Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Terrorism Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Terrorism Assignment - Essay Example Al Qaeda has, despite its being weakened through the efforts of the United States and its allies, still has the ability to target a diverse number of locations all over the world, and these mainly tend to be American interests. One of the reasons why al Qaeda has continued to survive and remain a threat to America is because of the sectarian divisions in the Middle East (Poole, 2010), which has made it easier for it to gain some political support from some prominent members of government who sympathize with them. This has ensured that members of the organization have safe places where they can operate without any interference from their respective government. It can be suggested that the presence of external forces in the Middle East, such as NATO’s military presence, have helped strengthen the organization because the former is seen as an invading force targeting Muslims instead of terrorists. Furthermore, the power vacuum left from the ousting of Saddam Hussein in Iraq ensur ed that the presence of Al Qaeda was expanded to this country. The fact that al Qaeda is still a threat to the United States has called to question its ability to protect its civilians from any potential attacks from this organization especially after the catastrophe in 2001. The security posture of the United States before the September 11 attacks is very different from the one which came after these attacks. Before these attacks, the federal government played an extremely restricted role in the internal security of the nation and most of the security matters were left in the hands of the state and local governments. Since the responsibility for internal security was left to the latter, one would surmise that they concentrated more on the domestic threat than on any potential one from outside the United States (Borch, 2003). In addition to this, most of the security agencies at the federal level were not on a high alert for any foreign attacks on the United States because such threats were considered to be non-existent. All these changed after the attacks as the United States moved to swiftly secure itself from the new external threat, al Qaeda (Chau, 2008). The activation of the American security apparatus has worked well towards ensuring that no furthe r attacks on the United States on the same scale as September 2001 have yet to occur again. The intelligence services, which once jealously guarded their jurisdictions from each other have seen an unprecedented level of cooperation between them, and these has been facilitated by the development of fusion centers as points through which they have come to share intelligence. The fact that these agencies are now sharing information, has ensured that they have become more effective in their fight against al Qaeda both at a local and international level and many potential strikes by this organization have been pre-empted (Sales, 2010). The American military has bases all over the world in allied countries and these have been put in place to protect American interests in these respective regions. Among the most prominent military bases can be found in the Middle East where they have been continuously used to fight terrorism in this region (Crook, 2006). The military has been an effective tool in dealing with the threat to the United States from al Qaeda. One of the most notable acts of the military was when Navy Seals attacked and killed the former al Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden, dealing a massive blow to the terrorist organization (Soherwordi et al, 2011). Furthermore, the military has used drones to strike at specific targets within al Qaeda who have been found to be a threat to the national security of the United States. Because of this drone strikes (Hudson, et al, 2012), many prominent al Qaeda leaders have been

Monday, October 28, 2019

Further Reflections on the Public Sphere Essay Example for Free

Further Reflections on the Public Sphere Essay The text is about relationship of state and civil society, the origins of and prospects for democracy and the impact of the media. A kind of rethinking of Habermas first major work, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere published in 1962 and translated into English in 1989 which describes the development of a bourgeois public sphere in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as well as its subsequent decline. Habermas admits, his theory has changed since then and he reminds readers of these changes. 1.The Genesis and Concept of the Bourgeois Public Sphere The public sphere (Ãâ€"ffentlichkeit ) is an area in social life (standing in-between private individuals and government authorities) where individuals can meet to freely discuss public matters, exchanged views and knowledge and through that discussion influence political action. A vibrant public sphere serves as a positive counterweight to government authorities (are out of the state control) and happens physically in face-to-face meetings in coffee houses and public squares as well as in books, theatre etc. The public sphere emerged first in Britain and in the 18th century in Continental Europe. The newspapers, reading rooms, freemasonry lodges and coffeehouses marked the gradual emergence of the public sphere. Habermas mentions Geoff Eley’s objection to his earlier depiction of bourgeois public sphere is an idealized conception. Habermas admits now the coexistence of several competing public spheres and groups, that were excluded form the dominant public sphere – the so called „plebianâ€Å" public sphere (like Jacobins, Chartist movement). Habermas influenced here by Guenter Lottes and greatly by Mikhail Bakhtin, who opened his eyes to the culture of common people as a violent counter project to the dominant public sphere. Habermas now views quite differently the exclusion of women as well. Habermas asks himself – were women excluded from the dominant public sphere in the same fashion as the common people? He answers himself with „noâ€Å" – the exclusion of women had structuring significance, as it was happening not only in the public sphere, but also in the private sphere. At the end of this chapter Habermas summons up: his bourgeois public sphere was formerly conceived too rigidly. In fact, from the very beginning a dominant bourgeois public collided with a plebeian (and female) one. As a result, the contrast between the early public sphere and the today’s decayed public sphere is no longer so deep. 2.The Structural Transformations of the Public Sphere: Three Revisions This chapter traces the transition from the liberal bourgeois public sphere to the modern mass society of the social welfare state. Starting in the 1830s, a transformation of state and economy took shape. Clear borderlines between public and private and between state and society became blurred, as a result of interventionist state policies. The increasing re-integration and entwining (mà ­senà ­ se) of state and society resulted in the modern social welfare state. In the subchapter 1 Habermas deals with the impact of these developments on the private sphere. Civil society was formerly totally private, there was no difference between social and family life. This changes with the emancipation of lower strata (workers), a polarization of social and intimate sphere arrives. Habermas describes a dispute among two schools in the 1950s, that of conservative Carl Schmitt school (and Ernst Fortshoff) and Marxist Wolfgang Abendroth, that influenced his considerations at that time, though today he distances himself from his approach. In the subchapter 2 Habermas is concerned with changes in the structure of the public sphere and in the composition and behavior of the public. The infrastructure of the public sphere has changed due to changes in media, advertising and literature that has become oriented to new social groups (workers) as well as due to the collapse of the liberal associational life. Since the 1960s, when Habermas book was published, the opportunities for access to public communication became even more difficult. The public sphere is today dominated by the mass media., which turned the critical public into a passive consumer public and caused a decay of the public sphere. Nevertheless, Habermas says his old concept of a unilinear development from a „culture-debating to a culture-consuming publicâ€Å" was too simplistic and pessimistic. Habermas explains this by general situation of media effects studies at that time – he relied on Lazarsfeld’s behavioristic research and had no information brought later by Stuart Hall (audience does not simply passively accept a text). Subchapter 3 deals with the legitimation process of mass democracy and two diverging concepts of public opinion – an informal, nonpublic opinion and a formal quasi public opinion (made by mass media), that often collide. 3.A Modified Theoretical Framework The mass democracies constituted as social-welfare states can continue the principles of the liberal constitutional state only as long as they try to live up to the mandate of a public sphere that fulfills political functions. It is necessary to demonstrate how it may be possible for the public to set in motion a critical process of public communication. Habermas asks himself, weather there can emerge a general interest of the kind to which a public opinion can refer to as a criterion. Habermas could not resolve this problem before. Today he is able to reformulate the question and give an answer. The ideals of bourgeois humanism function today as a utopian vision, which makes it tempting to idealize the bourgeois public sphere too much. Therefore Habermas suggests the foundations of the critical theory of society be laid at a deeper level and beyond the threshold of modern societies. In the 1960s Habermas believed that society and its self-organization was a totality (celek) controlling all spheres of its life. This notion has become implausible today – e.g. economic system of a society is regulated independently through markets. Later emerged his dual concept of society the internal subjective viewpoint of the lifeworld and the external viewpoint of the system. The aim today as he sees it is to erect a dam against an encroachment (naruÃ… ¡ovà ¡nà ­) of system on the lifeworld, to reach a balance between the social-integrative power of solidarity (lifeworld) and money + administrative power (system). Communicative action serves to transmit and renew cultural knowledge, in a process of achieving mutual understandings. It then coordinates action towards social integration and solidarity. This can be met in traditional societies. Less often in posttraditional societies with their confused pluralism of various competing forms of life. Habermas criticizes Rousseau for his utopian concept of the general will of citizens in a democracy as a „consensus of hearts rather than of argumentsâ€Å". Habermas sees the solution in the process of public communication itself. Therefore democracy is rooted in public reasoning among equal citizens. State institutions are legitimate only when they establish a framework for free public deliberation (debata). Such a rational debate is the most suitable procedure for resolving moral-practical questions as well. The question remains how such a debate can be institutionalized so that it bridges the gap between self-interest and orientation to the common good (between the roles of client (private) and citizen (public)). Such a debate must meet two preconditions: presumption of impartiality and ability to transcend initial preferences. These conditions must be guaranteed by legal procedures (institutionalized) and they themselves shall be subject to the law. New institutions should be considered, that would counteract the trend toward the transmutation of citizens into clients (i.e. toward alienation of citizens from the political process). Democracy shall be not restricted only to state institutional arrangements. They shall interplay with autonomous networks and groups with a spontaneous flow of communication, that are the one remaining embodiment of the altogether dispersed sovereignty of the people. Democratic public life cannot develop where matters of public importance are not discussed by citizens. However, discourses do not govern – the responsibility for practically consequential decisions must be based in an institution. 4.Civil Society or Political Public Sphere Political public sphere is characterized by two processes: 1) the communicative generation of legitimate power 2) manipulative power of mass media. A public sphere need more than just state institutions – it requires a populace accustomed to freedom and the supportive spirit of differentially organized lifeworlds with their critical reflection and spontaneous communication – voluntary unions outside the realm of the state and the economy (church, independent media, leisure clubs etc.) They are not part of the system, but they have a political impact, as was seen in totalitarian regimes, e.g. in the communist states of Eastern and Central Europe. In Western-type democracies these associations are established within the institutional framework of the state. Habermas asks himself the question, to what extent such a public sphere dominated by mass media can bring about any changes. This can be answered only by means of empirical research. He concludes with reference to a study No Sense of Place by J.Meyrowitz, who claims that electronic media dissolve social structures and boundaries (like in primitive societies). Habermas disagrees – new roles and constraints arise in the process of using electronic communication.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay examples --

