Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Images of Power and Authority in Art Essay

Art has been used to portray figures of power and authority many times in history. Different cultures have different ways of portraying the image to have power and authority. One example of using art to portray images of power and authority is the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin. This was made to commemorate King Naram-Sin for his defeat of Lullubi. The King stands alone at the top, taller than everyone else. This shows that he is more powerful than anyone else. The King also wears a horned helmet that shows godliness. Celestial bodies shine upon him also showing him as a deity. His troops are lined up behind him in an orderly fashion, showing his control and also the discipline and organization of his forces. He and his army have complete control of the subdued enemy, showing that he and his army are superior. Art was also used to portray images of power and authority in the times of Ancient Egypt. This is shown in the Statue of Khafre. On the seat Khafre is sitting in there is an image of intertwined lotus and papyrus which symbolizes united Egypt. The falcon covering his head is Horus, the god the sky and heavens. This implies the pharaoh’s divine status. The pharaoh is also shaped with a canon of ideal proportions, which is suitable for someone as perfect as the pharaoh. Also the expression on the pharaoh’s face is calm and shows eternal strength and life. Many of the traits in both examples constitute how their culture’s image of power and authority. Bibliography 1) Gardner’s Art Through the Ages Tenth Edition, p.50,75-76. 2) www.coco.cc.az.us/apetersen/ _ART201/old_king.htm 3) www.coco.cc.az.us/apetersen/ _ART201/akkad.htm 4) â€Å"Ancient Egypt†, World Book Encyclopedia, 1990. Images of Power and Authority in Art Art has been used to portray figures of power and authority many times in history. Different cultures have different ways of portraying the image to have power and authority. One example of using art to portray images of power and authority is the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin. This was made to commemorate King Naram-Sin for his defeat of Lullubi. T he King stands alone at the top, taller than everyone else. This shows that he is more powerful than anyone else. The King also wears a horned helmet that shows godliness. Celestial bodies shine upon him also showing him as a deity. His troops are lined up behind him in an orderly fashion, showing his control and also the discipline and organization of his forces. He and his army have complete control of the subdued enemy, showing that he and his army are superior. Art was also used to portray images of power and authority in the times of Ancient Egypt. This is shown in the Statue of Khafre. On the seat Khafre is sitting in there is an image of intertwined lotus and papyrus which symbolizes united Egypt. The falcon covering his head is Horus, the god the sky and heavens. This implies the pharaoh’s divine status. The pharaoh is also shaped with a canon of ideal proportions, which is suitable for someone as perfect as the pharaoh. Also the expression on the pharaoh’s face is calm and shows eternal strength and life. Many of the traits in both examples constitute how their cultureâ₠¬â„¢s image of power and authority. Bibliography 1) Gardner’s Art Through the Ages Tenth Edition, p.50,75-76. 2) www.coco.cc.az.us/apetersen/ _ART201/old_king.htm 3) www.coco.cc.az.us/apetersen/ _ART201/akkad.htm 4) â€Å"Ancient Egypt†, World Book Encyclopedia, 1990.

Cultural Geography of the Beatles: Representing Landscapes As Musical Texts Essay

Beatles song analysis Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Penny Lane is track number fifteen in Beatles’ album. It was released in 1967. It is a song of the rock genres. It was primarily written by Paul McCartney. He credited the song to Lennon-McCartney. The song was recorded during the sessions of Sergeant Pepper. The song was released because the company wanted a new something from Beatles after a long stay without a new release. The song was ranked number 456 in Rolling Stone list out of 500 in 2004 ( Lennon et al, 1993, p.7).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The title of the song is said to have been derived from the name of a street where Lennon lived in his early childhood life in Liverpool, England. It is significant in that McCartney and Lennon would meet in the street’s bus stop to board a bus to the city center. The street was a famous place that had been chosen by Beatles fans that came to tour Liverpool. This street was apparently named after a famous slave trader in England. It was significant because of the famous stealing of the signs put in place bearing the name of the street (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 12).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The song â€Å"penny lane† has a beautiful coordination of vocals and instrumental sounds. This coordination is even made more attractive by a solo piccolo trumpet that has a clear and clean sound which penetrates amicably throughout a heavy mid-range texture. The song is dominated by well coordinated piano notes, percussion effects and a Vox guitar amplifier sound which has added re-verbs. The resultant effect is awesome. The song beats the time it was produced. Well played and performed by all the personnel involved during its production, the song was completed with a lot of precision. It was the best selling song in the album at the time of its release (Lennon et al, 1993, p.11).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The song possesses a double-tonic structure and a chorus each with a similar starting statement but different lyrics after the introducing statement. This is a unique feature of the song which brings about an element of repetition. Could it be that the street was so important to the writer of the song? This might be the case or may be it is because the street was one of the significant streets of Liverpool (Lennon et al, 1993, p.13).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the opening of the song, after the mention of â€Å"in Penny Lane†, the writer uses a three cord interval melody note. It then changes to BM key which involves flat third notes. This is a unique innovation putting the time of its production into consideration. To navigate from the verse â€Å"In the pouring rain† to â€Å"very strange†, McCartney used an E chord as a pivot and takes the listeners back to the chorus (Robert et al, 2005, p. 15).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the middle length of the song, the lyrics stops and there is a bridge where a solo piccolo trumpet is played. The period the trumpet is played perfectly matches the song. It is done with precision to get the listeners fascinated. This period carries the listeners’ emotions to another totally different world. It is keenly done almost to lender the player breathless and having the whole attention of the emotional being of the listener (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 25).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though the song is nice, there seems to be some features in it that are contradicting. The song was written and recorded during summer time yet, there is rain. One would wonder about the significance of the contrasting chorus against the verses. May be the purpose of the contrast was to show the difference is different professionals and jobs such as fireworks, banking and hair trimming and nursing. There also seems to be another contradiction that the barber does not wear a mack yet he is waiting to be trimmed. It is very unlikely that a person can be shaved with wet hair. This is also a contradiction present in the song. Its significance is not known. Probably the significance is to show how possible the impossible things are (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 27).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is still another unclear verse in the song. The verse points out that the nurse feels to be in play and yet she is playing. How can one feel to be in play and yet he/she is in play? He or she must feel to be in play because they already are in play. The poppies sold by the nurse are a sign of beauty. They are beautiful and very fragile and thus needs to be handled with a lot of care. The significance of the verse is to bring about the element of beauty that dominates Penny Lane Street yet it is very fragile and needs to be taken care of more so from the prevailing condition of theft (Robert et al, 2005, p. 17).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The verse â€Å"four of fish and finger pies† is a British slang. â€Å"Finger pie† is a sexual slang of the time whereas â€Å"four of fish† denotes fish and chips worth four penny. Putting into consideration that the song was written during a time when Penny Lane was a significant destination of tourists, the slang â€Å"finger pie† may denote the highest probability of prostitution in the area. Similarly, the significance of the slang â€Å"four of fish† may denote the most popular food enjoyed by the people in Penny Lane during the time (Robert et al, 2005, p. 23).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The repetition of â€Å"Penny Lane is in my ears† is a significant feature in the song. It is meant to emphasis on how important the place is to the writer. It seems that the place is the best ever the writer had lived in during his life time. The place meant a lot to the writer. It is like he holds a nostalgic feeling of his childhood with the area. In deed the area was nice due to its attractive nature and a known destination of many tourists. This would have been another reason for writing a song dominated with the name Penny Lane. Similarly, the singers of the song â€Å"The Beatles† were very famous in Penny Lane. They had great performances in the area which had a lot of fans. This could also be another reason why the name is mentioned a number of times. Although the mention is significant, the writer tends to overdo it by making more unnecessary mentions even in the verses (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 16).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The lyrics are lucid for the listener to understand but to know the real motivation of the song or the meaning and the intention of the writer is very hard. The writer creates a significant imagery using the appearance of a one day activities on the street. But the actual meaning of the song is only known to the writer of the song. Not unless the writer is interviewed and he frankly opens up and air his motivation, it would be totally different from what it seems to be (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 19).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   McCartney seems to appreciate all the people in the street who contributes to the economy of the country. He also seems to appreciate what they will give him in return after attending the show and buying albums. At the same time, the listeners are entertained. A mention of different kind of people who are all over the area is also significant. Nurses selling poppies, a banker, a fireman, and a barber are all significant (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 26).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When they are mentioned, they all will feel appreciated and will in turn buy the album and attend more shows facilitated by The Beatles. This is of advantage to the writer, the singers and the producer because the album will sell more. It also seems that Penny Lane was a place for all people. Different persons from different professions meet in the barber shop for a shave (Lennon et al, 1993, p.26).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The song is accompanied by a nice slide show of the lyrics. This makes it easier for the recipient to internalize the lyrics. If the recipient can understand the lyrics, they definitely will love the song. It is expected that if the lyrics are lucid for the recipient consumption, then the goal of the song is achieved. Apart from selling more, any given song should have an emotional response from the recipients. If it doesn’t, then the goal is not achieved (Campbell et al, 1980, p. 29).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the end of the song, the pitch note changes and the chorus is repeated two times. This is may be intended to get the attention of the listeners and to emphasis on the importance of the information in the chorus. The raising of the song note makes it excellent to the listeners. It elevates the emotional level of the listeners. This keeps them at their top most affinity of the song. At this time, their souls are more into the song than ever in the lyrics. This part could be the most attractive point of the song (Lennon et al, 1993, p. 25).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although the song is generally written and performed to precision, with instruments perfectly fitting the lyrics, there are several instances that if changed, the song would be more attractive. First, the voice of the singer is not so clear from the instrumentals. This is to mean, the instrumentals are overwhelming the voice of the singer. It could have been better if the instrumental sound intensity had been reduced during the singing of the lyrics (Lennon et al, 1993, p.31).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   By so doing, the lyrics would have been clearer and it would have not been overwhelmed by the instrumental sound. The overall musical combination would intertwine perfectly with the singer’s voice. This would have a deeper emotional feeling to the listener than it did. It should have also facilitated the understanding of the overall message of the song (Lennon et al, 1993, p.34).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In conclusion, the song was a hit during the time. It was allegedly the first song of the pop type to have a piccolo trumpet played in the song. With different remedies to be done, the song can be a legend of the time and of today. The remedies are needed on the areas pointed above. References Campbell, Colin, Allan Murphy, John Lennon, John Lennon, John Lennon, John Lennon, John Lennon, John Lennon, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Paul McCartney, and Paul McCartney.  Things We Said Today: The Complete Lyrics and a Concordance to the Beatles’ Songs, 1962-1970. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press, 1980. Print. Kruse, Robert J.  A Cultural Geography of the Beatles: Representing Landscapes As Musical Texts (strawberry Fields, Abbey Road, and Penny Lane). Lewiston, N.Y: E. Mellen Press, 2005. Print. Lennon, John, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr, George Harrison, George Martin, Paul McCartney, and John Lennon.  The Beatles, 1967-1970. New York: Apple, 1993. Sound recording. Source document

