout time, but rather worked within research programs (a concept very similar to Kuhns paradigms). In an attempt to reconcile Poppers falsificationist approach to science with Kuhns incommensurability, Lakatos argued that the history of science was actually the process of falsifying research programmes. In this view, the problem of incommensurability is rendered insignificant, as research programmes (which are substantially equivalent to paradigms) are not required to be commensurable, as each is falsified along the way. This provides a vision of the history of science as an accumulation of falsifiable knowledge. Nev ertheless, ad hoc modifications were observed by Lakatos as being a part of the history of science, and inadvertently attributed to science itself. Although Lakatos history of science approach is eloquent, it is incorrect in assuming that since ad hoc modifications are present in the history of science then ad hoc modifications must be a part of science itself. Ad hoc modifications are undoubtedly a part of the history of science, but they are not part of science as a discipline as they do not conform to sciences normative goals. To illustrate this point, Einsteins formulation of the cosmological constant may be used as an example. In order to justify his Theory of General Relativity, Einstein required a static universe one that [would] stand(s) still and (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) not collapse under the force of gravity in a big crunch (Texas AM University). In order to support this claim, Einstein proposed an ad hoc modification, his cosmological constant, a move he later recalled as his greatest blunder. It is here that the distinction between the history of science and science as a discipline can be seen. In truth, over the course o f history, scientists like Albert Einstein have practiced science in many different ways. They have used ad hoc modification to support their theories, a mistake which has been practiced by scientists and pseudo-scientists alike. But science as a discipline is separate from its history, as it is a normative goal which has employed the use of scientific systems, that is, of falsifiable theories and testing methods, in order to gain valuable inductive knowledge about the universe around us, something that pseudo-sciences have not. To conclude, Poppers falsifiability, although convincing, requires [considerable] revision in order to be used as a criterion of demarcation. Indeed, it should be understood that science is a normative discipline where falsifiability is required and where planned modifications take precedence over ad hoc modifications, unlike pseudo-science which satisfies itself in confirming predictions. It should also be understood that this paper does not provide a complete description of science, as many questions remain. Perhaps the most glaring, which was not discussed in this paper due to length constraints, is the problem of how to falsify statements such as all metals conduct electricity, a problem posed by Carl Hempel. Finally, although falsifiability is a requirement of science, it is simply one criterion in a whole set of criteria which distinguish the discipline of science from pseudo-science in a normative attempt to create knowledge through falsifiable scientific systems.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Microbiology for Environmental Engineering

Microbiology for Environmental Engineering By Georgios Tzelepis Microorganisms play a major role in controlling water and waste quality and every biological process is based on the action of microorganisms. Bacteria constitute an important group of microorganisms which are directly related to Environmental Engineering because of their crucial role in wastewater treatment. They are single celled prokaryotic organisms with a structurally and functionally simple form and various shapes, such as spherical, rod-shaped or spiral. One main characteristic of the bacterial cell is the lack of unit membrane system with exception the cytoplasmic membrane. The identification of bacteria is based on a number of different criteria including their morphological (shape, size), physiological and genetic characteristics. Their reproduction is based on the binary split with formation time of about 20 minutes. Bacteria are sensitive to pH changes and they survive under neutral conditions, although some of them can survive in a highly acidic environment. Regarding th eir survival temperature, they are divided into psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic. Bacteria are very sensitive to temperature changes and they have an optimum growth temperature. (Darakas, 2016) Bacteria have the capacity to degrade the organic substances (pollutants) and this is the reason why they are the most important group of organisms in terms of the public health engineering, since biological waste water treatment processes are based on their activities. The assimilation of pollutants is mainly achieved by the biological self-cleaning of the water thanks to microorganisms and specifically bacteria. The main three points of interest in the wastewater treatment is the microorganisms (bacteria), the included organic matter which constitutes food for microorganisms and the oxygen which is necessary for the energy and survival of microorganisms.    