Addiction: Anabolic- Androgenic Steroids Anabolic steroids, technically known as anabolic-androgenic steroids, are drugs that are related to the cyclic steroid ring system and have similar effects to testosterone in the body. They increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles. They address the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords, testicles and body hair. Anabolic steroids were first made in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions; such as cancer and AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals. Health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of anabolic steroids. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels, acne, high blood pressure, liver damage, and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart. Conditions pertaining to hormonal imbalances such as gynecomastia and testicular atrophy may also be caused by anabolic steroids. Ergogenic uses for anabolic steroids in sports, racing, and bodybuilding as performance-enhancing drugs are controversial because of their hostile effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage is considered cheating. Their use is referred to as doping and banned by all major sporting bodies. Mechanism of action The pharmacodynamics of anabolic steroids are unlike peptid... ...ses the production of red blood cells. Through a number of mechanisms anabolic steroids stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles, leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality. Some examples of effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children, increased vocal cord size, increased libido, suppression of natural sex hormones, and impaired production of sperm. Effects on women include deepening of the voice, facial hair growth, and possibly a decrease in breast size. Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Romanticism Poem and the Concept of Mercy

The concept of mercy can be a very hard thing for one to grasp. One may find themselves asking â€Å"Whom shall be given mercy? †, and â€Å"How much mercy should be shown? †. There is no definite answer to those questions as mercy can be shown in different ways. There are three particular works that emphasize the concept of mercy, each showing a different perspective. The three works that use very distinctive ways to show mercy are The Merchant of Venice, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, and Verses Upon the Burning of our House.All of the themes of these works are much alike, as they all involve the comparison of mercy to a great power. However, there are a few distinctions among the works. In The Merchant of Venice, by William Shakespeare, the author uses a particular caption in the play to show how the concept of mercy should be perceived. Shakespeare shows the concepts of mercy by explaining how powerful mercy. Shakespeare shows this by stating, â€Å"It is an attribute to God himself,† (IV. i. 193) thus saying that God uses mercy and so should everyone else.In the narrative Versus Upon the Burning of our House, the author, Anne Bradstreet, talks about the merciful God, and how he has saved her from destruction. She writes about how she has become too materialistic and how her merciful God has helped her in her time of need. This can be shown when the author writes, â€Å"And to my God my heart did cry/To straighten me in my distress,† (8-9) In Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, Jonathan Edwards writes about the Mercy of God as well. His account differs from Bradstreet’s a little, as he is talking about how God is the reason for everyone living.He says that if it were not for a merciful God, then no one would be living. This can be supported by the author stating, â€Å"It is nothing but His mere pleasure that keeps you from being this moment swallowed up in everlasting destruction,† (56) Even though these w orks have different variations of the concept of mercy, the overall theme is the power of mercy is unending. All three of these works demonstrate that mercy can be used in many different ways and different amounts. Although, as stated before, the theme is mostly the same over all the works, the tone is very different.Each of these works have their own clear-cut tones. Shakespeare takes on the tone of appreciation. While reading the passage, readers observe Shakespeare appreciating mercy and all its glory. Shakespeare writes, â€Å"It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven,† (IV. i. 185) giving the reader the illustration that mercy is very plentiful and gentle. Countless times throughout the passage Shakespeare speaks of the power of mercy and just how wonderful it is. As for Bradstreet and Edwards, they take on totally different tones. Bradstreet’s tone is thankfulness of mercy.The author comes across within the passage as being very thankful for Gods mercy and how s he would be lost without it. This can be proving by the following quote, â€Å"I blest his grace that gave and took,/That laid my goods now in the dust. † (14-15) This is a prime example of the author thanking God for having mercy and helping her rather than punishing her. Both Shakespeare and Bradstreet talk about what can happen when mercy is present. Edwards on the other hand talks about what will happen without mercy. Edwards describes violent and vivid images of destruction in his writing.All of which can happen without the mercy of God. He speaks of how you should fear the absence of mercy saying, â€Å"Your wickedness makes you as it were heavy as lead, and to tend downward with great weight and pressure towards hell; and if God should let you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf†¦. † (56) Over all, mercy is said to be praised for its presence, and feared for its absence. The authors use multiple ways of sho wing their own perspective on the concept of mercy.The three authors’ uses of literary devices in their works help strongly support their ideas on the concept of mercy. For instance, Shakespeare uses a simile that compares mercy as being better than a crown for a king. He writes, â€Å"It becomes the throned monarch better than his crown. † This simile backs up the idea of mercy being powerful, and it can be the most powerful in those with the most power. Bradstreet uses an extended metaphor saying that the burning of her house is like the burning of her sins.She thanks God for saving her from her material things which she feels are a sin. Edwards uses multiple similes and metaphors showings Gods power and how everyone is doomed without him. For instance he writes, â€Å"The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much a one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fir, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked,† giving the reader the understanding that Go d is unbelievably greater than people. Each writer uses different literary devices to strengthen their views on the concept of mercy, and each is used in a very strategic manner.The concept of mercy can be interpreted by many different people many different ways. There is no set rules of mercy, and it is up for discussion among people. Everyone has their own ideas on how mercy is and should be. Who’s idea is right? Well, there is no incorrect or correct way to show mercy. In the three works of literature discussed above, each author has their own interpretation of the concept of mercy. Each work has a very distinctive way of proving their point, and each has a similarities and differences with the other works as to how mercy should be perceived.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Nickel And Dimed Essay

You must create a dialectical journal with fifteen (15) entries. I want five (5) entries for each section. I expect a thorough analysis of the devices/strategies identified in the text. Points: 90 Part II Create a monthly budget for a single parent with one child household living in the DMV area making minimum wage. You are to research the necessary information. You must include the current minimum wage, living accommodations, child care, grocery, transportation, and any luxuries (jewelry, dinners at restaurants, a night on the town, etc.). I expect you to find an actual place to live and include their rental rates. If your expenditures exceed your income, you must compute what it would cost for only necessities and calculate the minimum amount of money you must earn to meet those needs. Your research information may be submitted in chart or graph form. You must cite your sources using APA style!! Points: 40 Part III Choose one of the following prompts to write an effective 2 full page double spaced 12† font AP level essay. 1. In â€Å"Evaluation,† the final chapter of Nickel and Dimed, Ehrenreich observes: Some odd optical property of our highly polarized and unequal society makes the poor almost invisible to their economic superiors. The poor can see the affluent easily enough-on television, for example, or on the covers of magazines. But the affluent rarely see the poor or, if they do catch sight of them in some public space, rarely know what they’re seeing, since-thanks to consignment stores and, yes, Wal-Mart- the poor are usually able to disguise themselves as members of the more comfortable classes.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

lab assignment 1 Essay

lab assignment 1 Essay lab assignment 1 Essay Ecology 1. Research topic is ambiguous from topic sentence at first. But as I read through the abstract, it becomes more clear that the article is going to talk about as relationship between Cavalria major and dodo birds in an island called Mauritius, related to coevolution. So I think the author introduces the topic in clear terms. 2. The author introduces what Calvaria major is, how it used to be germinated in the past in presence of dodo, and relationship between extinction of Calvaria major germination and dodo. However, it would have been easier to follow his article if he briefly had described definition of mutualism and coevolution for non-science major students. The author implies that the extinction of dodo results in Calvaria major’s incapability to be germinated, based on which his hypothesis is postulated. Thus it is easy to follow the paper’s summary. 3. When dodo bird was extinct in the past, Calvaria major started to become extinct in the island because the seed of Calvaria was not able to be germinated, which required lots of force so that its seed coat was peeled off. 4. His idea is that the dodo bird’s digestive tract is strong enough to abrade the seed coat of Calvaria major, which results in germination, but now that dodo bird is extinct, the seed coat fails to be germinated, which leads to decrease number of Calvaria major. However, as he notes that Dodo bird was extinct almost 300 years ago, I am highly skeptical how Calvaria major is still existing today because the tree should be also extinct too during 300 years. Therefore, he needs to provide the average life span of the tree that is enough for Calvaria major so that he proves the dodo is the strong factor that influences the germination of the tree. Otherwise, it is impossible to explain how the tree is still extant today, which should have been extinct long times ago. 5. Treatment is that based on the formula he postulates, he calculates how much force would be generated by dodo, and then sees if the force generated is enough to abrade the seed coat withstand force. Control is different weight of turkey that is replaced with dodo. Since dodo bird is extinct today, the means to test his hypothesis is very limited. 6. As a result, the seed coat withstand force is generally stronger than force generated by dodo. Yet, only after the seed is retained in digestive tract for long time, is the