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

A Chip off The Old Block-Bluster Essay

Background to the problem Mr Something runs a small business called A Chip off The Old Block-Bluster. Mr Something is the makes of Blockbusters son. He has only left him a little bit of inheritance and wanted him to produce a business that was just as good as his. He currently has a shop in slough High Street. He only gets a few customers a day. He keeps track of people’s record manually and would like to use his father’s money to set up an electronic system that only requires a few manual entries. The Current System Mr Something currently uses cards to manage his business. He has 2 types of cards. 1 card is his business card to hand out to people to show where his shop is, his name, telephone, his email and his fax. The other type of card is a customer card. The customer card has the shop logo on it and the customers name on it. It is a card made out of card and is laminated to protect it from damage. If the customer does not have a card, he issues one to them for a price of 20p if they wish to rent DVD’s again. He collects their name, address, DOB and home number. The card can have data printed on it with a permanent ink. It shows when the DVD must be returned by. The ink can be erased using a special spray and a cloth. This is costly and takes some time. It can sometimes irritate the customer depending on how long it takes. He creates the card by designing it on Microsoft publisher and printing it off using a dot matrix printer and laminates it. He also keeps a paper record. It has a table with the same details as on the card and the name of the DVD rented and the date it must be returned by. He writes it by hand using a pen while the customer is renting the DVD. If the DVD is not returned by the date set for return, then he uses mail merge to send a letter to the customer saying that the DVD must be returned by 4 days after the letter has been sent and if not, there will be a higher charge. If it continues then the police will be involved. Mr Something calls it the record sheet. The record sheets are stored in a briefcase that is locked and is stored in a cupboard that is overhead that is also locked. This reduces the chances of burglars getting their hands on the customer’s details. Problems with the system The current problems with the system are: * It takes time for Mr Something to enter in the customers details onto the record sheet. * The laminated cards that he gives to his customers are easily damaged by peeling away the laminated layer * The cleaning liquid is expensive to buy and therefore makes little profit * The manual methods take very long which hold up the customer. The end user’s requests The end user would like: * a computerised system * a homepage that can navigate through the whole system easily * searches that can be easily used * a window that can search through records * something that can add files to the records file * something that can show the charges of overdue DVDs Possible Solutions A non-ICT solution could be to use cards. There could be three files, one for members, one for DVDs and one for loans. But this could lead to problems as cards can get damaged as easily as log books, and they aren’t very practical. Cards can also get lost, and this solution is quite time consuming. Cards could also be quite expensive. Word processing and presentation programmes are unsuitable for this solution. Word processors couldn’t store the information properly, although a table could be made to store the files. Reports and queries cannot be made on a word processing document. The information could not be structured properly. Presentation software couldn’t be used as they are made really for displaying information to an audience. Both of these solutions could not be used to store structured data. A spreadsheet programme could be used. Rows and tables could be made to store the data. However, this could be quite repetitive. Three different tables would have to be made. Each DVD would have to be repeated every time it was lent. This would be quite frustrating and time consuming. Using a relational database seems like the best solution for the DVD rental. It can be used to store lots of data and reduce the amount of repetition of it. Queries can be used to extract data quickly and easily. This could be used to find overdue DVDs, solving the problem of undetected overdue fines. Separate tables can be made easily, which can be linked in a relationship. Wizards can be used to make queries and reports quickly without mistakes. Databases also contain validation tools which stop input errors. Length check can be used on the fields to stop mistakes. Primary keys can be made to number DVDs and members. Objectives The system should have the following: * it should be neat and tidy for easy reading * There should be a report to show the overdue DVDs and their price. * Charges should be calculated automatically. * The navigation should be easy with clearly labelled command buttons. * The system should be able to save data on customers and DVDs without confusion.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Deutsche Bank is a global universal bank. What are the advantages and Essay

Deutsche Bank is a global universal bank. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a global universal bank and what are som - Essay Example The Deutsche bank holds a record for being the only bank that has strived to achieve omnipresence. Evidently, universal banks exhibit multiple benefits to the clients, but a closer analysis reveals that they have certain disadvantages. This paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of universal banks. Moreover, the paper will analyse the issues that arise when handling tasks in the compliance department. Advantages of Universal Banks Universal banks offer their clients a diverse range of services to different clients having the opportunity to receive personalized services that conform to their banking needs. Usually individuals, groups, organizations, states and multi-national organizations exhibit varying financial needs. The fact that universal banks have the capacity to offer tailor-made services, they surpass other banks by offering each client service that conforms to personal financial needs. This is the reason why universal banks offer a high level of convenience t o the clients (Heller, Meaney & Murphy 2001, p. 78). They serve as a single-stop banks where one can access all the required financial needs. Evidently, such convenience receives emphasis from the presence of most universal banks in different regions, affording the clients an increased banking flexibility even beyond the borders. Recent research reveals that universal banks serve as critical contributors to the economy. This is because they have the capacity to support a diverse range of investments in different parts of the globe. Universal banks exert their effect on the entire economic system, altering the economic trends by providing financial breakthroughtwo different types of clients. Universal banks serve private household clients, offering arrange of appealing service packages appropriate for them (Palepu2007, p. 87). Moreover, universal banks offer a range of services to institutional clients empowering them to receive the required the financial boost to achieve their goals . This factor has served as a reliable solution to the financial problems of many institutions as they can form investment partnerships with universal banks. These services are offered at a relatively lowered funding cost compared to other banks. Evidently, universal banks register a low level of profiling costs, placing them in a better position to offer services at the lower funding cost compared to other banks. Moreover, these banks exhibit a lower funding cost themselves, explaining further why they favour all types of clients. Universal banks have served to increase the willingness of credit borrowers, a factor that has contributed to the rising returns for clients who wish to save. This has been especially advantageous to governments that exhibit financial needs that require borrowing. Moreover, this proves to be highly beneficial to other clients, and contributes to a surging growth. This has given rise to an evident rise instability of the economies by causing as the spread of innovations in different regions in the globe (PadoanBrenton & Boyd 2003, p. 34). Disadvantages Although universal banks exhibit all these benefits, they face a surging pressure to satisfy all the clients in different regions.These banks face the compulsion of maintaining a high quality of their services (Lambert&Ioma2005, p.98). They have to ensure that they are responsive; clear in communication, prompt, and a high level of integrity in offering

Sunday, July 28, 2019

IKEAs business model and sources of competitive advantage Essay

IKEAs business model and sources of competitive advantage - Essay Example What is best about IKEA’s furniture is that although it is cheap, yet it is stylish and durable. IKEA’s business model is based on maintaining low cost structure so that it can continue to deliver its promise of low price and good quality lifestyle to its customers. IKEA has very carefully managed to keep its cost structure low by practicing a few strategies. For instance, it has chosen suppliers from different parts of the world and maintained strong and long term relationship with them by offering them office facilities and technologies to carry out their business smoothly. IKEA focuses on efficiency though long production runs so as to entice investors and bring down the cost structure. The raw material needed for the manufacturing of furniture is chosen carefully without any interference of third party; expensive wood is replaced by less expensive and good quality raw material. To further reduce its cost structure, IKEA’s furniture arrives at the stores in disassembled parts in flat packaging along with instruction manuals; this not only lowers the transportation costs but offers ease of handling to the customers. Unlike other stores in the category, IKEA’s stores are located in the outskirts and only few are owned by the company. Franchising is a good option for lowering the cost structure and IKEA has taken it up religiously. Moreover, IKEA ensures that it does not rely on one supplier for the manufacture of a single product. Take an example, for an IKEA chair, the seat is supplied by a manufacturer who is in one corner of the world, legs come from a supplier from another corner and nuts and screws are supplied from totally different regions. IKEA’s furniture designs are basically Scandinavian with little or no modifications. These designs are considered outclass and accepted widely in non Scandinavian countries equally. However in some regions the customers’ exhibit displeasure towards Scandinavian designs because the items do not fulfill their cultural and personal needs. Apart from all the good steps taken by IKEA to maintain cost leadership, there is still room for weaknesses which must be addressed to as to strengthen the brand image. Although IKEA has expanded its operations in major territories of the world for earning more revenues but it has failed to understand is that every country has different culture, demand, taste and most of all, legislations which it has to abide by. Since these factors vary from country to country, it has come to IKEA as a big challenge to meet the customer and co untry’s requirements while maintaining cost leadership. Because IKEA promises low priced furniture to its customers, innovation is not seen much because bringing in new designs can disturb the cost structure. Sometimes IKEA fails to understand that one size fits all cannot hold in the line of furniture. Scandinavian designs might be appealing to countries in the Europe and nearby but cannot please the Americans in the same manner. The stores of IKEA are located outside the cities as per the low cost strategy. This causes the customers to travel long distances so they prefer to make purchases from nearby stores. We have learned from the given case study that IKEA has chosen cost leadership to be its core aim and strategy but only this one factor is not enough for its survival. It has to have more points of differentiation because when other competitors in the industry bring their prices down and offer quality and superior customer service, then chances are likely that customer loyalty and brand image of IKEA will drop

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Real Time flash flood forcasting Research Proposal