Generally, the metabolic diversity of organisms, and more specifically of bacteria, firstly depends on the energy source. Energy is important for the chemical reactions and is obtained from environmental sources. When the sources are chemicals, the species are called chemotrophs, while when the energy is derived from the light they are called phototrophic species. However, some bacteria have the ability to use both energy sources based on conditions. Second classification is based on the carbon source. When they are organic compounds they are called chemoheterotrophs or photoheterotrophs respectively. Otherwise when inorganic compounds are used, bacteria are called chemoautotrophs or photoautotrophs. Finally, chemotroph bacteria which metabolise organic chemicals for energy are called chemoorganotrophs. Contrariwise, those that use inorganic chemicals are called chemolithotrophs. There are two basic types of metabolism for chemoorganotrophs; fermentation, in which the metabolism of the substrate is without external oxidizing agent, and respiration, in which there is an external oxidizing agent. Both types of metabolism can convert a primary source of energy to one which can be used by the cells. 2.1.1 Carbon source Bacteria that use carbon dioxide for the majority (or all) of their carbon requirements are called autotrophs. The obligate autotrophs that are able to use only CO2 as a source of carbon use simple energy substrates and they are either chemolithotrophs or photolithotrophs. (Singleton, 2005) In autotroph bacteria carbon dioxide from the environment is used to form complex compounds, but also there is the situation that carbon dioxide is incorporated in these compounds and called fixed. There are two common pathways for this fixation, the Calvin cycle and the reductive TCA cycle. Autotrophs are able to thrive in very harsh environments, such as deep sea vents, due to their lack of dependence on outside sources of carbon other than carbon dioxide. (Yates et al., 2016) On the other hand, most of the known species of bacteria are heterotrophic, both aerobic and anaerobic. They use as a main source of carbon complex carbon compounds derived from other organisms, with the most significant the glucose, alcohol, and organic acids. However, there are specialised heterotrophic bacteria capable also of decomposing cellulose (actinomycetes), keratin, hydrocarbons, and other substances. Heterotrophs are only able to thrive in environments that are capable of sustaining other forms of life due to their dependence on these organisms for carbon sources. (Lester Birkett, 1999) 2.2 Energy source Microorganisms, and more specifically bacteria, require food to obtain energy. Phototrophic bacteria are mostly aquatic organisms and obtain energy using radiant energy (light), usually via photosynthesis. This happens through specialized pigments that they contain in order to form energy molecules. Generally, photosynthetic bacteria can be divided in two categories, these who accomplish the photosynthesis with production of oxygen (aerobically) and those without (unaerobically). (Singleton, 2005) Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain their energy by metabolisng chemicals from the environment, through the oxidation of inorganic molecules, such as iron and magnesium. They are divided in two different categories, chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs, with their difference already been described. (Boundless, 2016) Carbon source of heterotrophic bacteria can be either soluble and colloidal organics of untreated waste (BOD) or endogenous carbon microorganisms, i.e. the carbon putrescent dead cells or methanol (CH3OH), which is the best organic substrate to the denitrification. (Darakas, 2016) 2.3 Electron acceptor As mentioned, all the bacterial cells have to convert a primary source of energy into forms that can be used. Some cells can convert a primary energy source to an electrochemical form which consists of a gradient of ions between the two surfaces of cytoplasmic membrane. Chemotroph and phototroph bacteria form high-energy compounds from a primary energy source using different techniques. (Singleton, 2005) Respiration is a type of metabolism in which a substrate is metabolized with the help of an external oxidizing agent. Oxygen can work as the exogenous oxidizing agent having aerobic respiration, or organic oxidizing agents can be used instead in an anaerobic respiration. Despite the fact that the oxidizing agent can be inorganic or organic, in chemoorganotrophs, the substrate is always an organic compound. (Singleton, 2005) Oxygen is the final electron acceptor for the aerobic respiration. The sugar is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water, yielding a maximum of 38 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose. Electrons are transferred to oxygen using the electron transport chain (ETC), a system of enzymes and cofactors located in the cytoplasmic membrane and arranged so that the passage of electrons down the chain is coupled with the movement of protons (hydrogen ions) across the membrane and out of the cell. ETC induces the movement of positively charged hydrogen ions to the outside of the cell and negatively charged ions to its interior. This ion gradient results in the acidification of the external medium and an energized plasma membrane with an electrical charge of 150 to 200 millivolts. The generation of ion gradients is a common aspect of energy generation and storage in all living organisms. The gradient of protons is used directly by the cell for many processes, including the active tr ansport of nutrients and the rotation of flagella. The protons also can move from the exterior of the cell into the cytoplasm by passing through a membrane enzyme called the F1F0-proton-translocating ATPase, which couples this proton movement to ATP synthesis. (Kadner Rogers, 2015) Bacteria that are able to use respiration produce far more energy per sugar molecule