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on First Amendment

â€Å"You cheap ass hoe,† and â€Å"you *censored*ing ass hole,† are two of the many sayings you can hear on tabloid talk shows. All the profanity is usually beeped out, but should it be? We have freedom of speech rights, do we not? Technically, we do not have that right. So, producers are not going to let their guests use profanity, but when that is the case they should do a better job at censoring. The first amendment states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. (U.S. Constitution.) Which means we do not have freedom of speech rights. It just means that Congress can not make any laws to prohibit speech as long as it does not hurt anyone else. However, producers can limit what their guests say. People on tabloid talk shows can use profanity as much as they want, but producers have every right to beep them out. People feel that profanity is bad for small children and is inappropriate. Producers will not ignore that because they want people to watch their show. If people will watch the show as long as profanity is beeped out, then they will beep it out because all they care about is ratings. People do not find profanity socially acceptable, so producers censor profanity or nudity. However, they do not do a good job censoring profanity. They miss the word by a second and you can hear the first part and only the other half is beeped out. If they want to censor things for the good of the people, they should also blur out their guest’s lips, but producers do not do this. They know that profanity will help keep their ratings up. It is entertaining to watch grown people cuss and fight on television. It is just inappropriate for impressionable minds. There are a lot of things that are sa... Free Essays on First Amendment Free Essays on First Amendment â€Å"You cheap ass hoe,† and â€Å"you *censored*ing ass hole,† are two of the many sayings you can hear on tabloid talk shows. All the profanity is usually beeped out, but should it be? We have freedom of speech rights, do we not? Technically, we do not have that right. So, producers are not going to let their guests use profanity, but when that is the case they should do a better job at censoring. The first amendment states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. (U.S. Constitution.) Which means we do not have freedom of speech rights. It just means that Congress can not make any laws to prohibit speech as long as it does not hurt anyone else. However, producers can limit what their guests say. People on tabloid talk shows can use profanity as much as they want, but producers have every right to beep them out. People feel that profanity is bad for small children and is inappropriate. Producers will not ignore that because they want people to watch their show. If people will watch the show as long as profanity is beeped out, then they will beep it out because all they care about is ratings. People do not find profanity socially acceptable, so producers censor profanity or nudity. However, they do not do a good job censoring profanity. They miss the word by a second and you can hear the first part and only the other half is beeped out. If they want to censor things for the good of the people, they should also blur out their guest’s lips, but producers do not do this. They know that profanity will help keep their ratings up. It is entertaining to watch grown people cuss and fight on television. It is just inappropriate for impressionable minds. There are a lot of things that are sa...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Emperor Hirohito of Japan

Emperor Hirohito of Japan Hirohito, also known as the Emperor Showa, was Japans longest-serving emperor (r. 1926 - 1989).   He ruled the country for just over sixty-two extremely tumultuous years, including the build-up to World War II, the war era, post-war reconstruction, and Japans economic miracle.   Hirohito remains an extremely controversial figure; as the leader of the Empire of Japan during its violently expansionist phase, many observers considered him a war criminal.   Who was Japans 124th emperor? Early Life Hirohito was born on April 29, 1901, in Tokyo, and was given the name Prince Michi.   He was the first son of the Crown Prince Yoshihito, later Emperor Taisho, and Crown Princess Sadako (Empress Teimei).   At the age of just two months, the infant prince was sent away to be raised by Count Kawamura Sumiyoshis household.   The count passed away three years later, and the little prince and a younger brother returned to Tokyo. When the prince was eleven years old, his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died and the boys father became the Emperor Taisho.   The boy now became the heir apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne and was commissioned into the army and the navy.   His father was not healthy and proved a weak emperor compared with the illustrious Meiji Emperor. Hirohito went to a school for children of the elites from 1908 to 1914, and the went into special training as the crown prince from 1914 to 1921.   With his formal education completed, the Crown Prince became the first in Japanese history to tour Europe, spending six months exploring Great Britain, Italy, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.   This experience had a powerful effect on the 20-year-old Hirohitos worldview, and he often preferred western food and clothing afterward.   When Hirohito returned home, he was named as Regent of Japan on November 25, 1921. His father was incapacitated by neurological problems, and could no longer rule the country.   During Hirohitos regency, a number of key events took place including the Four-Power Treaty with the US, Britain, and France; the Great Kanto Earthquake of September 1, 1923; the Toranomon Incident, in which a communist agent tried to assassinate Hirohito; and the extension of voting privileges to all men 25 and older.   Hirohito also married the imperial princess Nagako in 1924; they would have seven children together. Emperor Hirohito On December 25, 1926, Hirohito took the throne following his fathers death.   His reign was declared the Showa era, meaning Enlightened Peace- this would turn out to be a wildly inaccurate name.   According to Japanese tradition, the emperor was a direct descendant of Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, and thus was a deity rather than an ordinary human being.   Hirohitos early reign was extremely turbulent.   Japans economy fell into crisis even before the Great Depression hit, and the military assumed greater and greater power.   On January 9, 1932, a Korean independence activist threw a hand grenade at the emperor and nearly killed him in the Sakuradamon Incident. The prime minister was assassinated the same year, and an attempted military coup followed in 1936.   The coup participants murdered a number of top government and Army leaders, prompting Hirohito to demand that the Army crush the rebellion. Internationally, this was also a chaotic time.   Japan invaded and seized Manchuria in 1931, and used the pretext of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 to invade China proper.   This marked the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.   Hirohito did not lead the charge in to China, and was concerned that the Soviet Union might oppose the move, but did offer suggestions about how to carry out the campaign. World War II Although in the aftermath of the war, Emperor Hirohito was depicted as a hapless pawn of the Japanese militarists, unable to stop the march into full-scale war, in fact he was a more active participant.   For example, he personally authorized the use of chemical weapons against the Chinese, and also gave informed consent prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   However, he was very concerned (and rightly so) that Japan would over-extend itself in trying to seize essentially all of East and Southeast Asia in the planned Southern Expansion. Once the war was underway, Hirohito required that the military brief him regularly, and worked with Prime Minister Tojo to coordinate Japans efforts.   This degree of involvement from an emperor was unprecedented in Japanese history.   As the Imperial Japanese armed forces swept through the Asia-Pacific region in the first half of 1942, Hirohito was thrilled with their success.   When the tide began to turn at the Battle of Midway, the emperor pressed the military to find a different route of advance. Japans media still reported every battle as a great victory, but the public began to suspect that the war was actually not going well.   The US began devastating air raids against Japans cities in 1944, and all pretext of imminent victory was lost.  Ã‚   Hirohito issued an imperial order in late June of 1944 to the people of Saipan, encouraging Japanese civilians there to commit suicide rather than surrendering to the Americans.   Over 1,000 of them followed this order, jumping from cliffs during the final days of the Battle of Saipan. During the early months of 1945, Hirohito still held out hope for a grand victory in World War II.   He arranged private audiences with senior government and military officials, almost all of whom advised continuing the war.   Even after Germany surrendered in May of 1945, the Imperial Council decided to continue to fight.   However, when the US dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August, Hirohito announced to the cabinet and the imperial family that he was going to surrender, so long as the surrender terms did not compromise his position as the ruler of Japan. On August 15, 1945, Hirohito made a radio address announcing Japans surrender.   It was the first time that ordinary people had ever heard their emperors voice; he used intricate, formal language unfamiliar to most commoners, however.   Upon hearing of his decision, fanatical militarists immediately tried to stage a coup and seized the Imperial Palace, but Hirohito ordered the uprising quelled immediately. Aftermath of the War According to the Meiji Constitution, the emperor is in full control of the military.   On those grounds, many observers in 1945 and since have argued that Hirohito should have been tried for the war crimes committed by Japanese forces during World War II.   In addition, Hirohito personally authorized the use of chemical weapons during the Battle of Wuhan in October of 1938, among other violations of international law. However, the US was afraid that die-hard militarists would turn to guerrilla war if the emperor was deposed and put on trial.   The American occupation government decided to that it needed Hirohito.   Meanwhile, Hirohitos three younger brothers pressed him to abdicate and allow one of them to serve as regent until Hirohitos eldest son, Akihito, came of age.   However, US General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan, nixed that idea.   The Americans even worked to make sure that other defendants in the war crimes trials would down-play the emperors role in wartime decision making, in their testimony. Hirohito did have to make one large concession, however.   He had to explicitly repudiate his own divine status; this renunciation of divinity did not have much effect within Japan, but was widely reported overseas. Later Reign For more than forty years after the war, Emperor Hirohito carried out the duties of a constitutional monarch.   He made public appearances, met with foreign leaders in Tokyo and abroad, and conducted research on marine biology in a special laboratory in the Imperial Palace.   He published a number of scientific papers, mostly on new species within the class Hydrozoa.   In 1978 Hirohito also instituted an official boycott of the Yasukuni Shrine, because Class A war criminals had been enshrined there. On January 7, 1989, Emperor Hirohito died of duodenal cancer.   He had been ill for more than two years, but the public was not informed of his condition until after his death.   Hirohito was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Akihito.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Wrap Up Discussion LW WK9 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Wrap Up Discussion LW WK9 - Essay Example What was new to you? From the reading, one realized that managers could actually initially believe that change is not needed, especially when everything has been performing well. Just like Hem and Haw, they spend considerable amount of time resisting the need to change and trying to rationalize and justify why change was being imposed on them, in the first place. What was helpful to you? The lessons from what changes in organizations have relayed information that was helpful in realizing that routines are a source of stability in organizations and therefore need to be fundamentally disrupted to produce change. Just like what Hem and Haw experience, routinely going to Station C for their source of cheese limited their orientation and vision as precluding the source of their very existence to Station C. When they realized that the cheese at station C was gone, they thought that someone moved it and did not realize that routinely getting their cheese from this source depleted the supply. In addition, one learned that organizational change could be managed to minimize resistance and to ensure that the needed transformations would be instituted effectively. As learned, various organizations have different ways to manage organizational change depending on the reasons for change, the images of managing change, and the types of changes. Although there is no effective prescribed manner for managing change, the techniques and guiding principles outlined in the managing organizational change module are all helpful to cater to the specific needs of the organization. For one, I realized that managing organizational change needs the cooperation and participation of all who would be directly involved and affected by the change process. Further, after communicating all pertinent information relative to the proposed change, organizations must be prepared to implement the change process that affects internal resources and must also incorporate all