Real Time flash flood forcasting - Research Proposal Example Such a plan is aimed at raising the preparedness levels and making response activities by the local authorities’ and the general public more efficient especially during a flash flood3. Such plans integrate the use of technological variables of weather forecasting and GIS-based system for data management processing. This research is aimed at contributing to the development of integrating flash flood management plan in some flood prone areas. The most important things about planning for a flash flood is warning the general public and the response to the floods ensuring that loss of lives and property is minimal. Warnings about flash floods are transmitted by the meteorological departments and the hydrological services in various countries. In all flood management plans, organization and dissemination of information to warn the people is the most important thing4. The first element of a flashflood management strategy is finding out about all those who are at risk and whatever else is at risk. Risk is determined through assessing by establishing the hazards, the levels of exposure and the vulnerability of the people. The hazard entails the magnitude and the probability of occurrence of the flood5. This information can be given in form of maps which outline the borders of the areas at risk and their expected velocity6. Exposure on the other hand is the information of all those who are in danger as well as all what is in harms way. Vulnerability entails the expected losses which are looked at in terms of the geophysical, economic and the societal attributes of a given region. By establishing all the three elements enables those involved in the flood management to adopt the most effective strategies, be it to deal with engineering problems or dealing with the social challenges7. To establish the extent of the three elements, a risk analysis must be conducted. Metrological and hydrological data is essential in determining the hazard levels of an

Friday, July 26, 2019

Fieldwork Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Fieldwork - Essay Example Users of interactive media are engaged to the media that they are using. This paper shall investigate the effect of interactive media on the people. The study used random sampling method to select ten respondents for the purposes of understanding the influence of interactive media on cognitive development and learning process. A questionnaire the data collection sought answers to the following questions: The open-ended questionnaire provides room for the respondents to widen the scope of their answers and provide insights into the question. Due to time constraints in interviewing the respondents separately, the questionnaire provided timely data from all the respondents. The response rate was 100%. Most of the respondents (9 out of 10) attested to the use of the internet and digital television as their main interactive media forums. These are the most understood and commonly shared by all the respondents4. Four respondents affirmed that interactive media has positive effects on their social ties. They said that interactive media has enabled fast communication and connection with other people, thus building their social ties5. Interactive media also helps them to keep in touch with their friends. The remaining six respondents attributed their social problems to interactive media. The engaging nature of these media denied them the time to go out and socialise. The impersonality nature of interactive media extends to their social relationships6. Majority of the respondents (80%) agreed that interactive media improves and facilitates the learning process. They said that interactive media provides platforms for them to get more knowledge and provides simplified versions and illustrations for understanding. The other two respondents were unsure of the influence interactive media had on their learning process. Eight respondents were

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Management and operation of Abu Dhabi and Singapore Airport Research Paper

Management and operation of Abu Dhabi and Singapore Airport - Research Paper Example As a business goal, Abu Dhabi International airport authority associates the largest importance to the experience of the passengers who pass through their terminals. The fast growth of the airport is based on connecting people to their destinations with smoothness and utmost comfort and making their journeys relaxed and enjoyable. Abu Dhabi International airport attaches high importance to their technological advancement in operations and management of flights backed by the highest internal safety standards. Since its inception in 1982, Abu Dhabi International airport is owned by the Government of Abu Dhabi. It is operated by Abu Dhabi Airports Company since 2006 that has been given the task to enhance the smoothness of operations and comfort of the passengers giving them a lifetime experience. The airport operates seven days a week and twenty-four hours a day. In order to accommodate more passengers in connecting east to the west, several projects are underway in support Abu Dhabi I nternational airport to reach world standards. The airport has several accolades of international repute over the years, namely Skytrax Best Airport Award in 2011 where it emerged as the secondly ranked airport in terms of performance in the middle-east. The airport is committed to international standards of safety for its passengers and thereby developing a long-term relationship. The runway, for example, is qualified for operation with the minimum visibility of 125 meters thereby reducing the delay of flights due to adverse weather conditions.

Payday loans Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Payday loans - Essay Example Even more is the issue of employment. As the nation struggles with high unemployment rate, the payday loans industry has come to be one industry that is absorbing a lot of unemployed citizens. The economic relation in determining the interest rates on loans paid to low income earners and middle and high income earners emanates from the common principle of guarantee and surety. It is logical to assume that the middle and high income earners would easily pay off their loans. To the lender, it is the low income earner who would face problems paying off the loans. Experience has showed that some low income earners stop paying off their loan half way through (Gardener, 2008). This means that if higher interest rates were changed, the lender may not have much to loss because of the stoppage because as at the time of the stoppage, they might have made enough accumulated sum for the original amount taken. Banks seem to be refusing to enter the venture because of the risk involved. It would be noted that the loans are mostly patronized by low income earners who cannot guarantee payment. The banks therefore do not want to risk having their monies being made away with especially as the economic meltdown seem not to have been totally recovered from. In the absence of payday loans, those who benefit from it would simply have had to cut down on their expenditure in order to make their earnings sufficient for

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

HEMP Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

HEMP - Research Paper Example tral Asia as well as South Asia, existence of Hemp can be traced back to third millennium and during 2003 a basket made up of leather was figured out near a twenty eight hundred year old mummified shaman, the basket contained remains of cannabis leaf. The existence of this drug can be traced in India and its existence is even stated in the Sanskrit. The psychoactive elements of this herb were recognized by the Aryans, the herb was even utilized for ritual purposes, used by cults related to pharmacology. It is even said to be used by Jews, Muslims and Christians in their religious practices. According to John Gregory Bourke, Hemp was used by the Mexican community to heal various health issues such as asthma and to accelerate delivery of child. According to Bourke, the herb is a very prominent negative finding of the East side of the world and the herb has an ability to make individuals conduct anti-social behaviour. During the early period of the 20th century, the drug was banned and criminalized. During 1906, US banned its use, later in 1911, South Africa even joined the process of banning hemp, in the 20s of the nineteenth century, and it was banned by the government of New Zealand and United Kingdom. Later in the 1937 era, US passed an act to restrict the production of this drug; this act was recognized as Marihuana Tax Act. Around more than 5000 years ago, hemp was first used as medicine for various illnesses such as female health issues, malaria and constipation, later it was recommended to be used as analgesic for surgical purposes. Hemp has been used in India as a means of relieving headache, decreasing fever and inducing sleep and increasing the functionality rate of mind. In Africa, this herb was used for similar purposes, even in modern days; it is used before childbirth and to treat poison from snake bites. High medical value was attached to the herb by the Europeans during the period of the 5th and the 15th century, during 1621, it was even recommended

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

ICT Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

ICT - Assignment Example The cases related to sell of software is controlled by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Furthermore, law of digital contracts is evolving worldwide at a significant pace. It can be stated that contract law or law in general is not static. Instead, laws are often quite dynamic that involve in responding to new occurrence and innovation (Schwanzer, 2007). Based on the above mentioned statement, this report intends to discuss whether software is to be classified as goods or services by taking into concern the notion of contract law along with its various implications. Discussion Specially mentioning, consumers engaged in buying software are not generally entitled to enjoy the same rights as in the case of purchasing tangible products. In this regard, it can be stated that software is a term, which is often used to describe the collection of instruction and data that facilitate computers to function in an effective manner. Evidently, computers are redundant without proper app lication of software. This implies that computers are unable to perform tasks in an effective manner without the installation of software. From the legal perspective, software is notable for two major reasons. The first major reason can be related with its unique characteristics, revealing that software is not similar to any conventional law. The second major reason can be noted as that despite the widespread use of software in the modern commercial arena, it does not have any distinct legal entity. Correspondingly, there is no specific manner through which legal treatment should be implemented to resolve software related disputes. Thus, this uncertainty largely raises a question, whether software should be considered or to be classified as goods or services (Green & Saidov, 2007). The lack of precision, surrounding the legal principle of software can be regarded as both commercially inconvenient and conceptually arbitrary. The buyers of software often possess the similar expectatio n of rights, while purchasing other items that are recognized under the law. However, in the recent time, the refusal to consider software as goods or services can be identified as the failure of law to protect the expectation and the interest of the buyers of software. Correspondingly, the two product related aspects i.e. â€Å"tangibility† and â€Å"movability’ determine the characteristics of software (Green & Saidov, 2007). In this similar context, â€Å"tangibility† is commonly defined as possessing a physical form or being able to be perceived by senses. It can be argued that this notion acted as the stumbling block towards considering software as goods. The relevancy of â€Å"tangibility† for adjudging software as a good can be ascertained owing to the reason that most of the legal system defines the sales of contract as a sort of agreement, which is associated with the transfer of property in goods in exchange of money, denoted as price. Conseque ntly, such transfer generally requires transfer of possession (Green & Saidov, 2007). However, in the case of possession of intangible service, both civil and common law signifies that possession of intangible is not possible and also cannot be owned. However, software can be acquired and possessed, making it tangible. Similarly, the aspect of â€Å"