than do fermentative cells, because the complete oxidation of the energy source allows complete extraction of all of the energy available. (Kadner Rogers, 2015) Respiration can also occur under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic respiration uses external oxidizing agents such as nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), sulfate (SO42), or fumarate in place of oxygen. Depending on the different types or conditions, the electron donor (substrate) used by chemoorganotrophs in anaerobic respiration is of various organic compounds. The energy yields available to the cell using these acceptors are lower than in respiration with oxygen, but they are still substantially higher than the energy yields available from fermentation. The utilization of CO2as a terminal electron acceptor is limited to a group of bacteria called methanogens and this process requires a strongly reduced environment. This procedure produces methane (CH4) which can be a problem in some instances like landfill sites. (Maier, 1999) All the bacteria have an optimum growth temperature where their growth is faster, while they also have a specific range of temperature into which they can only grow. Most of the bacteria are mesophilic and they grow in temperatures between 15 and 45 degrees of Celsius. Thermophilic are bacteria with growth temperature over 45 degrees of Celsius, while psychrophilic are the bacteria with growth temperature under 15 degrees. 3.1 Low temperature It is well known that bacteria as well as various other forms of life survive and thrive optimally in moderate conditions of temperature, pressure, pH and other environmental parameters. However, there is also evidence of bacteria life in extreme environments. For example bacteria were found to exist in the very acidic river Rio Tino while also bacteria were detected in subzero environments like in Lake Vostok even in depth of 3600 meters, below the surface ice. (Chattopadhyay Sengupta, 2013) At low temperature, bacteria are challenged with a number of difficulties due to decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions that sustain the life. Bacteria taken from low temperature environments were found with increased branched chain, short chain, anteiso and unsaturated fatty acids. They were also found to synthesize more cis fatty acids in preference to trans fatty acids. All these factors are contributing in the increase of membrane fluidity. Moreover, in order to adjust with the low enthalpy and the reduced atomic and molecular motions at low temperature, they achieve flexibility through reduction in strength and number of non-covalent interactions. Finally a high level of post-transcriptional modification of t-RNA by dihydrouridine also has a major role in psychrophiles. Dihydrouridine unsettles the stacking that stabilizes the RNA. (Chattopadhyay Sengupta, 2013) 3.2 High temperature Thermophilic bacteria are common in soil and volcanic habitats and have a limited species configuration. Examination of metabolic pathways and regulatory mechanisms in thermophiles proves that thermophilic bacteria have almost the same properties commonly found in mesophilic bacteria, with the main difference being specific molecular mechanisms, important in high temperature biological stability and activity. As a consequence of growth at high temperature and unique macromolecular properties, thermophilic bacteria can possess high metabolic rates, physically and chemically stable enzymes than similar mesophilic species. Thermophilic processes appear more stable, rapid and facilitate reactant activity and product recovery. Analysis of important biomolecules in thermophilic bacteria has revealed subtle structural differences in proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Some of these differences have not been observed in mesophilic bacteria. For instance the membrane lipids of extreme thermop hiles contain more saturated and straight chain fatty acids than mesophiles. This allows thermophilic bacteria to grow at higher temperatures by providing the correct degree of fluidity required for membrane function. Finally the explanation for high temperature stability of tRNA in Thermus species is that Thermus transfer RNA contains more guanine plus cytosine bases in the specific base-paired region, which provides greater hydrogen bonding and increased thermal stability. Also, the base-paired region in tRNAs from Thermus contains more thiolated thymidine which provides a stronger stacking force inside the molecule. (Zeikus, 1979) The restoration, maintenance and protection of the environment with the help of biological agents in general and bacteria more specifically are significantly important in terms of sustainability in the environment. Hence, in many cases, bacteria and environmental engineering go hand in hand and both are interdependent on each other. Their main connection is the removal and treatment of the wastes, solid or liquid, from various sources like the industrial, domestic and other. There are many examples of the use of bacteria especially in waste and wastewater treatment, where some useful characteristics of bacteria are used.   Ã‚   4.1 Wastewater treatment Biological treatment is one of the most widely used removal methods as well as for partial or complete stabilization of biologically degradable substances in wastewaters. General characteristics of wastewaters are measured in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS). Bacteria provide the largest component of the microbial community in all biological wastewater treatment processes, and numbers in excess of 106 bacteria/ml of wastewater are frequently encountered. 