Relegion - Islamic studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Relegion - Islamic studies - Essay Example al Mundhir's vision of "a commander (amir) from among us and a commander from among you."1 and the combination of Umar b. al-Khatab's oath of allegiance and the beating of the Khazraji leader Said b. Ubaida resolved the dispute.2 Despite the general baya that took place in the main mosque shortly after this event, several sahabi from Bana Hahim and al-Shams refused to give Aba Bakr the baya for six months. A significant reason for this delay may have been Abu Bakr's confiscation of the Prophet's significant revenue producing lands and the subsequent denial of the right of inheritance to his relatives on the basis of a purported prophetic saying that prophets "do not bequeath [to heirs." Ali, Al Abbas, Abu As b. Abi Rabia, Aban b'Said and Khalid b. Said are all reported to have delayed giving Abu Bakr the baya until after the death of Fatima, who was buried secretly without the knowledge of the caliph. Ibn Ubaida, the beaten Ansari, who was one of the prestigious twelve nuqaba who fac ilitated the emigration of the Prophet to Yathrib in his time of need, never gave the bya to Abu Bakr and may have been the only sahabi who withheld his allegiance to Umar.3 The second major conflict among the sahaba was the ridda wars whose execution was justified again on the basis of a prophetic hudith over the objections of Umar. These battles pitted Abu Bakr and his Muslim armies against tribes that ranged from advocates of the self-proclaimed prophet Musaylama to Muslims who did not wish to pay the alms tax to the caliph in Medina. Iba Said identifies six men of the fourth tabaqa of sahaba, namely those who embraced Islam after the conquest of Mecca, who participated in the ridawars against Abu Bakr's fiscal policy. Only one of these men, Malik b. Nuwayra. is reported to have been killed, despite his claim that he was not an apostate. All of the remaining five men were captured and pardoned by Abu Bakr, and two of them later played a role in the victory at Qadisiya against the Sasanids. Abu Bakr even married his sister Umm Farawa bint Abi Quhafa to the powerful Yemeni rebel al-Ash-ath b. Qays. who later served with distinction at the battle of Niha vand. Qays b. Makshub, who killed at least two Muslims in the riddo wars, was forgiven by Abu Bakr over Umar's objections. 'Uyayna b. Hisn. who had lied to the prophet during the campaign against Al Taif was "brought back to Islam" by the words of Abu Bakr despite having joined Tulayha's prophetic challenge. The third episode of intra-Moslem violence involved various members of the "pious opposition" Uthman's policies and the Egyptian delegation, some of whose partisans ultimately murdered him. The most flagrant confrontations include the beating of Abdallah b. Masud and Ammar b. Yasir, as well as the banishment of Abo Dharr al Ghifarri to Ribadha. Uthman's harsh treatment of these early sahaba was publicly condemned by Aisha; other sahaba who stirred up protests against the caliph included Talha b. Ubayd Allah and Amr b. As.4 Abdel al Rahman b. Awf, the sahabi on the shura who essentially appointed Uthman as Umar's successor, stipulated that Uthman was not to lead his funeral prayers, a request that was later honoured in

Friday, October 18, 2019

The debate of online courses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The debate of online courses - Essay Example One can also engage in web-based education whereby educational resources, communications, and accomplish all schoolwork activities via the internet. The following essay covers the main similarities and differences between online and traditional-based forms of education in order to enable learners decide which method best meets their needs. Similarities Everyone knows that obtaining a degree is not that easy and one has to struggle a lot. With the argument of joining a college, many learners wonder, which form of education, is better to pursue, whether online or on-campus. Although, both form of education are different from each other, there are a number of similarities seen in both (Bourne, 2004: 63). In both methods, there are assignments, teacher student interaction, and availability of reference materials. To begin with, the principal similarity of asynchronous online education vs. traditional education is availability of assignments. In any learning environment, assignments are v ery important. Schools would not be good learning opportunity if the learners do not incorporate what they learn in assignments. In both forms of education, there are individual and group discussion assignments. Such assignments include doing researches, answering group discussion questions, writing essays, and participating in class work, which are present in both online and traditional form of educations. For instance, presentations are not favorite top everybody, but they are given in class and online in a similar format of preparing to deliver certain information to the students. Even though assignments may be dissimilar in both education setting, both has similar intentions to help the learners acquire learning materials. Secondly, reference materials are highly valuable in any learning environment to help the learners acquire extra information especially when doing researches. The best form of reference materials are books, which are accessible in both online and tradition edu cational settings. In online learning, E-books make learning and referencing much easier and better. Students do not have to experience the burden of carrying heavy textbooks around (Bourne, 2004: 60). No matter whether one engages in online or traditional form of education, library will remain to be the main source of reference materials. This is because, in library, students have access to many textbooks and internet. Although every student requires his own reference materials relating to the course he is pursuing, internet is widely used and has become the main source of reference materials since one can access plenty of online books easily. Teacher student interaction is also another similarity found in both asynchronous and traditional form of education. With many learners, social interaction is a principal aspect of the campus experience. If one is planning to meet new friends and expand his social and professional networks, it is then essential to attend classes on campus. Ho wever, web-based education is not totally devoid of social interaction. Online learning involves video conferencing, and message boards, which ensures link between the students, classmate, and the tutors. In addition, online learning involves people form all the United States, giving student’s opportunity to interact with new people whom one would never meet on campus. Differences Flexibility E learning

Analysis of an Article in a Microeconomics Viewpoint Essay

Analysis of an Article in a Microeconomics Viewpoint - Essay Example In the end of business organizations however, the increase will mean additional costs by business organizations. If this happens, this will be detrimental to the company and they will tend to compensate by cutting number of workers in order to maintain their original costs. Another issue is the economic viewpoint which is used in legislation. In the real world situation, changes in the economic policies should always be approved by government officials. As politicians have different viewpoints, it is often hard to pass bills and laws which will bring about drastic changes. The issue on minimum wage is always debated in all economies globally and not just in the United States. As the writer puts in the article, there are two sides of the coin which should be taken into consideration before the minimum wage could be raised. Through our class discussions, I have learned that minimum wage should be a matter of supply and demand. It is the least acceptable payment that an employee can accept while it is the highest which can be charged for a firm. For an employee, minimum wage should be able to cover up for the estimated productivity of the worker as well as the opportunity cost of his time. On the other hand, a company should make sure that the employee's output is worth his hourly payment.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Analyze the contemporary challenges facing the u.s. labor movement and Essay