Monday, July 22, 2019

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Essay Example for Free

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Essay Exercise1 Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Name ____________________________________________________________ Lab Time/Date ______________________________ Activity 1 Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion) 1. Describe two variables that affect the rate of diffusion. * The size of the pores of the membrane * The size of the molecule diffusing through the membrane 2. Why do you think the urea was not able to diffuse through the 20 MWCO membrane? How well did the results compare with your prediction? * Because the pores of the membrane were not large enough * I predicted this correctly. 3. Describe the results of the attempts to diffuse glucose and albumin through the 200 MWCO membrane. How well did the results compare with your prediction? I predicted that only glucose would diffuse through it and was right. Albumin is too heavy to diffuse through that membrane. 4. Put the following in order from smallest to largest molecular weight: glucose, sodium chloride, albumin, and urea. NaCl, Urea, Glucose, Albumin Activity 2 Simulated Facilitated Diffusion 1. Explain one way in which facilitated diffusion is the same as simple diffusion and one way in which it differs. -Similar – They pass through the membrane without the use of ATP, they’re both forms of passive transport. -Different The solutes in facilitated diffusion pass through a carrier protein while the solutes pass through the membrane in simple diffusion. 2.The larger value obtained when more glucose carriers were present corresponds to an increase in the rate of glucose transport. Explain why the rate increased. How well did the results compare with your prediction? Since there were more carrier proteins, more glucose could diffuse into the cell at one time which made the process go along much quicker. I predicted this correctly. 3.Explain your prediction for the effect Na+Cl− might have on glucose transport. In other words, explain why you picked the choice that you did. How well did the results compare with your prediction? I said that the rate of diffusion would decrease, which was wrong, because I figured that having the NaCl would equalize the concentration gradient and make the concentration gradient and make it a slower process. The rate actually remained unaffected because NaCl is not required for glucose in the simulation. Activity 3 Simulating Osmotic Pressure 1. Explain the effect that increasing the Na+Cl− concentration had on osmotic pressure and why it has this effect. How well did the results compare with your prediction? I predicted correctly in saying that the NaCl concentration would increase the pressure because they are directly related, meaning if one increased, that means the other one must have increased as well. 2. Describe one way in which osmosis is similar to simple diffusion and one way in which it is different. -Similar – Solutes can still pass through the membrane in both simple diffusion and osmosis. -Different – In diffusion, the particles go from high concentration regions to low concentration regions, while in osmosis it crosses from a region of low solute concentration to high solute concentration. 3.Solutes are sometimes measured in milliosmoles. Explain the statement, â€Å"Water chases milliosmoles.† Water follows the solutes (milliosmoles) into higher concentrated areas of solutes, me aning it was going against the concentration gradient and chasing the milliosmoles. 4.The conditions were 9 mM albumin in the left beaker and 10 mM glucose in the right beaker with the 200 MWCO membrane in place. Explain the results. How well did the results compare with your prediction? Keeping in mind the past activities, I predicted correctly before doing this activity. The glucose diffused through to the left beaker forming equilibrium, which created osmotic pressure on the left side. The albumin cannot fit through that membrane so it didn’t reach equilibrium. Activity 5 Simulating Active Transport 1. Describe the significance of using 9 mM sodium chloride inside the cell and 6 mM potassium chloride outside the cell, instead of other concentration ratios. Because the sodium-potassium pump needs a 3:2 ratio to function, meaning once the concentration of the KCl runs out then the NaCl cannot function either. 2. Explain why there was no sodium transport even though ATP was present. How well did the results compare with your prediction? I predicted wrong with this activity because I said that the Na+ would be maximally transported. I know now that although in the presence of ATP, the pump still cannot function without any K. 3. Explain why the addition of glucose carriers had no effect on sodium or potassium transport. How well did the results compare with your prediction? I also predicted incorrectly on this one because I did not realize that the glucose carriers don’t need ATP to function so they were still at the mercy of how much potassium there was in the sodium-potassium pump. I thought that there would be easier access into the cell for the Na and K cells. 4.Do you think glucose is being actively transported or transported by facilitated diffusion in this experiment? Explain your answer. Facilitated diffusion because it is moving with the concentration gradie nt and the glucose carriers don’t require ATP to transport the glucose.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Economic Interdependence between European countries

Economic Interdependence between European countries Why is economic interdependence necessary? When we talk about economic interdependence between countries the first and foremost factor that comes to mind is the exchange of goods and services then the flow of labour, capital, technology, and finally the flow of funds. Helpman (2011) describes the economic fortunes of a country being intertwined â€Å"†¦via trade, foreign direct investment, and financial capital flows†. Helpman also talks about how the global crises of 2008 illustrated the importance of this interdependency between countries when it caused the volume of international trade to fall by almost a quarter which then adversely influenced even the countries with a sound financial system. Coming to the first aspect of the exchange for goods and services (trade); it is indeed, essential to trade in order to derive maximum benefit from the efficient use of scarce resources available and as economic development and progression takes place resultantly because of globalisation, international trade is becoming i ncreasingly popular particularly when it comes to European countries. Piggott and Cook (2006) talk about the need for international trade quite comprehensively: â€Å"exports and imports can smooth demand fluctuations in the domestic economy, and growth via exports could increase competition at home. Therefore basically trade allows firms to escape the confines of the domestic market, so reducing costs, improving quality and hopefully leading to higher sales and profits†. Furthermore, this leads to the countries’ then helping even their businesses or organisations obtain a competitive advantage through specialisation and giving them access to international markets which in turn helps boost the economy even more. Europe’s global economic position Most of the countries in Europe have a significantly high GDP per capita and are considered to have extremely developed economies when it comes to the Global market; examples of which include Germany, France, Netherlands, and so on. In fact, the International monetary fund in its latest report in 2018 places most of the European countries in the advanced economies’ category whether it is in final domestic demand, stock building, or foreign balance. It is especially impressive that most of these countries progressed themselves post communism particularly with European countries like Hungary and Latvia undergoing financial crises as Grzegorz Ekiert (2012) puts it â€Å"†¦these countries’ political and economic achievements have been in stark contrast to the failures seen in other post-communist states.† The most important role in economic development however, has to be acknowledged as well which is the economic interdependence between these European countries. Economic interdependence and its importance â€Å"Economic interdependence is occurring due to specialization of countries, as they are dependent on others in the purchase of products which are not manufactured nationwide.† (Surugiu, 2015) It should be of a common understanding that progress cannot be achieved by being alone or confining to a limited way of approaching desired economic objectives and it proves to be true in the global economy as well. As more countries pool in their share of different scarce resources and bring about extra demand as well from their economies they do in fact help in reducing the wastage of resources. Needless to say, this really does synchronise with efficiently allocating these available resources too. When we talk about globalisation and economic interdependence the most critical element to have are good international relationships between countries due to the aforementioned fact that it is not only international trade that influences the countries’ economies but also other economic factors such as the flow of labour, easing of trade regulations or even financial tie-ups. These relationships are usually quite diplomatic and do involve a collaboration from both sides, it could even be argued that this relationship in itself is an exchange in order to achieve mutually favourable growth thus, these can also be the difference between maintaining peace and economic well-being. Paul Wilkinson(2007) talks about how paramount these can be in his book â€Å"†¦some of the major problems and challenges of international relations reveals that we live in a very dangerous world, and that many of the most serious threats to our peace, security, and economic and social well-being are the result of human actions.† How and why European countries are economically interdependent Being geographically close such as the countries within Europe gives them an advantage to not only make trading easier and quicker but it also provides them with a strategic advantage of achieving their political missions and their businesses with a competitive edge in the international markets. When countries do intend to come together in order to achieve economic progression they usually end up forming an alliance/trading bloc or in Europe’s case most prominently a regional trading bloc (European Union) which overtime proved to be of immense significance to their   economic and political environment. This proved to be extremely pertinent in making sure that the countries involved not only maintained peace and excellent diplomatic ties but also that they assisted each other’s economies with regards to growth and exchanging of resources allowing them to specialise more distinctively and get an even higher trade advantage. This enabled the member countries to contribute to the union financially and in return the union invested in its members’ economies accordingly. As stated by European Commission (2018) the EU adopted budget aims to invest (in its member countries) about EUR 160, 113.52M in several areas including sustainable growth, competitiveness for growth and security amongst others. The European Union could arguably be one of the most powerful economic integrations. Over the years, it has not only helped its members in areas like capital accumulation, and technical progress but it has also maintained common and standardised policies for trade and as attested by European commission(2018) itself the EU making one of its main aims to become economically interdependent and avoid any future conflicts between its members. Consequently, countries such as Germany, Spain and France who were at war for centuries have now ensured that they now work in harmony to attain mutual benefit (Mankiw, 2016, p.528). Some other examples of European economic integrations include the European Economic Area (EEA) with around 32 members, European Union Customs Union (EUCU) with 28 of the EU and 3 non-EU members (Turkey, Andorra, and San Marino), and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) with currently 4 members. The most compelling benefit however, is provided by there being a single currencies’ adoption by the European Union members which brings with it the convenience of eliminating transaction costs, reduction in price discrimination and the stability of the foreign exchange rate (Mankiw et al, 2016, pp.531). Threats economic interdependence presents While recognising the pivotal aspects of European countries having to be economically reliant on each other we must also look at the limitations it brings with it. Some of these limitations include a 5% decrease in intra EU trading during 2000-2014, Europe’s internal crises in 2015 which was triggered by the euro crises a few years prior, not giving the countries involved to make independent political decisions without undermining their relationships with a majority of their trading partners, and it taking just one opposing country to threaten a powerful alliance like EU as Greece tried to in 2015 against EU sanctions placed on Russia (The German Marshall Fund of the United States, 2016). This can also cause a free rider problem as well which Mankiw, Et al (2016) explains by giving the example of the Greek recession where the government borrowed more than they could pay back and eventually the EU had to bail them out. Most impactful though, are the difficulties that arise because of there being a single currency (Euro) adoption within the selected EU countries; these are including but not limited to fiscal federalism (Mankiw et al, 2016) describes it as the fiscal policy in the currency union working like that of a single economy, they also give up their right to have an individualistic monetary policy, and finally the macroeconomic adjustment generating from the external value of their currencies also known as automatic stabilisers (Investopedia, 2018). In conclusion, it can be said as Monnet (1978) suggests; the process of economic integration in Europe has always been incremental in nature, and often ‘forged in crises’. The main aims of these integrations also keep changing with respect to the challenges the economic environment brings with it and that being said, as long as these aims are met and all countries feel like they are benefiting mutually they will always understand that there are more pros than cons of economic interdependence for them, if not then they can always choose to leave like the UK did with the EU in June 2016. It goes without saying that trading blocs are an integral part of economic integration and political reasoning might also be a huge element in deriving its existence. However, as long as the collective European economies continue to prosper by depending on each other economically and the consequences of abandoning this interdependence do not surpass the benefits of remaining it would not make any sense for a country to be an independent economy. Reference List: European Free Trade Association (2018) About EFTA: The European Free Trade Association Available from: http://www.efta.int/about-efta/european-free-trade-association [Accessed 21 April 2018] European Commission (2018) Budget: Annual budget. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/budget/annual/index_en.cfm [Accessed 19 April 2018] European Commission (2018) The EU in brief: From Economic to Political Union Available from: https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/eu-in-brief_en [Accessed 21 April 2018] European Commission (2018) Taxation and Customs Union: Customs Union Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/business/calculation-customs-duties/rules-origin/customs-unions_en [Accessed 21 April 2018] Helpman, Elhanan. (2011), Understanding Global Trade, Harvard University Press Available from: ProQuest EBook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/lsbuuk/detail.action?docID=3300975. International Monetary Fund (2018) World Economic Outlook cyclical Upswing, Structural change: statistical appendix table part A. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2018/03/20/world-economic-outlook-april-2018#Statistical%20Appendix [Accessed 20 April 2018] Investopedia (2018) Automatic Stabilizer: What is an ‘economic stabilizer’? Available from: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/automaticstabilizer.asp [Accessed 21 April 2018] Mankiw, G. Taylor, M. Ashwin, A.  (2016), Business Economics: The Global Economy, 2nd edition, Cengage textbooks. Monnet, J (1978),  Memoirs, London. Piggott, Judith. Mark, Cook. (2006), International Business Economics: A European Perspective, Palgrave Macmillan. Surugiu, M. and Surugiu, C. (2015) International Trade, Globalization and Economic Interdependence between European Countries: Implications for Businesses and Marketing Framework, Procedia Economics and Finance, 32 (1), pp. 133. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221256711501374X [Accessed 19 April 2018] The German Marshall Fund of The United States (2016) Policy Brief: How Economic Dependence Could Undermine Europe’s Foreign Policy Coherence. Available from: http://www.gmfus.org/publications/how-economic-dependence-could-undermine-europes-foreign-policy-coherence [Accessed 21 April 2018] The Icelandic Directorate of Immigration (2018), Home: EEA Member Countries. Available from: https://utl.is/index.php/en/eea-member-countries [Accessed 21 April 2018] Wilkinson, Paul. (2007), International Relations: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sony ericsson mobile company