4.1.1 Activation Sludge Activated sludge is a process that has been adopted worldwide as a secondary biological treatment for domestic wastewaters. In the activated sludge process the incoming wastewater is mixed and aerated with existing biological sludge (microorganisms). Organics in the wastewater come into contact with the microorganisms and are utilized as food and oxidized to CO2, and H2O. The microorganisms using the organics as food they reproduce, grow, and die. While the microorganisms grow, are mixed together by the movement of air so individual organisms join an active mass of microbes called activated sludge. The wastewater flows continuously into an aeration tank where air is injected to mix the activated sludge with the wastewater and to supply oxygen needed for microbes to breakdown the organic materials. This mixture of activated sludge and wastewater in the aeration tank is called mixed liquor suspended solids and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids. The mixed liquor is sent to the slud ge handling disposal (second part of activation sludge method). A part of this mass precipitates while the rest flows back to the aeration tank in order to maintain sufficient microbial population levels. This is the called activated sludge. The microorganisms in activated sludge generally are composed of 70 to 90% organic and 10 to 30% inorganic matter. The microorganisms generally found in activated sludge consist of bacteria (mostly), fungi and protozoa. 4.1.2 Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal Nitrogen and phosphorus are two essential elements in terms of the waste treatment. The nitrogen compounds and the phosphates existing in wastewaters are very important for the survival of the bacteria although they should be removed in order to avoid problems of deoxygenation and eutrophication in the final recipient. (Bitton, 2010) Nitrification The principal organisms involved in nitrification processes belong into two categories, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. These bacteria are considered to be strictly autotrophs since they derive energy for growth and synthesis from the oxidation of inorganic nitrogen and carbon (CO2) compounds. Nitrosomonas catalyse oxidation of ammonia to nitrite using molecular oxygen, while Nictobacter further oxidize nitrite to nitrate using oxygen derived from the water molecule. It should be mentioned that some some soluble forms of c-BOD can inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria since they are able to enter the cells of nitrifying bacteria and inactivate their enzyme systems. (Horan, 1989) Denitrification Denitrification is a process by which certain species of bacteria under anoxic conditions reduce nitrate nitrogen to the gaseous end-products of N2, NO, or N2O which can then escape from solution to the atmosphere. Unlike other nitrogen compounds, the gaseous forms of nitrogen have no significant effect on environmental quality. The presence of oxidized nitrogen and organic carbon are essential properties for denitrification to proceed. Denitrifying bacteria are composed of heterotrophic organisms. The most common denitrifying bacteria are Bacillus denitrijicans, Micrococcus denitrijicans and more. (Horan, 1989) Phosphorus removal The anaerobic-oxic process (most commonly used), consists of a modified activated sludge system that includes an anaerobic upstream of the conventional aeration tank. During the anaerobic phase, inorganic phosphorus is released from the cells as a result of polyphosphate hydrolysis. The energy liberated is used for the uptake of BOD from wastewater. (Bitton, 2010)Removal efficiency is high when the BOD/phosphorus ratio exceeds 10. During the aerobic phase, soluble phosphorus is taken up by bacteria that synthesize polyphosphates using the energy released from BOD oxidation. The anaerobic-oxic process results in BOD removal and produces sludge which is rich in phosphorus. The key features of this process are the relatively low solid retention time and high organic loading rates. (Cheremisinoff, 1997) 4.1.3 Anaerobic Digestion Major applications of anaerobic digestion are the stabilization of concentrated sludges produced from the treatment of especially industrial wastes. The digestion is a complex biochemical process in which several groups of anaerobic and facultative organisms again simultaneously absorb and break down organic matter and can be described as a two-phase process. In the first phase, acid-forming organisms convert the complex organic substrate to simple organic acids. Little change occurs in the total amount of organic material in the system, with decrease in ph . Second phase involves conversion of the organic acids to principally methane and carbon dioxide. The anaerobic process is essentially controlled by the methane producing bacteria. Methane formers are very sensitive to pH, substrate composition, and temperature. If the pH drops below 6,methane formation stops, and there is no decrease in organic content of the sludge. One characteristic of the methane bacteria is that they are hi ghly active in the mesophilic and thermophilic ranges. (Cheremisinoff, 1997) 4.2 Solid Waste Treatment 4.2.1 Composting Composting is the biological decomposition and stabilization of organic substrates. Each gram of decaying compost contains millions of beneficial microorganisms that work to break down organic matter. Of the microorganisms present, 80 to 90 percent are bacteria, including actinomycetes and aerobic bacteria. Aerobic are separated in three different varieties, each of which is active at different phases of the decomposition