Analyze the contemporary challenges facing the u.s. labor movement and the solutions to revitalize it and help defend workers interests - Essay Example In the middle of the last century labor unions included almost half of the working population. Moreover there was a special department in the US Department of Labor, which took stock of strikes. Now labor unions comprise only small part of American workers and only some part of those workers are the employees occupied in private sector. The main reason is a shift, which took place in the relationship between employers and workers. For centuries labor unions struggled for good conditions for employees. In contemporary world employees are in competition with each other in order to get a better job. American corporations long ago realized that it is more efficient to hire purposeful, responsible, and interested in their job people. Accordingly people, who get a job today, automatically receive all those privileges labor unions had struggled for. Moreover, many corporations give their workers a possibility to become co-owners, offering them an opportunity to get low price stocks of the o wn enterprises. Thereby membership in labor unions for many Americans became senseless. As a matter of fact labor unions cannot find their place in the new system of labor relationship. In the course of time fundamental economic changes had happened in the country. The traditional heavy industry, a stronghold of labor unions, gradually becomes the thing of the past. According to Turner, ‘if unions can not hold their own and adapt to changing circumstances in the core industrial work force, the traditional bastion of labor strength, it is difficult to imagine that national prospects for unions elsewhere can be promising1’. Labor unions also have not been taken in the extremely developing industry of high technologies, and have not been widely accepted in the services sphere. So we can agree with the statement of Robert Baldwin, who claims that one of the factors that contribute to weakling

Differences Between Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Preparing Thesis

Differences Between Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Preparing 10th Grade Math Students for Standardized Tests - Thesis Example PAPPAS Montclair State University Montclair, NJ June 2012 ______________________________________ Thesis advisor: Dr. Ken Wolff Copyright  © 2012 by John G. Pappas. All rights reserved. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences in student achievement when students had the use of either concrete (also called physical) manipulatives or virtual manipulatives while studying the same mathematical topic at the 10th grade level. The topics were aligned with the objectives defined by the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and included problems typical to those found on standardized tests such as the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). Years ago, mathematics instructors would implement techniques incorporating concrete manipulatives to facilitate the students’ understanding of concepts through the engagement of the senses. Apart from the traditional writing on the board, topics would become more simplified and even exciting when instructors utilized visual, audio and kinesthetic tools for young students to grasp mathematics more readily. Use of concrete manipulatives in the classroom such as cuisenaire rods, mini cubes, patterned blocks, fraction slices, base-ten blocks, and square tiles enabled students to forge relationships with the abstract thus assisting students in observing a more practical application of mathematics. Since the 21st century, however, it was found that these instruments are too elementary especially when instructors attempt to re-introduce the same concepts to upper level high school or even college students. Also in the technological age when computers continue to evolve and pervade the classroom, students are averting their attention to more virtual presentations. As such, programmes on virtual manipulatives have been engineered to stimulate learning, engage and encourage the youth to be technology-savvy. By testing the different contributions of both concrete and virtual manipulatives in a 10th grade setting, findings would confirm the advantages and even disadvantages of each technique for this particular age bracket (15-16 years). It was expected that concrete manipulatives be more effective for younger minds in elementary school than with an older studentship. Moreover, it was estimated that the virtual manipulatives would be best suited for the upper students in view of the sweeping popularity of computers in the classroom and their familiarity with items of a technological nature. Standardized tests are referred to those compulsory assessments taken at the termination of every school year by students. These examinations determine the success rate of students to understand subject taught, of teachers and by extension schools to communicate information to produce high-achieving students. The effectiveness of standardized tests is very hotly debated especially with the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001). On one hand , standardized tests regard use the results of specifically stated standards to measure proficiency levels of students in Mathematics,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Analyze the contemporary challenges facing the u.s. labor movement and Essay

Analyze the contemporary challenges facing the u.s. labor movement and the solutions to revitalize it and help defend workers interests - Essay Example In the middle of the last century labor unions included almost half of the working population. Moreover there was a special department in the US Department of Labor, which took stock of strikes. Now labor unions comprise only small part of American workers and only some part of those workers are the employees occupied in private sector. The main reason is a shift, which took place in the relationship between employers and workers. For centuries labor unions struggled for good conditions for employees. In contemporary world employees are in competition with each other in order to get a better job. American corporations long ago realized that it is more efficient to hire purposeful, responsible, and interested in their job people. Accordingly people, who get a job today, automatically receive all those privileges labor unions had struggled for. Moreover, many corporations give their workers a possibility to become co-owners, offering them an opportunity to get low price stocks of the o wn enterprises. Thereby membership in labor unions for many Americans became senseless. As a matter of fact labor unions cannot find their place in the new system of labor relationship. In the course of time fundamental economic changes had happened in the country. The traditional heavy industry, a stronghold of labor unions, gradually becomes the thing of the past. According to Turner, ‘if unions can not hold their own and adapt to changing circumstances in the core industrial work force, the traditional bastion of labor strength, it is difficult to imagine that national prospects for unions elsewhere can be promising1’. Labor unions also have not been taken in the extremely developing industry of high technologies, and have not been widely accepted in the services sphere. So we can agree with the statement of Robert Baldwin, who claims that one of the factors that contribute to weakling

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Research Methodologies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6750 words

Research Methodologies - Essay Example The new media identified is the internet and the possible e-marketing exercises that could be resorted to in order to boost the profitability. Hong Kong is made of 236 islands in all on the South China Sea. Out of this land space, it has been found that only 25% of the land has been commercially developed and used. The rest are green and form a part of National Parks that are protected and reserves (Lonely Planet, 2006). Since it borders the Pearl River and its delta, it also provides some of the best picturesque locations for restaurants and evening sit outs. Most of the people live and work in high rise buildings. The restaurants that cater to the catering business in Hong Kong are on many cases are located next to one another for want of land and place (Time Out, 2006). This led to excessive competition between the restaurants of the region. The sharp increase in the GDP of the province and an economic growth that surpassed 10% year on year on the GDP helped the province to swiftly prosper at the same time pushing the cost of place and hence the rental costs to incredibly high figures. While the rental costs have gone substantial up, it is also found that the cost of food has not gone up to that extent. This has happened due to the fact that most of the food is imported and the imported cost has not gone up in the mainland China from where food is brought in. This meant the cost of the food has to go up for specific areas and not for others resulting in discrepancies of cost even across the small area in the Hong Kong. People could show preference based on the cost of the food as much as the quality of the food that the restaurants served (HKSAR Budget 2006-07). Increasing competition forced the restaurants not to increase the cost of the food at these restaurants for the fear of losing business. Current Marketing Methods The restaurants in Hong Kong promote themselves using any of the traditional methods of advertising on the newspapers and other media. Some of the well known restaurants thrive due to a strong of word of mouth advertisement that they get from their patrons. All these help them in consolidating their market base. However with the rise in the competitive levels the large food market in Hong Kong which is also known as the Food Paradise since the 1980s. A large cross section of the cuisines are also supported and it is found that these restaurants have already carved a niche for themselves by serving specific food varieties starting from Asian or Cantonese or Manchurian and other choices that serve as a differentiator. However, with the increasing level competition even these differentiators get blurred and there happens to be competition within these specific niche markets themselves so much so that these niches are no niche markets that they used to be once upon time. Out of the total area of 1,102 square kilometers of Hong Kong only about 300 square kilometers are occupied by human settlements. There is a large scale exodus of restaurants to move from these established locations and move out to the non established out skirts where the land and the building rentals are pretty cheap but at the cost of the patrons who would find it

Monday, October 14, 2019

Liam O’Flaherty and The Anglo-Irish War Essay Example for Free

Liam O’Flaherty and The Anglo-Irish War Essay Liam O’Flaherty (1896-1984) †¢ Served in the Irish Guards of the British Army from 19151917 †¢ Suffered serious injury from a bomb blast in Belgium; was discharged due to depression. †¢ Following WWI, traveled widely and developed a world view based on atheism, communism, and the notion that Ireland should be an independent nation Liam O’Flaherty (1896-1984) †¢ Joined the Irish Republican Army to push for Irish independence. †¢ Opposed the 1921 treaty that made Ireland a part of the British Commonwealth. †¢ Wrote 13 novels between 1923 and 1976, many of which focused on the effects of war, revolution, and social upheaval in Ireland. Anglo-Irish War Origins The Easter Rising took place on 24 April, 1916 in Dublin, Ireland. The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) successfully incited a rising of about 1,600 rebels, which was quickly crushed by Crown (British) forces. The handling of the rebels, however, created mass sympathy and the consequences of this rebellion are still felt in Irish and international politics. The Anglo-Irish War †¢ 1919: The Irish Parliament, lead by Eamon de Valera and Michael Collins, declared Ireland a free state. †¢ The Irish Republic army launched guerilla warfare during the Irish War of Independence Anglo-Irish War 1920 March — Thomas McCurtain, Lord Mayor of Cork was shot in front of his family by British forces. October — His successor, Terence McSwiney, dies after a 74-day hunger strike. 1 November — Kevin Barry, an 18-year-old medical student, was hanged for his part in an ambush he took part in when he was 16. 21 November — Collinss Squad killed fourteen members of an elite British spy group known as the Cairo Gang. Revenge was taken by Crown forces, who fired on the crowd in Croke Park. 12 people were killed and 60 wounded. Later that evening, two IRA men and one innocent man were shot while escaping — in fact, they were marched into the prison courtyard and told to run, and when they refused they were shot in the back. Afterwards, 21 November became known as Bloody Sunday5. Bloody Sunday The Anglo-Irish War 1920 (cont.) 28 November — a flying column led by Tom Barry killed 18 auxilaries in an ambush at Kilmichael in west Cork. Shortly after, revenge was taken by the burning of the centre of the city of Cork. December — the Government of Ireland Act set up Home Rule parliaments in Dublin and Belfast. Each parliament was given control over domestic affairs. Sinn Fà ©in rejected it. This Act implemented the Partition of Ireland. The Anglo-Irish War 1921 25 May — the IRA burned Dublins custom house, where seven government departments were located. The attack led to the capture or death of more than 80 IRA men. 22 June, at the opening of the northern parliament at Stormount, King George V appealed for a truce: Pause, to stretch out the hand of forbearance and conciliation, to forgive and forget. King George V, 22 June, 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty An Irish Free State (Saorstà ¡t Éireann) of 26 counties was established The Irish state was a Dominion and was still part of the Commonwealth The British Monarch would remain as head of state and would be represented by the Governor-General The Royal Navy retained control of the ports of Cobh, Berehaven and Lough Swilly The border between the Free State and Northern Ireland would be drawn up by a Boundary Commission Aftermath of the Anglo-Irish Treaty 1922: The Irish civil war breaks out between pro- and anti-treaty parties. Armed groups crossed into Northern Ireland and attacked British installations. They hoped to force the British to give up control of Northern Ireland. Todays IRA stems from anti-treaty forces. May 1923: The civil war ends and Northern Ireland was still part of the United Kingdom. 1937: A new constitution ratified by the Irish government changes the name of the Irish Free State to Ireland. 1949: Ireland formally declares its independence from Britain. Ireland had cut all ties with the United Kingdom and became an independent republic.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Argument Supporting Gay Marriage Essay -- Same-Sex Marriage Essays