Sony ericsson mobile company 1.0 Report Overview 1.1 Introduction The aim of this report is to deeply understand the importance of applying marketing essential strategies in order for the company to thrive in a dynamic changing environment. Sony Ericsson, the joint venture established in 2001, is an example to be thoroughly examined in this report. Its mobile T68i was revolutionary; it was the first GSM/GPRS color screen handset. Its Bluetooth technology was introduced for the first time in the market. Nevertheless, Sony Ericssons market share is only 13.65% in 2010 compared to Nokia, 51.40%! Why? (GetJar 2009) The report will focus on revealing the key issues that affect Sony Ericssons current and future situation in the market. After the great success of Sony Ericsson in selling its Walkman phones that were launched in 2005 (Smith 2006:77), it started to face new challenges in the market. The report will critically evaluate Sony Ericssons implemented strategies compared to the surrounding environment and highlight the challenges that face the company for this implementation. It is an important report because it will provide a better insight on how marketing strategies are put into practice in a company. It will also help in answering a very important question: what are the challenges the company should handle to maintain its competitive advantage now and in the future. 1.2 Report Structure and Approach This report will be structured as the following: Section Two: An introduction to the companys behaviour and the way it responds to changes in the market in order to understand the broader system it works in. Section Three: A deep analysis of the competitive advantage of the company to have a better understanding of its potentials in order to decide what is better for it. Section Four: Identifying the internal and external factors that determines the companys success or failure by evaluating its strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats using PESTEL and SWOT theories. Section Five: A conclusion. 2.0 Sony Ericsson Orientation Sony Ericsson, being in the mobile telephone industry, faces a lot of fierce competition and it has always strived to be a leader in this industry. To achieve this goal, It has adopted a four dimensional organizational orientation strategy which includes product, marketing, production and sales orientation (Schenker 2007). 2.1 Product Orientation Sony Ericsson has always maintained quality and differentiation in its products while expanding into new markets and making its brand known worldwide. It invests in research and development to develop new products that will satisfy its customers. For instance it was the first in 2005 (Sony Ericsson: 2008) to develop the walkman feature in cell phones. It also developed phones with digital cameras and cyber shot cameras which added value to its products. This company actually invests a lot of money in research and development; it has an office in Sweden which focuses only on researching into new product features and quality (Consumer Reports 2005). A key factor in the product orientation strategy of Sony has been its branding. According toColton, It is wide recognised that brands are one of the most valuable assets that firms own. This explains why Sony Ericsson always wants to improve on its product design so as to maintain its brand name and image which customers hold about its products. Sony Ericssons brand strength has helped in innovation and creation of value creation strategies that its competitors cannot implement or follow as the brand name Sony Ericsson has greater awareness andrecognition.Thus a strong brand name can result in a greater profit margin and the more an organisation achieves its objectives. Sonys brand names with their sophisticated features like the recently launched green heart cell phone has had a positive image in the minds of their consumers who has a high recognition for it as an environmentally friendly industry (Colton et al. 2010). Sony Ericsson has smartly differentiated products with the aim of targeting different segments of the market, since it is difficult for a single product to satisfy the needs of different consumers. For instance, it started by developing phones which were large in size with few options like text messages only. Later on it improved mobiles by producing very small size phones with camera options. Today it has phones with video recording, mp3 and cyber shot. Today, Sony Ericsson has expanded the market for its products operating in over eighty one countries of the globe; it no longer produces electrical appliances like electric irons, televisions and mp3 DVD players. It aims to gain leadership in the mobile phone industry using a strong brand name. 2.2 Marketing Orientation Sony Ericsson is a market oriented organization. Market orientation, according to Jobber, is when a firm gives priority to consumers preferences at all levels of their activities. Sony Ericsson highly values its customers so it develops all its phones based on customers specifications and preferences. It wants to satisfy its customers at all levels; always researching on what consumers desire and it greatly invests in this area as it sees them profitable investments. This can be clearly noticed when Sony Ericsson came with the walkman phones with mp3 in 2005 which paid it off and helped recover the losses it incurred before and resulted in a larger market share. Sony Ericsson has displayed number of market orientation characteristics; for instance, efficiency and effectiveness, segmentation and targeting, customer value and satisfaction and competitive advantage. Moreover, Sony Ericsson is an efficient and effective mobile phone company. Efficiency is seen through its ability to minimise its production cost while maximizing outputs and profit. Sony Ericsson has kept at all stages in production at low cost while maintaining quality and variety with sophisticated features (camera, video recording, and web browser). Also investing in new products and modern technology has been the spirit behind the success of Sony Ericsson in many occasions. Effectiveness, on the other hand, is seen by its ability to produce phones that people want to buy. At one point, the continuous increase in the profits of Sony Ericsson has been due to increase in demand on its phones which has resulted in more sales compared to other years. Sony Ericsson has divided its market into different groups of buyers and sellers. Some of the main segments are those who seek phones for value and those seeking sophisticated features like video recording, internet and mp3. Sony Ericsson has always sought to create pleasure and fun in its phones with the aim of providing customers satisfaction and value to its products. This is why it keeps developing new features like the touch screen, slides and internet facilities. Sony Ericsson has always strived to remain the market leader in the phone industry and to have a competitive edge over its competitors like Nokia and Samsung. This is why after making huge losses of over $10 000 it came up with the new walkman and cyber-shot phones in 2005 and maintained low prices which generated revenues of $31 687.2 million with a net income of $1 769.5 million. It has always put its customers in first position in all its marketing strategies. A typical model to show its marketing orientation can be shown below; Marketing orientation entails creating goods and services that will satisfy the needs of your customers and continuously researching into better ways of doing so and making sure this process has a positive impact on the goals of the company (Uncles 2000: 1). The growing importance of marketing orientation today is seen as firms try to build long lasting relationships with their customer. Firms now produce what the market demands not just producing with the hope that whatever they manufacture consumers will buy. Firms now use customer strategic marketing which is a process whereby they try to optimise revenue and profits while satisfying their needs (Dean et al. 2009). 2.3 Production Orientation Sony Ericsson produces mobile phones and most of the production is centered in China, India and Britain. Third of the production is in China and India as the cost of production in these countries is lower than in the United Kingdom and Sweden where its research and development office is found. The company is efficient in production and so tries to minimise production cost. In 2008, it reduced its work force by 2000 employees and consultants in and remains competitive in this industry which is very dynamic. Sony Ericsson produces phones (talk and text, camera, web and email, touch phones, music and games) and mobile accessories (head phones, battery charger, music transmitters and cables, car holders, Bluetooth headset, phone cases). These phones are designed in different sizes, styles and shapes. Besides, the company focuses its production of mobile phones based on the current market needs. Last year due to the global cry for climate change, it has launched the Go Green Heart Sony Ericsson phone. This shows that the company invests in the production of products that match with current needs of the population. (Sony Ericsson 2009). 2.4 Sales Orientation Sony Ericsson has witnessed rapid increases in revenue due to increased sales. It initially started operations in Britain, China, India and Sweden, but today it has expanded its market to over eighty one countries. Despite the recent recession that lead to reduction in profits, Sony Ericsson has embarked on sales promotions, aggressive and persuasive TV and Internet advertisement and sales promotion and reasonable prices of its products. Most of its adverts have had positive impacts. For example, when it launched the Walkman in 2005, there was a rapid increase in demand and high sales were recorded. Their major buyers are mobile communication firms and independent retailers. Over the years they have experienced increases in their sales and net revenue, yet lost market share. This can be seen below: Years 2005 2006 2007 2008 Net Sales (SEK Million) 7,268 10,959 99,129 12,916 Net Profit (EK Million) 350 997 1,114 1 769.5 Source: Sony Ericsson Company Research 2.5 Sony Ericsson Group Operation Sony Ericsson has different telecommunication through firms like other companies such as Orange, T-Mobile and MTN which carry out sales promotions and this strategy has off. With it launching of online sales it has increased sales as retailers can place their commands online and receive their goods wherever they are located. The coming up of the pricing strategy in 2007 was Sony Ericsson introduced reasonably priced phones with fewer functions equally lead to rapid penetration of the markets especially in Africa. 2.6 Evaluation and Recommendation Sony Ericsson has a positive product and production orientation. This has given it a competitive edge in the market as it always finds new ways and methods of innovation in the mobile phone industry. Its effort in this line has placed it in a supreme position most of time. However it still has to work more on the area of developing phone and accessories. Most of its accessories are not strong as a lot of customers have made negative complaints regarding their durability. The industry has however reacted to this by offering guarantees to customers who purchase its walkman and cyber shot phones. This step nevertheless seems unfair to other consumers who do not get any warranty when purchasing the company other low quality phones (Strategic Direction 2004). As regarding marketing and sales, a lot has to be improved .This is because despite its recent downsizing in labour force with the aim of cutting down cost and maximising profits, the company has still recorded recent losses in the fourth quarter of 2009 (BBC: 2010) of 167 million Euro from 187million Euro in the previous year. Sales in this same period fell by 40%. Sony Ericsson has been suffering from lower sales due to failures in their marketing team. A lot of improvements should be carried out to bust sales and profits. The company overall is doing well needs an extra force o rekindle its sales and profit margins. 