process. Psychrophilic bacteria (during winter) work on the initial organic matter, at temperatures around 12 degrees Celsius. These bacteria raise the temperature to 20 C, at which time, the mesophilic bacteria take over. These bacteria work at moderate to warm temperatures between 20 and 38 C. At 38 C, the thermophilic bacteria take over, raising the temperature to 70 C. Once this happens, the process starts over again with the addition of new materials. Actinomycete bacteria appear during the late stages of composting to clean up remaining materials that are diff icult for aerobic bacteria to break down. They are responsible for breaking down cellulose, proteins, lignin and starches. References Bitton G., (2010), Activated Sludge Process, in Wastewater Microbiology, 4th Edition, Hoboken, NJ, USA, John Wiley Sons, Inc. Boundless, (2016), Chemoautotrophs and Chemoheterotrophs, Boundless Microbiology, Available from: https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/microbial-metabolism-5/types-of-metabolism-41/chemoautotrophs-and-chemoheterotrophs-285-6153/, [Accessed: 13 January 2017] Chattopadhyay M. and Sengupta D., (2013), Metabolism in bacteria at low temperature: A recent study report., Biosciences, 31, 2, 157-165. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236674848_Metabolism_in_bacteria_at_low_temperature_A_recent_report , [Accessed: 10 January 2017] Cheremisinoff N. P., (1997), Biotechnology for Industrial and municipal wastes, in Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, 1-36 Darakas E., (2016), Environmental Engineering: Process of water and wastewater treatment, Thessaloniki, Sofia Publisher. Horan N., (1989), Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems: Theory and Operation., Chichester, England, Wiley Blackwell. Hurst, C.J. et al., (2002), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Washington, ASM Press. Kadner R. J. and Rogers K., (2015), Bacteria. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria/Salt-and-water. [Accessed: 23 December 2017] Lester, J.N. Birkett, J.W., (1999), Microbiology and Chemistry for Environmental Engineers, London, E. F.N. Spon. Maier, E.M. et al, (1999), Environnemental Microbiology, Academic Press Singleton P., (2005), Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and Medicine, 6th Edition, Wiley Smith S. R., (2016), Bacteria, Lecture Slides for the course of Microbiology for Environmental Engineering; MSc of Environmental Engineering, London, Imperial College London. Traumann N. and Olynciw E., (1996), Compost Microorganisms, Cornell Waste Management Institue, New York, Available from: http://compost.css.cornell.edu/microorg.html, [Accessed: 10 January 2017]. Yates V. M., Nakatsu C. H., Miller R. V., Pillai S. D., (2016), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 4th Edition, ASM Press Zeikus, J.G., (1979), Thermophilic bacteria: ecology, physiology and technology., Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 1, 4, 243-252. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0141022979900437?via%3Dihub, [Accessed: 27 December 2016]

Monday, August 19, 2019

Botticelli Essay example -- Biography

He used his paintbrush like a pen or a pencil to outline. He was more interested in making his paintings beautiful in a fantasy type of way. He died a lonely man having done little or no more painting in the last ten years. Who was this famous artist? Botticelli. Thoughtful and clever, Botticelli painted many famous masterpieces. Botticelli’s real name was: Alessandro Filipepi. He was born in 1445 in Florence, Italy. This was the time of the Renaissance. Botticelli was the youngest of five children. He got his nickname when working with a goldsmith. The goldsmith named him Botticelli, meaning, â€Å"Little barrel†. Many other people of the Renaissance said he had a deep-set of eyes and flowing locks. But they also said he was a jokester and a prankster to his friends (â€Å"WebMuseum† par 2). By the time he was 15, he had his own workshop to show off his work. (â€Å"Historylink† par 2). In addition, when he was 15 years old he already was training with a very popular painter from the Renaissance. His name was Fra Filippo Lippi (Historylink). Fra Filippo Lippi taught him how to mix colors and how to paint pictures. In 1465 Botticelli made his own studio (â€Å"WebMuseum† par 3). In comparison Botticelli and Fra Filippo Lippi are very similar. They both painted a picture beginning with: The Adoration of the†¦ Botticelli’s picture: The Adoration of the Maji is a painting of the birth of Christ. Lippi’s picture: The Adoration of the Kings is a picture of the Kings. (â€Å"FactMonster† par 1). Botticelli spent most of his life in Florence. He painted many pictures of mythology. His most famous masterpiece was the Birth of Venus (â€Å"Artchive† par 2.). He was devoted to only paint pictures of mythological beings instead of religious subjects. That’s what he was... ...elli made a big difference in Florence, Italy. He worked for the famous Medici family. The Medici family was very important in the Renaissance. They controlled the Florence city and they were very wealthy. They valued him very much. Since Botticelli’s paintings were known for their poetic feeling, they either told a story or showed a famous scene from a mythological or religious subject. The masterpieces never had anything to do with science or nature. Not all of the characters were real they just had to stand for a purpose in the painting. Botticelli’s master Fra Filippo Lippi impacted his life by getting him to start to paint pictures. Without his assistance he would have never learned to paint any of the famous masterpieces in the Renaissance. He learned about mythological subjects and how to use decorative details. Lippi got him to be the gifted artist he was.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Roman games :: History