People are born homosexual. If you are homosexual you cannot get married. That idea is ridiculous. On June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled that the US Constitution guarantees the right for same-sex couples to marry. Marriage is defined as a sacred bond of love between two people. Gay people also feel love therefore, they should be allowed the same rights as everyone else in this country. Homosexuality is an accepted lifestyle nowadays with a proven biological causation. The only thing that should matter in marriage is love and denying them this is a violation of religious freedom. According to studies done by Simon LeVey, being gay is a biological cause, not a choice made when one is very young. It is also an accepted lifestyle today. For far too long being homosexual has been considered a form of â€Å"devilish acts†. The people making these accusations should check the history books, and the psychological research done by LeVey. According to Wikipedia.com homosexual activates have existed since early Greece. The word lesbian comes from the Greek word â€Å"Lesbos,† which were islands where many couples of that orientation lived. The easiest way to think of it is as a hormonal switch that gets thrown one way or the other. If you think about it, it makes logical sense. Consider many gays and lesbians you've seen. Not always, but in many cases, some characteristics resemble that of the opposite sex. That means that, for example homosexual males have softer voices, and most lesbians have a masculine body shape. Those hormone switches affec t it all. And still yet again, why would someone choose to be gay? Even though gay people are different and their hormones are different, they still have the same emotions as everyone... ... only one was injured, the other might not even be allowed to see the other because he/she is not a direct family member or spouse. It’s hard to know that love is being thrown out by so many states and countries, they are willing to hurt other people just so they can say that the institution of marriage is saved. Gay people are normal, just another minority. Like any other black guy walking down the street. Are you going to tell him he can’t get married because he’s black? No, because he can’t help that he’s black, just how gay people can’t help that they are gay. They love just as we do and we are in no place to be holding them back of expressing it to their fullest. They want to get married, then let them. Even though it isn’t a man and a woman, it’s still two people who want to share all they joys of the world together. Love is a feeling, not a gender.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Wilhelm Wundts Psychology: Judgment Essay -- Wilhelm Wundt Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology: Judgment It is almost impossible to write historically informed essays about any given topic in modern psychology without making reference to the work of Wilhelm Wundt. In part, this is because he produced a tremendous amount of written work (over 53,735 published pages1), and because he is widely regarded as the first experimental psychologist.2 So, it’s no surprise that Wundt has something to say about the psychology of judgment. Given the historical context in which his work took place, however, you might be surprised to learn that Wundt was keenly aware of both the problems with traditional associationist accounts of psychology and the temptations of psychologism. His system of psychology, while acknowledging the associative characteristics of some types of thought, takes pains to stress the non-additive nature of higher cognitive acts and fights to preserve the independence of psychology (and the rest of the â€Å"special sciences,† including logic and ethics) from physiolo gy. In this paper, I’ll briefly review the basics of Wundt’s approach, detail the neo-Humean roots of his psychology, discuss how he attempts to embellish those roots with some apperceptive greenery, and summarize his position regarding psychologisms.3 While Wundt’s motives are to be admired (†¦and despite his historical significance), I'll conclude that his attempt to be true to the physiological roots of the psychology of judgment while still respecting its ultimate independence vis-à  -vis logic was a failure.4 First, the basics. In his Principles of Physiological Psychology, Wundt lays down the outline of a psychology that will be constructed using experimental techniques analogous to those of physiology (famously, a rigorous ... ...h the individual mind with habits, inclinations, archetypes, and stereotypical modes of perception and cognition. But these influences from without must work on those internal principles and laws of thought that comprise ‘the universal characteristics of humanity’† (p. 161). 12 Wundt emphasizes the importance of education for conditioning the will in a logical manner: â€Å"Rather must education pay most attention to that inner volition which is occupied with ordered thinking. To make this strong, to make this able to resist the distracting play of associations, is its most important and also one of its most difficult tasks† (Introduction, p. 147). 13 Introduction, pp. 148-149. 14 Lectures, p. 314. 15 Robinson, p. 167, quoting from the Lectures, p. 365. 16 Robinson, p. 172. 17 Wellek (1967), encyclopedia entry on Wundt, Wilhelm, p. 350.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Positioning Background Essay