3.0 Competitive Advantage An advantage over competitors gained by offering greater customer value, either through lower process or by providing more benefits more benefits that justify higher prices (Armstrong and Kotler 2009:218). Sony Ericsson can be accredited for its innovation. Whether by T68i, the First GSM/GPRS enabled colour screen Handset, Bluetooth technology for file transfer or hand free and later with Music and Loud Speakers or High Mega Pixel Mobile Camera. At one time, Sony Ericsson Held the second largest market as a phone manufacturer in Europe. Below graph shows its market share of 20% which is quite dominant (Mintel 2010). Handset Market Share in Europe, November 2009 One of the main strengths of Sony Ericsson is diversity (Sony Ericsson 2010) and mapping this to the Poters Three Generic Strategies theory we reach the following Stuck In the Middle situation for Sony Ericsson. Competitive Advantage (Porter 1985) Turning this problem into opportunity, it is an advantage for Sony Ericsson to be in that situation, as it enables it to serve the vast mobile consumer market over competitors and the serve the three competitive advantages of Cost, differentiation and focus. 3.1 Cost Leadership To achieve cost Leadership Sony Ericsson has become low cost producers in mobile industry as compared to others offering the same mobile features and quality. Sony Ericsson prices are quite competitive and are available for big as well as small pockets. Brand  £0-20  £21-40  £41-100  £100 Total Nokia 4 4 6 7 21 Sony Ericsson 1 3 8 7 19 Samsung 1 2 6 4 13 LG 3 5 8 Availability of pay as you go phones, by brand and price, December 2009 Source: Mintel Analyzing the above data it clearly specifies that Sony Ericsson have competitive numbers of handsets in all ranges. This helps Sony Ericsson customer base to be 20% and growing continuously. 3.2 Differentiation From day one Sony Ericssons focus has been on Music functionality or camera. At early times when camera phones were just launched, the brand gave the feature to take, send and receive pictures quickly as cameras. Same for the Music Player, its Walkman Series had a dedicated button to allow switching between mobile and music functionality. Mixing the competitive price and leads in terms of multimedia usage across the handset brands (listed in the below table) makes Sony Ericsson so popular among youth (Mintel: 2010). Total% Nokia % Sony Ericsson % Samsung % Motorolla % Bluetooth 46 42 62 53 35 Camera less than 5 megapixel 43 36 55 46 50 Music player 37 29 58 46 16 Games 36 32 49 41 33 Video recorder 34 27 51 41 22 Video player 30 24 45 37 20 Web browser 28 25 38 33 20 Radio 25 25 41 27 6 Camera 5 megapixels or more 21 20 25 29 14 Fast web browsing eg 3G 17 19 21 14 6 Email 16 16 17 15 8 Touchscreen 11 5 11 17 3 IM chat eg Instant messenger 10 11 11 8 3 Wi-Fi 9 11 11 6 2 GPS/Sat-Nav 7 10 4 4 1 QWERTY keyboard 6 4 5 4 2 Ability to open Word Documents 6 6 5 3 2 Ability to open PDF documents 6 6 4 3 1 Ability to open Excel documents 5 5 4 2 2 Source: (Mintel Oxygen, 2010), Based on 2,000 Internet users aged 16+. Sony Ericsson had product of handset (included pay as you go and contract) owned by facilities on mobile used, October 2008. 3.3 Focus Focus strategy is to be successful; the organization must understand segments thoroughly; how their needs are changing and what range to offer. If Sony Ericsson doesnt serve the segment more effectively than competitors, then it will be in a poor position (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006: 972). Sony Ericsson obviously is the under-25s preferred handset (Mintel: 2010). The features such as High Mega Pixel Camera and music Players are symptomatic of entertainment and function-hungry younger market and these features are highly substitutable. Also Sony-Ericsson younger users perceive its interface as easier to use in connection to the features of their key interest. Although, the risk of operating in this segment is that this segment might fluctuate widely on the short run depending on fashion trends, Sony Ericsson market share may fairly remain same, Other possible threat is that this might be undetermined by competition (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006: 973). For Complete understanding of the Sony Ericsson competitive advantages, Poters five Forces of competitive advantages have further been used. According to the Porter, the state of competition in an industry depends on five basics competitive forces; the collective strengths of these forces determining the ultimate profile potential of the industry and the ability of firm in an industry to earn rates of return on investment in access of the cost of capital (Poter 1985). The five forces are as Follows: Existing Competitive rivalry between players. Barging power of buyers. Threat of new market entrance. Bargaining powers of suppliers. Threat of Substitute products. These five forces for Sony Ericsson is shown in the below figure. Porters 5 Force Model for Sony Ericsson. 3.3.1 Existing Competitive Rivalry among Players Sony Ericsson sustains the competition amount Nokia, Motorola, LG, Samsung, etc because of its Innovation strengths. This enables it to enjoy the total market share of 20%. To reach this figure, Sony Ericsson defiantly needs to maintain its technology as well and its competitive cost base to attract more customers. Also, the increase in social networking should be maintained, Sony Ericsson have already targeted most of them such as Facebook, Twiter and Myspace, as they are the current attracters and give a competitive edge. In current market trends, there is a big increase in the smart phone users and to cope up with the trend. In 2009, Sony Ericsson largely focused on the high-end segment of the market with the launch of Satio, Aino, W995 and Yari ranges. The Satio is a touch-screen with a 12MP camera and a Walkman; the Aino provides access to media content from a PlayStation3 console while on the move; and the Yari has a Nintendo Wii-like sensor for gaming (Mintel 2010). 3.3.2 Bargaining Powers of Buyers The degree which consumers can influence the demand is referred as bargaining power (Jobbar 2010). Sony Ericsson offers its customers a big range of handsets at competitive price to satisfy the vast mobile consumer market which are from basic phone users to top end latest technology buyers. This expands the market base for them not just within Europe but also enables them to serve this vast range in various economies. 3.3.3 Threat of new market Entrance New Entry means new rival that in turn means increased competition. Sony Ericsson need to be aware of all the big and small companies entering in various global locations into the mobile phone industry as the Sony Ericsson deals with all rang of handsets. Certain barriers should be put to inhibit new entrants. As Mobile market is very competitive the new entry and its survival is quite dull until as unless its a well know brand and good technology as what Apples iPhone did to the market share of smart phone of Sony Ericsson and other brands (Schenker 2007). The threat of new entrants to Sony Ericsson is quite low because of its established brand value and quality. 3.3.4 Threat of Substitute Products This is the ability of your customers to find an alternative way of doing what you do. As far as near future is concerned, an substitute of mobile handsets cant be think of, so Sony Ericson need not to worry about this threat but it needs to be open for viewing the new technologies coming in for communication so that it can incorporate in new models. 3.3.5 Bargaining Power of Suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers can also be described as the market of inputs. Suppliers of raw materials, components, labor, and services can become power over the firm if there are few substitutes. Since the starting of Sony Ericsson in 2001, it operates under a corporate social responsibility code. Sony Ericsson insists to only works with suppliers who meet required stringent. This helps employees to make ethically correct decisions. Influencing product development and improvement from a CSR and environmental perspectives in the supply chain, which is a key reason in reaching industry leadership as well as compliance with those requirements. Also, All Sony Ericsson suppliers go under assessment to meet compliance with CSR and environmental requirements. These assessments prove that suppliers have procedures within place to control their supply chain (Sony Ericsson 2010). In this ways Sony Ericsson has developed loyalty from its suppliers and being a main market player, it has the power of looking at different suppliers in tough times. 3.4 Value Chain Its a method for locating superior skills and resources. All firms consist of set of activities that are conducted during product lifecycle, they are design, manufacture, market, distribute and after sales service for its products. The value chain categorizes them into support and primary activities (Jobber 2010: 787). The value chain (Jobber 2006: 788) Product differentiation defiantly provides competitive advantage, but on the other hand it also tends to increase the complexity, which increases supply chain risk. The challenge manufacturers face is making the correct tradeoff decision among the two. Sony Ericsson deals with this by deeply analyzing the total supply chain effect at various stages of design strategies (AMRresearch 2010) this might be internal or external to the organisation. Sony Ericsson has a tie up with ATCLE in US for packaging and final manufacturing touch until the products arrive in Texas with ATCLEs distribution Center. This gives Sony Ericsson two advantages: It gave them positive trade-off of cost benefit in transporting packed product from Asia compared to ATCLEs charges for assembling. This also gave them the opportunity of finally customizing the product in Dallas closer to the customer as per their desire. (SupplyChainBrain 2010). Similarly, the tie up of Sony Ericsson with Ingram for its nationwide sales and distribution in India brought a value addition to the company. (Kanter J 2009) Building up of the high quality of value chain makes Sony Ericsson more probable by customers because they get better service quality across the globe and it also concentrate more on the product and quality it is developing. Sony Ericsson certainly has a competitive advantage over its rivals because of its strong Value chain within the various operations without the organization and outside across the globe. 4.0 Marketing Mix Diffusion of a product depends on its positioning. It includes complexity, differential advantage, divisibility, compatibility with customers values, i.e. life style, experiences and behaviours, and communicability (Jobber 2010:384-409). Companies should be careful in choosing the target market and showing the differential advantage the product has. This could be achieved by a combination of successful brand naming, image, service, design, guarantees, packaging and delivery. All of those mentioned are included in the four marketing mix framework which will be discussed in this section (Jobber 2010:311). 4.1 Product Product is a crucial part of the marketing mix; its the element that the company starts to build and shape its identity and most importantly generates profit. All companies have products, whether tangible or intangible, but what differentiates their products from each other is the branding itself. Branding includes choosing a name, creating a design, insuring quality and the line of products. Positioning is created out of those elements, bearing in mind that they, together, should be clear in the message they deliver, credible, consistent and competitive. These elements augment the perceived value and performance of customers. It is also a barrier to rivals, gain for high profits and base for brand extension, quality certification and trust (Jobber 2010:305). We are going to discuss those important elements with reference to Sony Ericsson Company. 4.1.1 Brand Name Developing a distinctive name for the brand differentiates and distinguishes it from other products in the market. Brand naming should evoke positive emotions, be easy to remember and pronounce and suggest the benefit of the product (Jobber 2010: 319-320). Sony Ericsson always uses prestigious names for its brands that suggest sophistication and smoothness, like its newest mobiles Xperia, Xperia X10 and Vivaz. They are easy to remember and they provoke a kind of excitement for the customer to be introduced to those products. Also the company uses alphanumeric when naming its brands to emphasize technology which expand its targeted customers. Sony Ericsson choice of names is very successful when compared to other mobile names like Nokia 7230, Motorola Dext; the former combines the two essential elements of simplicity and technology. Another important aspect of brand naming is the brand heritage (Jobber 2010:315); it adds value to the positioning of the brand in the market. When looking at Sony Eri