The Roman games Question : Who were the spectators at Roman games? Discuss the relationship between them and the performers they watched. Gladiator fights were first introduced to Rome in 264 BC, when the sons of Junius Brutus paid honor to their father's funeral by showing three pairs of gladiators fight. This ritual caught on and was performed to honor significant men. As the years passed, the ceremonies became more promoted and emperors began to present the games to symbolize their power. The citizens of Rome loved to go to these bloody warfares. In the city of Rome, these events were held in the Colosseum. An arena so large that it could hold 50,000 spectators and host fights between men and animals. Gladiatorial games occupied a central role in society. Sponsored during the republic by rich magistrates and later in the Empire by the Emperors themselves, the games have long been called an election tool. The games in Rome are known today as the bloodiest exhibitions of public entertainment known to mankind. Men, Women and children flocked to the Colosseum to watch the bloodthirsty fighters murder one another. The spectators came from all over the Roman Empire and various other regions, like Africa. The games became a way of entertaining the wealthy, as well as the common people. "Gladiator", comes from the latin word "gladius", for sword. They were primarily made up of slaves, criminals, prisoners of war or even volunteer free men. The crimes that could lead one to the arena included treason, robbery, and murder, among others. Some free men became gladiators of their own free will in hopes of gaining notoriety and patronage amongst the wealthy citizens. By the end of 50 BC almost half of the gladiators fighting in the Colosseum were free men. The gladiators competed against one another for the sake of public entertainment at festival games. Although some gladiators fought wild animals, the combats usually featured a pair of male human contenders. They fought in diverse styles depending on their background and how much training they had endured. Originally as captured soldiers, they were made to fight with their own weopons. There were also strong sexual references to the gladiator. The word gladius, for sword, was used to mean penis, their helmets were also, occasionally, shaped in the form of a phallus. Even the dead, defeated gladiator, had something sexual about him.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Merchants of Cool Essay

In watching the film, Merchants of Cool, which was aired in 2001, it is quite concerning how our society is turning to consuming as a means of achieving a satisfying standard of living. The film brought to light how large media companies, especially conglomerates that own all production and distribution of media from start to finish, study and sell to teen youths because of their large quantity of â€Å"guilt money†, disposable income giving to youth by parents to keep them happy. They have become the most marketed group, which in turn turns the youth into adults that continue to seek happiness in consuming. The fear in this standard of living is that we start losing touch with our true values, and instead of looking towards family, community, ethnicity and religion as the creator of cultural forms, we are now being oriented as a society by the world of commodities. And with the advancement of technology, so has marketing research advanced, where we are being specifically being catered to with ads to continue this cycle of finding meaning and happiness through the purchase of goods and services. Advertisers know that they cannot sell meaning and happiness, but they can illicit those feelings by advertising visions of what a â€Å"good life† should be through the selling of products, known as **image-based advertising**. Sut Jhally’s article, Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture, explains how image-based advertising has been so integrated into our way of thought and consumption that it is difficult to pinpoint when our most cherished values became tied into consumer culture (p 201). Advertisements have taken up so much of our public space and discourse, and now even our private with the advancement of technology, that we are constantly being shown what the vision of happiness is, and what we must buy to achieve a satisfying standard of living. Juliet Schor’s article, The New Politics of Consumption: Why Americans Want So Much More Than They Need, breaks down the idea that Americans live in a constant state of **dis-ease**: worrying about the preoccupation with getting and spending (p 205). Not only is this disconcerting because it takes away from living in the moment, but it pushes us to live beyond our means. We aren’t happy because we do not emulate what we see as the â€Å"good life† because of the growing aspirational gap because of upscale emulation. We are never at ease where we stand economically and socially, and feel the pressures to keep up. And although this is a problem with the upper and middle class, it is a more dangerous problem for the lower class. The trickle effect of status symbol goods, such as state of the art phones, flat screen televisions, etc. , sets up those with limited resources and aspirations of living the â€Å"good life† by buying those goods for continual financial failure through consumption of expensive goods that is beyond their means. The film, The Merchants of Cool, aired in 2001, and the way