Beginning of Positioning Positioning term This is awkward. Why not â€Å"The term positioning†¦Ã¢â‚¬  started in 1972, when Ries and Trout wrote several articles about â€Å"The Positioning Era† for the trade paper Advertising Age. It because ? familiar when more than 1000 speeches have had been given about Positioning among 21 different countries around the world to advertising groups. In addition, more than 150,000 copies of the â€Å"little orange booklet† were distributed which reprints the Advertising Age articles. (The Battle for your mind, 3) This paragraph has awkward wording. Also, check your tenses. What does Positioning Mean Many authors, professors and experts came up with the meaning of positioning; despite their differences they all have the same meaning. According to Ries and Trout (date) Positioning is not what you do to a product, Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect (Book). Explain further. Similarly Jack Trout defines Positioning as to know how to grammatically wrong differentiate yourself from your competitors ( Paper). While Kotler (date) mentioned in his book as is the way that consumer defined the product on important attributes and how the place of produce in the consumers’ mind relative to competing products. (Armstrong & Kotler page 185)   This entire sentence is confusing. Rephrase it or break it down into several sentences so the idea can be better understood. after reviewing other authors definitions , we came up with our own definition so we can describe positioning as creating and designing a remarkable place in the market for certain product to be kept in the target market’s mind in order to increase or maximize the potential benefits. (Orange book, 172), (Red Book, 237), (Kotler Book, 310) There are missing articles here. Check grammar. The content is good and the idea is presented well enough. Importance of Positioning Going through several researches and books about Positioning strategy has shown how this strategy is playing an important role in the marketing. Implementing Positioning method gives the reason to buy your product rather your competitors’ product as Trout mentioned in his article (You have to tell your story as to why you are different or better). (The business Time Singapore) Another role of positioning is that, if a company does a great job pf positioning the market will not get confused and it would be much easier for the company to do the rest just by taking it from the positioning strategy such as the marketing planning and differentiation.(Kotler Book , 310)In addition, positioning really help the companies to produce differ and unique product from current and potential competing product, which can attract the target market in a positive way. Beside that, although there are continuous stream of advertising, customer would accept only the product that stuck in their mind due to knowledge or experience http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/ries-trout/positioning/. Also, concerning to the main point of positioning which is based on differentiation as Ries and Trout view it as a creative strategy must be taken for an existing brand in an overcrowded marketplace. . ( tree book , 193,194)   Check nouns that have to be pluralized. Grammar is wrong in certain sentences. Also, the first sentence is very confusing. Try breaking the ideas down into different sentences. Being successful is very easy when the product is well known and has a significant place in the market, while it could be very difficult if there is no major a little difference between the products. Therefore the succeed of firm’s positioning efforts is really very important. ( tree book , 193,) , This is similar to what is mentioned in to Trout & Al Ries book ( The Battle for your mind) , which is the easiest way to get into the consumer’s mind is to be the first , while being the second is nowhere.( The battle for your mind /19,21) Positioning Steps There are several steps to be followed in order to use Positioning strategy , which is mainly not about create new product , but its about manipulate with what’s already up there in the mind.( The battle for your mind , 5). But positioning steps can differ from author to author, as a result of that positioning step for two different authors will be explained below in order to came up with the summitries and difference: Walker & Boys Positioning Steps Walker and Boyd subtract the main steps from Ries and Trout books, articles. So any company who wants to reach the required position for its products and evaluating the new strategies for positioning a new entry, there are 8 steps outlined should be follow. These steps can be followed are very applicable as it can be use for product and service in any area. Here are the steps below: Identify a relevant set of competitive products: In this stage, marketers should make a positioning analysis, which means knowing the customer‘s opinion about certain products that can satisfy their basic needs and knowing our product’s competitors. But in order to know the products position in the market, marketer should use the positioning map (It called sometimes the perceptual map, its an excellent tool to know the brand position very well, it shows the position of new product with its competitors) which was the idea of Richard A. D’Aveni that came up several years ago. The market research is very necessary in this stage in order to get customer perception of the new product concept comparing with the same produce that have the same attributes. http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbsp/hbr/articles/article.jsp?articleID=R0711G&ml_action=get-article&print=true Here is the example of positioning map: Two suggested criteria are used in order to make the judgment and the criteria are Fast delivery, limited or wide choice and comfortable environment. Then several brands are used in the map regarding how it position in the consumers’ mind considering the criteria. For example of that MacDonald is position as the fastest delivery service but limited choice unlike Caff Nero. This doesn’t mean that certain brand is better than another, it’s just that each brand is different and has special attributes. http://media3.bournemouth.ac.uk/marketing/10branding/05position.html Identify determinant attributes: Basically, positioning is really based on several attributes .But theoretically the consumer’ choice can be influenced by a small amount of features or benefits, because the greater number of features use for positioning a product, the greater the chance of confusion or even disbelief will be according to Trout & Al Ries (if you try to be all things to all people, you wind up with nothing). So, narrowing the focus of your expertise would be better in order to establish a unique position as specialist. (Battle for your mind, 195) However, using one or more features for position a product would really make the consumer recognize to attach that features with the product .So, the main attributes are: Features: It’s mainly used for physical product like the fastest or quietest product. Benefits: It’s the same as features which means it related to the product in direct way such as Volvo’s known on its safety and durability. Price/Quality: as Wal-Mart position itself as the lowest price seller of quality product and it has been very successful with that. Country or Geographic area: which means the product name include the name of country producer such as French wines and Russian Vodka. Determine consumers’ perceptions: In order to create perceptual map, marketers use several tools to collect and analyze customer’s perceptions about competitive positioning of alternative products used as Multidimensional scaling (MDS) which refer to several statistical techniques that are usually used in data visualization in order to identity the similarities and differences in data. While the Discriminate analysis it’s a statistical technique that used in marketing when there is only one dependent variable but several independent variables, it looks at the responses to the questions asked about the product attributes and underlining dimensions. http://www.indopedia.org/Discriminant_analysis_(in_marketing).html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multidimensional_scaling In this stage, the attributes should be identify by analyst in order the consumers use it to evaluate the product and service in the same category. Then, determine the best attributes that have been chosen by the consumer among all the brands. Therefore, this stage basically is about how the consumer’s positions the competitors in the market. Analyze the intensity of a product’s current position: Some brands might be recognize by consumers , while the others are not exits in the consumer’s mind .As a result, unknown brand would defiantly not occupy a position in the consumer’s mind. So, in order to acquiring an intense position, the first thing to do is building a brand awareness which must be associated with some concepts relating to the purchase decision strongly. But to reach an intense position, you should develop the relationship between the brand and few numbers of attributes. However, there are some chances that brand can gain a positioning intensity like when there are limited brands control certain a product in the market and consumer’s minds, so it’s not wise to competing head –on against the leaders on the basis of attributes by competitors because it’s not effective regarding Al Ries & Trout in their book (If you proposed position calls for head-to head approach against a marketing leader, forget it. Its better to go around an obstacle rather than over it . Back up .try to select a position that no one else has a firm grip on). A better option is to focus an attribute prized by member of given market segment such as targeted women and young families by Ford Windsatr minivan, as it has been introduce since 1994 with a successful advertising campaign which really helped to compete the leading minivan seller Dodge Caravan.( The Battle for your mind , 195) Analyze the product’s current position: In order to know if the brand occupies a strong position on particular attributes, marketer should make a lot of marketing researches and analyze by using some techniques such as Multidimensional scaling, discriminate analysis and perceptual positioning map. The perceptual positioning map would really help (see appendix 1) as a small distance between two brands shows that brands are considerable alike while the greater distance refer shows brands are being very different. So, the intensity of competition between the brands alike is much greater than the others. But always try to position your product in an empty space, being the first is the easiest way to get into a person’s mind due to Ries & Trout. (The battle for your mind, 19) In addition, the perceptual positioning map provides great information about position opportunities such as launching new brand or repositioning. It could be done by finding an empty space in the map which shows no store is exiting or located currently. But finding space or gap empty might be regarding couple reasons like technical constraints which will be impossible for any brand to attain. Determine consumers’ preferred combination of attributes: This stage is mainly about what are the most important attributes for consumers, so there are many different ways the analyst can be use to measure the customer preferences and make them involve in the positioning analysis. For example of that survey which can be answer by the consumer to know their opinion of the ideal product or brands within a product category. So, respondents can know what consumer wants by rating the ideal product and exiting products on number of attributes. Other option is not only to rate the similarity between couple of brands available in the market but also explain their degree of preference for each. For both cases the analyst, who use the suitable statistical techniques, will defiantly know where to locate the respondents, ideal point relative to the position for different available brands on the product space map. Define market positioning and market segmentation: To well define the market segmentation, the difference in the seeking benefits by different kind of consumer should be considered. Because regarding the difference of ideal point by consumer, reflects different benefits they seek. So, the market positioning analysis can defiantly classify the differences between the market segments and the unique position for different brands. If the consumer’s ideal point divided in two or more location on the product space map, it considerably defines each as different market segment. According to the analyst is that each cluster represent by circle the induce most of the ideal points for the segment and the size of the circle shows the relative proportion of customer within a particular segment. So, by knowing the customer preference in different segments together with the awareness of the existing brands, analyst can figure out three things like how strong is the competitive between different brands in different segments, the intensity of the competition between brands in a given segment and the great chance for getting a differentiated position within known target segment. Select a positioning strategy : In the final stage, where it comes to answer the question where should certain company position a new brand or repositioning, so there are two things should be based one choosing the strategies which are market target analysis and result of market positioning analysis. When choosing the position, it should match the preferences of specific market segment and considered the positions of current competing brands. Other aspects should be considered also such as the attractiveness for target market, strengths and weakness of competitors as well as the required cost to maintain these positions. There are seven different positioning strategies, which can be chosen based on how to reach its marketing objectives: Monosegment positioning: It’s about produce a product and makes a special marketing program to the preference of a single market segment. This strategy considered as an advantage for the brand within the target market, but it won’t gain a lot of sales in other segment. The best use of this strategy with mass marketing. Multisegment positioning: This strategy produces a product that attract different consumer from different segments. The features of this strategy are very attractive as its offer higher economies of scale ,smaller investment requirements, avoid dispersion of managerial attention .The best use of this strategy when the individual segment are small. Standby positioning: it’s not a wise to switch of using Monosegment and Multisegment, so using several brands that each one positioned to serve only one segment’ needs, although if it increase the total market share. So, there is a possibility to use Monosegment strategy when they have to do so. Therefore, standby strategy is prepared plan that include product specifications, product attributes as well as details for the marketing program which will be used for new product position   . Imitative positioning: It’s the same as the head on strategy, where a new brand position itself the same as or slimier of it competitors. Using this strategy can be suitable sometimes, when a new brand’s firm has distinctive advantages beyond positioning such as better access to channels of distribution. Anticipatory positioning: It’s considered as evolution strategy that can match the segments’ need. Its appropriate when new brand doesn’t not expect a fast acceptance and popularity. Adaptive positioning: It can be used in certain period in order to reposition the brand to satisfy the new segment’s needs. Defensive positioning: when a company occur strong positioning in the market with a single brand , it uses its completive   strategies and introduce a new additional brand in the same position and segment. David & Aaker Positioning steps: Regarding David A. Aaker & J. Gary Shansby , professors of marketing at the University of   California , they have introduced six steps for developing a positioning strategy : Identify the competitors : List the competitors in number of ways in order to have primary and secondary groups of competitors. For example of that grouping other diet cola drinks, all cola drinks, all soft drinks, nonalcoholic beverages, all beverages. Another way is the development of associations of product with use situations, such as asked about the appropriate beverage for the snack, then asked more specific question in order to have a list of use beverage resulted. Also, the other group will be asked which beverage is suitable for which situation, and the beverage that ranked as for the snack, it will be compete primarily with the appropriate beverage for the snack. This would really help in knowing and identifying the competitors although the market research is not used. Determine how the competitors are Perceived and Evaluated: In this step the buyers are the main resources as they are the target market, so for example the first question will be to identify the two most similar brands from a set of three competing brands and the reasons for being this two similar and different from the other .Next, respondents would be asked which of the tow you prefer and why. After that, using logic, judgment or factor analysis in order to remove all the extra points from the list. The final step is to identify which brand is the most important to respondents. Determine the competitors’ portions: In this stage, we are going to know how each competitor include our entry position itself in the market with the respect for each other. Multidimensional scaling can be used because its purpose is to scale objects on several dimensions. So, simply to ask a group of our target market to scale the various objects on the product association dimensions. This is the same as the perceptual map, even though it has some major disadvantages such as unfamiliarity with some brands, difference among respondent. Analyzing the customers: Understand the customer and know how the market is segmented would really help I knowing how to choose the best positioning strategy. Of course there are many questions should be asked in our mind such as what is the behavior of our target , how the product’s role play in the customer’s lifestyle †¦etc. A very important approach for segmentation is benefit segmentation which refers to the benefits of product or the product association that customer believes how it’s important. So, in order to know the rate of product association, customer can be asked to know their judgments or their point of view about the ideal brands which will be combination of the entire customer’s preferred product association. Customers are then will be divided as group defined by product association. However, having different group would really help to ask each group what they like about it the brand and how they can describe it. Then , the result will show if it need an improve for the brand’s image by more understating for the lifestyle of segmentations, behavior, income and many other things in order to target the segmentation well. Making the Positioning Decision: There are four steps should be considered before taking the actual positioning decision: Positioning usually implies a segmentation commitment: which means that before the decision is made, the commitment in focusing on certain segments should be made in order not to turn back on to seek potential buyers as well as not be constrained by the reaction of other segments. An economic analysis should guide the decision: basically, there is tow factors should be depending on the potential market size X the penetration probability. Attracted a sizeable segment by a positing strategy is considered as one implication for the structure. In addition if group of customers are attracted to there brand, it should have worthwhile market share to begin with. Also, if new buyers attracted to the product class, an assessment should be done to the potential size of that growth area. If the advertising is working stick with it: having a good advertisement campaign that can represent or reflect the brand image as it required is the key of good advertising , no matter how long it has been shown because the value of consistency through time cant be overestimated. Don’t try to be something you are not: sometimes it’s tempting to decide on a positioning strategy that exploit a market need or opportunity, but assume your product is something its So, test the product in order to ensure it deliver what it promises and compatible with a proposed image. Monitoring the Position: the positioning objective should be measurable like any marketing objectives, therefore in order to evaluate the positioning and get information about future positioning strategies, it’s very essential to monitor the position consistency. For example of that Hamburger Helper used personality test. Compare between 2 authors Even though Trout & Al Ries are the main founders or creators of Positioning, they did not write about specific steps for Positioning, but others professors and authors extract the steps from their articles, books and lectures among the years. So, there are different number of steps are mentioned by different authors, but overall they aiming for the same purpose. So, a comparison will be made between Walker and Boyed (W &B) & A. Aaker and J. Gary Shansby (A & J) in order to clarify the similarities and differences. First of all, as can be seen from the report above that W &B mentioned or talked about 8 steps for using Positioning strategy, while A &J summarize their steps into 6. Both W & B and A & J talked about Identifying the competitors, which A &J mentioned it in both step 1 and 2, the first step is where to list the competitors while in the second step knowing the consumers opinion about the competitors’ products. But, W & B instead of that recommend to use the perceptual map in the first step as it in order to know the product’s position regarding its competitors. In addition, W & B recommended to use the perceptual map in the first step to know the consumer’s opinion about certain product that similar to yours based on two suggested criteria. Using the perceptual map is very informative as it shows our competitors, beside that the consumers’ opinions about them by rank them in different places. Both if them W & B and A & J talked about the same point in the step three which is Knowing the competitors position in the market, although each one talked about using different tools as A & J recommend to use Multidimensional scaling and W & B recommended to use Multidimensional scaling and Discriminate analysis to create the perceptual map. They recommend to use the Discriminate analysis when there is only one dependent variable but several independent variables. However, step 4 for A & J is about Analyzing the customers, while for the   W & B they talked about it in steps two, six and seven. Al though their are different in title but it has the same purpose which is knowing what customer preferred attributes for the product in order to provide it in the product. A & J not only use this step to know customer’s preferred product association but also use the consumer’ answers or result to improve the product’s image. The same thing for W & B but they use the result for getting better differentiated position within known target segment .Also, W& B recommend to use different tools to be involve in the positioning analysis such as surveys in order to know the consumer’s ideal brand attributes. As for the step four according to W & B its Analyze the intensity of a product’s current position, this is also mentioned by A & J in step six but not in details because they focus more in monitoring the position in the future. Both of them talked about evaluate the position of our product and how strong the position is regarding the competitors. In addition W & B gave some solutions in order to acquiring an intense position. On the other hand, the final steps for both of them are quite different as W & B talked about several different strategies that should be chosen from based on how to reach its marketing objectives, while step 5 for A & J is giving the process for how to take the positioning decision considering many other aspect in order to choose the right and most suitable strategy as they don’t consider choosing the strategy as a step because I think following all the steps they mentioned would make the strategy choice much easier. Hotel Positioning    Hotel considered as any product or company that aims to attract customers, by position itself in the right place. Having a unique market position would boost the market share. Therefore, the argument here is how to make the travelers to book our hotel rather than other’s properties, which is known as market position. The Hotel position must provides several attributes that guests needs and wants. There are two perspectives can be evaluated the hotel brand’s position which are the brand’s management and guest. First the brand’s management should have several concept or plan of the hotel’s intended position and what it will offer to be different than its competitors. As for the guest, the hotel should provide what it does promise. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/segmentation-targeting/537095-1.html However, to establish new hotel brand there are many questions should be answer such as what position you already own due to overcrowded society with very strong hotel brand like Sheraton, Hilton†¦etc. So, it’s very easy to work with other brands out there during the positioning strategy according to Trout & Ries (The battle for your mind, 193). This means, knowing how people in the UAE see Al Dar and try to apply it in the hotel rather than taking other places because it would be very hard especially who has a very long history in the hospitality industry. Review Don’t use â€Å"So† to start a sentence. Check your subject-verb agreements. Your sentences are mostly too long. Although you clearly have a good grasp of the content, the presentation is confusing. Don’t try to cram all your ideas into one sentence. The citations are not MLA style. Check for missing articles and for misplaced articles. Some wordings are awkward and need to be revised. Although the outline and the flow is clearly well thought out, you need to be more academic in your writing. Don’t shorten your words. Use â€Å"It is† instead of â€Å"It’s†. Where you are more comfortable using simpler words, do so. Avoid double negatives such as â€Å"doesn’t not† Grammar is badly in need of editing. There are a lot of unnecessary words that just make the lengthy sentences confusing. Instead of using â€Å"For example of that† why not â€Å"An example of that is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Say â€Å"with respect to† not â€Å"with respect for†. An â€Å" ‘s† indicates possession or ownership while simply adding an â€Å"s† indicates plurality. There are a lot of instances wherein the two are confused for each other. Check the verbs. Know when to use gerunds and know when not to. â€Å"Cant† is different from â€Å"can’t† There are instances where â€Å"there† is used when it should be â€Å"their†. Also check for missing linking verbs. The paper gives the reader the idea that the author understands the concepts very well. However, it does not give the reader much insight as to what those concepts are. One can easily get lost in the long sentences. The grammar and tense problems also add to the confusion.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Cultural knowledge