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Can Writing Be Fun? Essay -- essays research papers

Writing and school work, to be honest, have always been at the bottom of my list for things that I enjoy doing. I can remember from as early as grade 1 having great difficulty in most areas of school work. I have always had a great anxiety about completing assignments or having to read the required books, I went through all of high school having never read a complete book. It’s not that I think I am stupid but just not interested in these types of activities. I find it hard to keep my attention focused on reading when there are so many great things, or maybe not so great things, out in the world to think about. Now don’t get me wrong, I could read all day long about how to make my car faster or my dirt bike jump higher but writing something uninteresting to me makes it hard to be creative...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Huckleberry Finn ( Huck Finn ) :: Essays Papers

Huckleberry Finn Huckleberry Finn is a loveable timeless classic written by one of the great American authors, Mark Twain. A companion to the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn offers fans a closer look into the life of Huck Finn. Although the novel has similar characters and settings, the theme and moral dilemmas are much stronger than those we saw in Tom Sawyer. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn holds a darker side that Tom Sawyer did. In this piece we see an abused Huck try to figure out where he belongs in the world. He sets off on a journey to see if he can find peace and happiness away from the bonds of society. He is tested many times and in the end Huck ends up back where he started and he gives into the social norms of his time. Huck is a good person, unfortunately society has many different views than him and this difference in opinions pushed Huck away from society. Although Huck has the right views on many things such as Jim, he can not stand up to the pressure of society at this young age. Mark Twain uses the native southern dialect once again to enhance the quality of the setting for his readers. His use of dialogue is frequent and allows the reader to forget that they are in fact reading rather than sitting in on someone’s conversation. Twains’ use of vivid detail and wit amuse and delight readers. Mark Twain used the novel Huckleberry Finn to express a person’s own perceptions in the regards to rejection from civilization. Twain also uses Huckleberry to portray how society might not always be the best way for a person to live, rather choosing their own beliefs and ideas to live by. For example, Huckleberry doesn’t see the use of money and is satisfied with life with out money. Therefore the life of a drifter suits him just fine. There are also many other themes carried out through out the novel.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream Essay -- Shakespeare M

William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream In William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, there are endless images of water and the moon. Both images lend themselves to a feeling of femininity and calm. In classical mythology, the image of water is often linked with Aphrodite, goddess of passion and love. Born of the foam of the sea, Aphrodite was revered as an unfaithful wife to her husband Hephaestus (Grant 36). This may have a direct coloration to the unfaithful nature of the four lovers, Hermia, Helena, Lysander, and Demetrius, while in the woods. Perhaps more important, however, is Aphrodite’s link to the other Olympian maiden goddesses. As Aphrodite was attributed with love and beauty, Athena was the protector of war and arts, and finally, Artemis was the goddess of the woods and wild things (Hamilton 31). Artemis was brother of Apollo, god of the sun, and therefore she was the goddess of the moon. Through out literature it seems imagery of the moon and water can be used nearly intercha ngeably because they both imply feminine powers; water is representative of life and motion and the moon is representative of Artemis directly. Shakespeare seems to have been quite aware of the duties and powers of this ancient goddess. In many instances, this â€Å"protectress of dewy youth† is equated with other goddesses named Phoebe, Selene, or Luna (Hamilton 32). By any name, however, it is most important to realize the goddesses’ representation of the sky and woodlands. The character or Lysander makes direct reference to the relevance of this goddess in Act I, Scene 1 while talking to his forbidden beloved Hermia: Tomorrow night, when Phoebe doth behold, Her silver visage in the wat’... ...ancient mythology familiar to Shakespeare and his audience. Works Cited Grant, Michael and John Hazel. Who’s Who Classical Mythology Oxford University Press, NewYork: 1993 Hamilton, Edith. Mythology Warner Books, New York: 1942 Hamilton-Parker, Craig. â€Å"Moon† Remembering and Understanding Your Dreams Stearling Publishing Co. Inc., New York: 2000 Shakespeare, William. The Tempest Orgel, Stephen Ed. Oxford University Press, New York: 1998 Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream The Norton Shakespeare: Comedies Greenblatt, Stephen Ed. W.W. Norton and Company, New York: 1997 Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream Mowat, Barbra and Werstine, Paul Ed. Washington Square Press, New York: 1993 Thorndike, E.L and Clarence L. Barnhart. â€Å"Lunatic† Thorndike Barnhart Student Dictionary Scott, Foresman and Company, Illinois: 1988: (666)

Key Concepts and Network Architecture for 5G Mobile

G technology is offering the services in Product Engineering, Documentation, supporting electronic transactions (e-Payments, transactions) etc. As the customer becomes more and more aware of the mobile phone technology, he or she will look for a decent package all together, including all the advanced features a cellular phone can have. Hence the search for new technology is always the main motive of the leading cell phone giants to out innovate their competitors. The ultimate goal of 56 is to design a real wireless world that is free from obstacles of the earlier generations.This requires an integration of networks. This paper represents, introduction to 56 technologies, Key concepts of 56, Features of 56 networks technology, applications, hardware and software for 56 technologies and network architecture for 56 wireless technologies and last section conclude the paper. Keywords?G, www, JIB, DAWN, ‘P, Wi-If INTRODUCTION 56 Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 56 technology has changed the meaner to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. 56 is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. 6 wireless uses FOOD and millimeter wireless that enables data rate of 20 Mbps and frequency and of 2-8 GHz. 56 is going to be a packed based network . The 56 communication system is envisioned as the real wireless network, capable of supporting wireless World Wide Web (www) applications in 2010 to 201 5 time frame. There are two views of 56 systems: evolutionary and revolutionary. In the evolutionary view the 56 (or beyond 46) systems will be capable of supporting www allowing a highly flexible network such as a Dynamic Dados Wireless Network (DAWN).In this view advanced technologies including intelligent antenna and flexible modulation are keys to optimize the dados wireless networks. In revolutionary view 56 systems should be an intelligent technology capable of interconnecting the entire world without limits. An example application could be a robot with built-in wireless communication with artificial intelligence. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. The 56 technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 56 technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.Amazing isn't it such a huge collection of technology being integrated into a small device. The 56 technology provides the mobile phone users more features and efficiency than the 1000 lunar doodle. A user of mobile phone can easily hook their 56 technology gadget with laptops or tablets to acquire broadband internet connectivity. Up till now following features of the 56 technology have come to surface- High resolution is offered by 56 for extreme mobile users, it also offers bidirectional huge bandwidth. – 56 technology excellent quality service is based on Policy in order to evade errors. It provides transporter class type gateway that has unequalled steadiness. – The 56 technology billing interface is highly advanced making it efficient and appealing. – It offers huge quantity of broadcasting data, which is in Gaga Bytes, sustaining more than 60,000 connections. – This technology also provides remote diagnostic feature. – Provides up to 25 megabytes per second connectivity. Also it supports the private virtual networks. KEY CONCEPTS OF 56 The key concepts discussing 56 and beyond G wireless communications are: 1) Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues. ) Wearable devices with AY capabilities. 3) Internet protocol version 6(Pop), where a visiting care- of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network. SECRET @ 2012 4) One unified global standard. 5) Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them These access technologies can be a 2. 56, 36, G or 56 mob ile networks, Wi-If, WPAD or any other future access technology.In 56, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths. 6) Cognitive radio technology, also known as smarted: allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively ending unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies on software defined radio. 7) High altitude stratospheric platform station (HAPS) systems.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Disabled Children and Education Essay