that companies acquired information from the consumer was with â€Å"cool hunters†, marketing researchers who would research and interview to see what trends could be capitalized on. The analyzing was apparent, as opposed to now where consumers are being researched and targeted in ways that are more subtle, and now advertisers have the tools to more conspicuously sell us the â€Å"good life†. On the radio interview â€Å"How Companies are ‘Defining Your Worth’ Online†, Joseph Turrow discussed how marketers don’t even have to do much to gather information from us, they can now track our online movements using digital tracking like cookies. This information is gathered and sold to advertisers by data marketers, unbeknownst to us. Market research has evolved so much because of the growing digital world we live in. And advertisers are now able to subtly sell to us in a personally targeted way, instead of the blatant in your face banner ads that we would automatically close without even reading them. Although this is perfectly legal, the downfall falls on the consumer that is being researched and targeted. Our sense of consumption is insatiable when we are constantly being targeted, we lose a sense of privacy when we are constantly being watched, and, as Joseph Turrow also discussed, and we can also be targets of **digital social discrimination**. Digital social discrimination, which is the idea that companies can take digital information and make inferences of what kind of ads are suitable for the individual consumer, they target only certain ads, discounts, and such (2012). Advertisers then think of that individual only in a certain way, and may even target ads that may have negative connotations, such as getting out of debt ads, weight loss, and such. Consumers are being categorized, and because of the categories they are being targeted by certain ads, which perhaps sell a good that is not appropriate, and denied others because of assumptions being made by the online information gathered on that individual. This is why it is important to have some sort of regulatory system overseeing the structure and ownership of media. U. S. government plays only a small role in determining who owns the media, and only regulates it minimally, and the power of the U. S. media that uses the market research to produce products reaches us not just here in the United States, but also has a global impact. Because of the United States’ **cultural imperialism**, where American styles in fashion and food, as well as media far, dominate the global market, our versions of the â€Å"good life† are influenced on parts of the world, as discussed in Richard Campbell’s â€Å"Media Economics and the Global Marketplace†, (p 411). Our ‘cultural dumping’ of exporting U. S. media can influence other countries societal value systems, development of original local products, and abandon their own rituals to adopt American tastes. In reality, the power behind these large media researchers, marketers, producers, and distributors, who are often the owned by the same company, is astounding and influences not only our lives as an individual, but also has the potential to influence on a global level. They are able to gather information about individuals, sell it, and categorize as they see fit, leaving us with no sense of privacy, with the goal of selling us as many goods and services as possible until we reach the unattainable â€Å"good life†, which is a vision that they have carefully created. Until we, as consumers, are more aware of how much consumption has taken over our sense of self-worth and satisfaction and how little privacy we have in the new digital age, we will keep trying to buy the â€Å"good life†. ?

Friday, August 16, 2019

Analysis of music in the film Grease

I think the effectiveness of a musical film In comparison to a film score in a non- musical largely depends on the target audience of the film, genre of film, and plot of the film. In musical films Like Grease, Chicago, Less Miserable, West Side Story, and Mama Ml, the musical and choreographed aspects of film work with the plot In an effective manner. I feel Like [romantic] comedies (egg. Mama Ml and Grease) and dramas (egg. Less Miserable and Chicago) are the two genres that are best made in to musical films.Musicals are able to break down language barriers, telling the plot of he film through song which evokes plenty of emotion that is universally understood. West Side Story is a perfect example of a musical where choreography and music helps the audience to understand the story even though they might not understand every word of the lyrics. Musicals are able to effectively tell a story if the plot is more simplistic. Contrary to [romantic] comedies and dramas, turning an action o r science fiction film into a musical would be simply ridiculous.If we were to imagine an action film like The Dark Knight or Star Wars as a musical, I don't think these films would eve been nearly as successful as they have been today. One reason for this Is the target audience for films Like Star Wars and The Dark Knight have the potential to be vastly different from the type of people who enjoy watching musicals like Dream Girls and Rent. The plot for The Dark Knight and Star Wars largely benefit from the music being comprised of a film score that is not classified as a musical.It would also be difficult to convert these genres into a musical because the plots are often too complex to understand if everything is sung. The scores in non-musicals serves to implement the plot, not to tell the plot which can often be taken more seriously by the viewers. â€Å"Summer Nights† (0:14:04) Is the first song