Cultural knowledge is of great importance for contemporary society, because in the global world it is necessary to set friendly relations and working contacts with all the cultures and countries. A potential classmate for me is Chinese student, because Chinese culture is significantly different from others and I would be able to learn new things, ideas, core beliefs from Chinese student.I know that Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world and, therefore, it is really worth examining and studying. It would be interesting to know more about Chinese family values and belief, communication peculiarities, about economic and political objectives of the country as well as about their leisure time.Thus, Chinese student would certainly help me in expanding my cultural knowledge. Chinese people are outwardly restrained, because they are influenced by Confucius' philosophical thinking and thus they are more reserved in verbal and nonverbal communication.Emotional gestures and body lang uage is less expressive as compared with Cuba or Brasilia, for example. As for me, I am very communicative person and it is interesting for me get acquainted with completely different behavior.I know that there are peculiar values in Chinese culture and I think we should pay special attention and, maybe, even to adopt them. For example, family is considered the basis of Chinese culture, especially extended families, when several generations are living together in one house.The elder generation is respected for their wisdom and usually they are provided with good pensions compared with that in other countries. It is important to know that Chinese family members tend to work as a team living under one roof as it is mentioned above.The family welfare is contributed by every family member, either young or elder. I understand that we should follow Chinese in certain traditions, customs. Â  So, I would be provided with an opportunity to adopt some Chinese values as well as to share my cu lture and my knowledge with Chinese student. Furthermore, they are considered non-conflict people.ReferencesCountry’s Profile: China. Retrieved January 17, 2007, from http://www.cp-pc.ca/english/china/index.html