A troop of modify tikeren at present atomic number 18 taking to Ameri keister in until nows in the pursuit of character reference preparation. Even if thither is some semblance of community abet, or facilitate schooling-wide oppose, it is alarming to none that on that tier is facilitate much(prenominal) to be do. on that point is mum a insufficiency of candid studies and research do on the queer needinesss of change children. Also, thither is a continuous threat of non-school intervention in cases that sometimes warrant to the harassment of incapacitate children within school premises, and point the lack of school facilities that be specially created for the drag and enjoyment of the schools change student populace.Finally, evening a novel study suggests that even given the support the dis equal to(p)d child has in the get up of the alignment of mind and NCLB, they read to handle with the many changes it could bring to present attitudes, what they mean in, as rise up as what they take hold dear in serve uping change students achieve the opera hat in their nurtureal lives. Introduction Students with physical disabilities especially those who do up opted to enroll themselves in institutions that ar meant for ruler students hurt always been be right with a parcel of challenges through e truly timber of their take upal process.see to a greater extent enormousness of school facilities to studentsFrom the choice of the school, to its purlieu, and available curricula, physically handicapped students have always been hold in to what they could choose that in any case basically suits them. Abend (2001) stresses the enormousness of the complete school experience for the modify students and has inform to the highest degree the current laws and regulations tack unitedly in place that were meant to protect them. These take the precept for any Handicapped Children cultivate of 1975 that was later renam ed as the Individuals With Disabilities facts of life piece or desire in 1990, and the Americans With Disabilities scrap of 1990.IDEA is a refitted version of the Education For All Handicapped Children phone number, which has do it affirmable for incapacitate children to get equal educational rights. It was more than concerned with knowing more nigh change children and cerebrate on fashioning special education and an separate(prenominal) related function available for them. IDEA on the former(a) hand, with its amendments in 1997, made it possible for handicapped students to be able to study with non- change students, and championed the said cause. Abend everywherely tells of the Americans With Disabilities bout or adenosine deaminase of 1990 that then enforces laws that made schools safer and more accessible for change students.The ADA is put in place for schools to all follow ADA handiness Guidelines or ADAAG or the Uniform federal official Accessibility Stan dards or UFAS. Unfortunately, the UFAS and the ADAAG atomic number 18 de bespeaked not with the change children in mind, especially the handicapped students of school age. Giangreco, Dennis, Cloninger, Edelman and Schattman (1993) to a fault noted the paying back of instructors who argon teaching disabled children as well. It is considered important because, aside from the school environment, disabled students would also have to deal with teachers who could or could not deal with them efficiently alike(p) their ordinary counter get arounds.As the concept of allowing the disabled children to join their non-disabled classmates in general education courses is supported by a lot of educators, some be rather serene doubtful as to what extent should this inclusion body would be. Giangreco, Edelman, Luiselli and MacFarland (1997) have also reputeed about the use of instructional assistants that now practice to support the said holdation of allowing disabled children to be abl e to study together with their non-disabled counterparts on a schoolroom.As part of the newborn crusades of being able to real complement the increase of disabled children to be accommodated, school administrators, teachers and instructional assistants alike atomic number 18 facing increasing pressure from the pargonnts of much(prenominal) children to provide better care. off from making the school real safe and its environment real conducive to ensuring equal opportunities for education surrounded by disabled and non-disabled children, school administrators would also have to deal with the hostility of the normal students themselves, especially in taking to determent disabled children in their knowledge classes.Hergert (2004) has propounded that bullying has been increasingly getting the immoral attention that it deserves from the media as well as educational journals. The treat does include other occurrenceors that lead to bullying aside from the children having been physically imp channeled in some way, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as being ethnically diverse, the children being bullied of diametrical ages, and live in communities where a lot of the people who live in that respect could single them out from being unlike, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as small or big cities, and even those living in suburban areas.In light of such hassles, the National Council on Disability has taken measures in pronounce to improve the educational opportunities of such disabled students. Frieden (2004) has presented a piece which dilate all the research that the NCD has undertaken, with the cooperation of several(prenominal)(prenominal) schools as well as desegregation with IDEA as well as the No Child Left nates identification number or NCLB, one of the almost ambitious educational laws that were put in place that sought to enhance American education especially through practice session and mathematics, measured by their own single carrellard ized running plays.Statement Of The Issue To Be Investigated Students with physical disabilities are enrolling in prevalent schools all across America at an increasing rate. As is already indicated by the new-fangled studies, American lawmakers are melodic phrase to get a better grasp of this problem and introduce laws which would enable disabled students to have an equal take on at education like their non-disabled counterparts. Frieden (2004) has created a cut through that shows how very determined the American educational system is in actually hold in that said issue.The issue in question, loose disabled students a clear chance at education, already has several laws to its credit, barely as Frieden also already states, the recent study that they have has its many implications. On one side, a lot of educators and schools are very much concerned in providing better schools for these disabled children, but on another side, they are grappling with the circumstance that the problem is enormous, and schools and school administrators are all the same quite daunted by the fact that at that place simply isnt adequacy understanding and readiness as of insofar as to handle this unique problem.The schools themselves are also be prepare with other problems such as meeting the yearly identify card on their annual performance, and the rep shine that it could cause on the students with disabilities if things did not go as planned. The report also focused on the teachers as well as the strategies that they would most likely employ, with respect and with the support of the school administrators in question. It also details current research that the NCD has with regards to how they are contend with the problem at the moment.Despite this however, even if disabled students are afforded opportunities for equal chances for practised education right now, they are still beset with a lot of problems. The report entails the findings that they have to a certain point that which still call for to be addressed. literature Review Abend (2001) reports the various laws that were put in place in consecrate to separate that disabled students, especially children, have the akin opportunities just like their non-disabled counterparts when it comes to role education . These laws and guidelines he discussed included Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 ( earthly concern Law 94-142) Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) thither is also persona 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-112) that worked in close tandem bicycle with that of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Whereas the 1975 Act was more concerned with the services that are given to disabled children, Section 504 deals with whether or not the disabled children would have need of such services.However, as it was already discussed, the use of the UFAS or the ADAAG was more bespoke to suit disabled adults more than it can be used for disabled students. Abend goes on to discuss one of the key factors of the supremacy of an overall rehabilitation of the current stand on disabled students bid on education how the school should be set up. Schools are considered as the second homes to students end-to-end most of their school lives, and it is important that disabled children should also be solacementable with how they would be willing to spend almost an entire day in such a facility.The school facilities in question should not only be the furniture that could be found inside a classroom it also deals with the environment of the classroom (if its comfortable, too noisy, or too cramped), where the disabled students could go to after school hours (such as playgrounds and the school grounds), and the security of the school. Concerns about air reference are also aeriform because of the f act that disabled children are extremely susceptible to fluctuation in air quality, especially if the child is to go to a general education school.Ensuring that disabled children could actually go around in a school that is also designed for their comfort actually helps a lot in the process of ensuring that they also get quality education. Other important factors that contribute to arduous and quality education for disabled children include highly qualified teachers as well as highly qualified instructional assistants. Giangreco et al. (1993) and Giangreco et al. (1997) report on the many benefits that highly qualified teachers and instructional assistants could give to disabled children in the classroom setting. on that point are educators who feel strongly that disabled children should be able to join their non-disabled classmates in a normal classroom setting, but thither are some who are still worried up to what extent should it be made possible. It is also the same with instr uctional assistants who serve as extensions of the teacher in a classroom, especially when coordinating with the teachers to also include them in class intervention and attending to the special needs of their charges.As they are problemed with the overall management of the classroom, they are also in charge of looking for over what happens within that classroom, and sometimes it is more than just staying within the lessons. However, as Hergert (2004) relates, such disabled students incidents concerned with bullying by other children are traditionally a hands-off matter when it comes to school affairs. There are cases however that some schools also act upon complaints made by the students who are harassed.Hergert is concerned about, on with the problems of teachers and educational assistants of the scoop up caliber to educate and attend to disabled students needs, how the school community still seems to refuse the fact that bullying is such a huge problem and dismissing such co mplaints as overreactions from the students. However, with Friedens (2004) report, all such problems are then equated and are meticulously primed(p) out, in response to such problems.Aside from ensuring sound school environments for disabled children to actually find themselves hold up part of the classroom experience itself, the report has also dialogue about what the schools can do in order to combat these problems. These are effectuate by strategies that are based upon what typically goes on in a school during their disabled children programs like counseling and the like. greens factors were discovered and goals were also set out, along with the best strategies that could help bring about it. Findings Friedens (2004) report has noted several findings on the educational crisis faced by Americas disabled children.Although there is enough reason to believe that disabled children nowadays have better opportunities in getting a better education, it still comes up short. Aside fro m the overwhelming responsibilities of implementing new and better direction of getting disabled children the education that they deserve, the NCD also has to look over problems of reducing the percentage of disabled children who confuse out of schools, ensuring that there are more disabled children who graduate with high school diplomas, and look over available strategies that would take care the success of a schools disabled children educational program.Based on Abend and Hergerts independent studies, the focus on the needs of disabled children through comely school facilities and the bullying problem are either ill-fit for the children themselves or largely disregard by the school. There is still an inadequacy in trying to solve this problem, and is reflected in Friedens report. Also, the problem of finding the best educators for the disabled children themselves counts as another task that needs to be be to.Lastly, the problem of implementing such improvements on a school-wi de basis, mainly through following the guidelines set by the IDEA and NCLB alignment, also needs a lot of attention. Implementing such guidelines is an entirely antithetical thing when it has to be maintained successfully, and this is what the Frieden report has sought to recommend for future studies and research on the matter. Discussion Getting quality education for disabled children is a frighten off task. This is more so if the current jeopardize are too high.In balance with the integration of both IDEA and NCLB, the Public Schools of North Carolina (2005) has released guidelines and procedures that schools found comprehensive would have to implement with regards to the reauthorization of IDEA back in 2004. The guidelines include also the various responsibilities that the test coordinators would have to accomplish in order to disseminate information to North Carolina statewide schools with regards to documentation, job responsibilities, staff training, and other procedures and guidelines.As part of the results that came after the alignment of IDEA and NCLB, the guidelines are a clear sign of, in the given North Carolina ideal that American education is indeed in an upswing. However, NCLB has, at that time, not actually improved American education as a whole, but mostly benefited schools who were grappling with their own adequate yearly performance or AYP woes.Aside from this, Frieden also noted how it was baffling to keep up with all the assessments that are needed by the NCLB in order to correctly gauge their academic skills. Also, it was very difficult for school leaders to line up assessments as well as other requirements that would allow disabled children to fully become part of the classroom discussion and grip with their own academic performance.Strategies meant to complement disabled children education also come up a little short at that time, because of limited research. The studies that are available are either aimed at younger students not fit for other levels, the studies in themselves where through with(p) with limited student participation in numbers, the studies are only concentrated on one kind of disability, or there are no programs available that would help to alleviate the disabled student dropout rate.Also, even if some education programs are set in place, there is still a lot of concern in regards to a lack of support from administrators, the time and effort used in order to implement them, lack of materials, ill-fitting teaching styles, limited teacher understanding of the practice or even not remembering it at all, and ill-fit between what is considered as safe for implementing in a state with regards to their own local guidelines. refinement The scope of undertaking the problem of the quality education of disabled children is very different from what one could expect when tackling educational concerns of non-disabled children.This is not to say that one is clearly much more important than the other, but it means that what American education has for now for disabled children is still continuously undergoing a lot of transformation, and is still in serious need of continuous study and research. Friedens report basically sums up everything about the problems that disabled children education currently face, and leaves a daunting message that clearly states there is still a lot to be done yet.This concern is not just because of what schools must(prenominal) do in order to make the annual report card trend of their performance it means that disabled students who are enrolled in their schools need to be attended to, and have different special needs than their non-disabled counterparts. Nurturing such students and giving them equal educational opportunities are the keys in which the school thrives and survives in situations that warrant what best education could be expected from schools. This, alongside with their commitment to bringing the best education and American child could possibly have, should serve as their goal.ReferencesAbend, A. C. (2001) planning and Designing for Students with Disabilities. Retrieved kinfolk 15, 2008 from www. edfacilities. org/pubs/disabilities. pdf Frieden, L. (2004) Improving educational Outcomes for Students With Disabilities. Retrieved September 15, 2008 from www. educationalpolicy. org/pdf/NCD. pdf Giangreco, M. F. , Dennis, R. , Cloninger, C. , Edelman, S. W. & Schattman, R. (1993) Experiences of Teachers Educating Students With Disabilities in Exceptional Children, vol. 5. Retrieved September 15, 2008 from www. uvm. edu/mgiangre/EC9359(4)359-372. pdf