In the film, Grease, that gives us an introductory look Into what the charac ters are going to be like. Sandy Is seen as very Innocent and sweet from the way she recounts her and Dandy's summer romance from an emotional perspective- â€Å"he got friendly holding my hand†.Dandy's telling of his summer romance is a little more crude and revealing about the physical aspects of the romance -â€Å"she got friendly down in the sand†. The song establishes Danny as he cool leader of the greaser clan known as the â€Å"T-birds† and Sandy as the new girl who the schoolgirl clique, â€Å"The Pink Ladies†, have their eye on to recruit. This song also introduces the other eight main characters (the rest of the T-birds and The Pink Ladies), allowing each of them to ask questions that reveal their characters.The next song that helped to further develop some of the characters is â€Å"Look at Me, I'm Sandra Dee† (0:27:30) which is a comedic song performed by Orzo and The Pink Ladies. A taunting, underlying tone In the music is heard right away. Razz's tough and arctic tone Is established through her lyrics In this song as she is mocking the Innocence of Sandy. When the characters are mocking Sandy inability to Inhale properly while smoking, we hear a clapper Instrument to compliment them coughing.The rest of The Pink Ladies: French, Marty, and Jan, seem to follow their leader, immature and highly compliant to what Orzo wants them to do or think. â€Å"Hopelessly Devoted To You† (0:32:00) is a ballad performed by Sandy which has a slower tempo than the other songs we have previously heard in the film. The song starts off by sing heavy strings to create an emotional feel then later we hear the piano. This is a character song which enables Sandy to express her romantic feelings for Danny, and reflect on their relationship.The chorus, â€Å"hopelessly devoted to you† is how Sandy feels towards Danny and these feelings are emphasized by the repetition through the song. â€Å"Greased Lightning† (0:37:2 0) is performed by Danny and the T-birds and serves to establish the major cultural influences of the sass's: cars and rock and roll. We hear 3 stingers using ascending notes played on brass at the beginning of the Eng to compliment Dandy's ideas of what the car could be (automatic, systematic, hydromantic).There is also a lot of call and response between the protagonist, Danny, singing the main course and the T-birds backing him up by providing musical responses to his lines. This song uses heavy percussion, piano, bass, and brass instruments to create a genuine rock and roll feel. The tempo stays consistent throughout the song except when it slows down at the ending chorus. The ending chorus is also where we hear drums and vocals being harmonize. â€Å"Sandy† (01:19:10) reformed by Danny is Dandy's counter song to â€Å"Sandy's Hopelessly Devoted To You†.This is also a ballad as it expresses the deep emotions Danny has for Sandy and shows how vulnerable he is without her. We see a different side of Danny here because he is not acting tough or cool; he is being raw and real. This song uses empathetic sound as we can hear Danny on the verge of crying at some points in the song which causes the viewer to empathetic with the sadness he feels. â€Å"Look at Me, I'm Sandra Dee (Reprise)† (01 :31 :38) is a turning point for Sandy's character.The song tarts out as wholesome and pure, like she is, accompanied by the piano in a high key with a light tone (we hear consonance). Then the lyrics get more powerful along with the intensity of the music (crescendo and lower key on the piano) as she decides to say goodbye to her innocence. â€Å"You're the One That I Want† (01:36:47) performed by Danny, Sandy, Pink Ladies, and T-Birds shows how the characters have succumbed to their feelings. Danny has become the man that Sandy wanted him to be all along and vice versa.We hear a riff on the piano to introduce the new, sophisticated Sandy. The causa l harmony between Danny and Sandy is symbolic of the new found harmony in their relationship and the all black costumes they are wearing is symbolic of both their maturity. This is an example of a rhythm song because it is driven by energetic rhythm patterns. Personally, this is my favorite song of the film because I feel it has the catchiest underlying beat and I felt that the choreography and props were used really effectively to capture the viewers attention. We Go Together† is a production number which involves the full cast and expresses the major changes in the plot room the opening to closing act. This cheerful tune is expressive of the happiness found by the entire cast and all the main characters are happily coupled off. Grease does include a lot of dancing which I found to be quite effective. It is more visually appealing and helps with the flow of telling the story through song. If at some points in the film the characters were Just standing there rather than moving around and dancing, the audience is more likely to be disengaged. Dancing also provides the catchier.Dance is also an important part of detecting a characters emotion through odd language; in the song Mimi Are The One That I Want†, Sandy is seen to have a new gained confidence and attitude which reflective not only in her lyrics, but in her dancing as well. I find it effective that performers in musical films treat their song and dance numbers as if there is a live audience watching. It helps to engage the audience more because they feel as though they are more closely connected to the performers. It also helps the performers find the emotional energy to perform different songs and dance if they have an audience's energy to thrive off of.