Friday, May 31, 2019

Essay --

Throughout the well-to-do Age of Spain, art and literature were apply to express the events of this transitional period in European history. Love is a centralized theme that often conveys subliminal messages about moral, social, and historical issues throughout a plotline. Within pieces of literature such as Fuenteovejuna, the definition of honor is questioned in each of their own different contexts. How love is defined as either self-centred or selfless in Fuenteovejuna determines what message crib de Vega is presenting to the audience. Lope de Vega was an incredible and rebellious writer for the Golden Age time period. In this period of peace, prosperity, and general well-being, many people of Spain found his writing techniques to be revolutionary. Contrary to the typical rules of playwriting, aspects of his plays included numerous plot lines, time gaps, and the use of more than one setting. Fuenteovejuna is a great example of the newly recognized tragicomedy genre during the Golden Age of Spain. Lope de Vega presented current events throughout his works displaying his personal opinions and components of his own support that made him a revolutionary writer. His work inspired other writers to step outside the social norms of writing and produce other revolutionary pieces throughout history. The Golden Age population believed that love was godly and a strong mechanical force driving the universe in a continuous circle. This idea is clearly evident in Lopes tragicomedy Fuenteovejuna. He uses this and other beliefs to persuade and justify to the reader a sense that love is responsible for the companionship in the world. Lope de Vega portrays events relating to greed, envy, and ambition. The outcomes of these events bring disharmony, represented as s... ...due to his elite background, but proves that he lacks honor compared to the townspeople due to the way he improperly uses his power. To conclude, Lope de Vega uses specific events to display the cyclic transition from selfish to unselfish love. The havoc from killing the Comendador is resolved from the towns joint efforts of selfless acts out of love for Fuenteovejuna. In this play Lope de Vega demonstrates how characters handle these two types of love in context in order to reach out to bigger issues. The authors revolutionary style of writing shows the use of a theme in order to address the larger picture. Fuenteovejuna is a perfect example of multiple events orgasm together through the connection of love. The writing style of the play expresses Lope de Vegas feelings of love related to moral, social, and historical issues throughout the Golden Age of Spain.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Americas Violence Fixation Essay examples -- Media Violent Crime Essa

Americas Violence Fixation champion of Americas biggest problems today is violence. It is happening everywhere, in the households, out on the streets, even in our schools. When we watch the news and bump into these acts of violence, we hear the blame be put to one thing entertainment. Movies and video games are supposedly causing young people to behave aggressively in society, and maybe even compelling them to kill. Some even believe that video rental stores should have policies, such as always requiring an ID, and that some TV programs, movies, and games extol guns and violence, as well as the guns themselves (center4policy.org). True, some films do portray murder and violence as justifiable films such as Blade, in which the title cause killed vampires in an effort to protect the human race, or The Matrix, where the main characters used violence to free humanity from an artificial intelligence. Video games also have a considerable amount of violence in them as well. The main idea of Grand Theft Auto, one of the more popular video games, is to overtake a city, even if it means using violence. Players are allowed a various array of weapons from baseball bats to machine guns to assist them in missions. Ratings are placed on games, this particular one is rated M for Mature. Retail stores are to check ID of customers in order for them to purchase such games. However, that does not stop children from borrowing the games from others, or even having unsuspecting parents buying them. The question, however, is Is entertainment really the cause of violence? I have been affected personally by the medias claim that entertainment causes violence. One morning on the news program Good Morning... ...at some people dis check with some forms and aspects of entertainment is perfectly fine not everyone will agree with some of it. Trying to overthrow what the masses enjoy is a completely different matter. As a race, we forget freedom of speech one share always has to be louder than the other. Personally, in terms of Grand Theft Auto, Pokemon, and Harry Potter, people purchase these because they enjoy them, they are entertained by them, why not just let them do their thing? I suppose those who point the finger at these live such clean, wholesome lives. The idler line is there are things that are popular, people will buy them, be entertained, have, fun, and it will pass. Let them enjoy it.Sourceshttp//www.pegmusic.com/violence-in-amer.htmlhttp//www.center4policy.org/violencec.htmlhttp//www.davekopel.com/Media/Irmassag.htm

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Howards End by E. M. Forster Essay -- Howards Howard End EM Forster E

Howards End by E. M. Forster Howards End by E. M. Forster deals with the conflict of class distinctions and human relationships. The quintessence of the main theme of this lovely novel is Only touchOnly touch on the prose and passionand human love will be seen at its height. Live in fragments no longer. This excerpt represents the main idea that Forster carries done the book relationships, not social status, are--or at least should be--the most important thing for people.Howards End was written in 1910. That explains the naivete and idealism that permeate the cash machine of the novel. Written in the beginning of the twentieth century in England roughly the beginning of the twentieth century in England it reflects the mood that existed in England at that time. It was a time of prosperity. The industrial revolution that started in the previous century made the British Empire a world power. Everyone had a job and the conditions for the workers significantly meliorate as compare d to the past century. Trade unions that never existed before had just begun to form to protect the rights of the working people, and poor children didnt have to work in mines anymore. A spread over and seemingly meaningless war hadnt yet begun to destroy bodies and devastate souls of people. Generally speaking, the times were good, and the future was viewed in an sanguine way. The atmosphere of the book is filled with dally and hope, even though the author is very far from writing an utopian type of translation of English society.In fact, the book is very truthful in the description of class problems of the country. In Howards End Forster talks close to two classes and two ideologies that are separated by the thick wall of social prejudices and misunderstandings. The two social groups are represented by the cultured, idealistic Schlegels and the pragmatic, business-oriented Wilcoxes. The Schlegel Sisters, who arent pure English, but people of German origin, personify Forsters dream about what peoples philosophy of life should be. They used to think about the class differences as obstacles that do not allow people to fully understand each other. The hope is that if everybody thinks that way, people will just forget about class differences--thats what Forsters dream is. Margaret and Helen Schlegels partly think this way because being part of minority group i... ...ccur. Unfortunately, there was nothing in English society at the beginning of the twentieth century that could have given a hope of such an ending, and there is not too much now.But who cares?We have to be optimistic sometimes and hope for a better future. Too much of Hemingways things end badly approach will make us all sick, tired, incorrigible pessimists. We submit novels, movies, cartoons that end happily to bring some hope to our world where--Hemingway was right--too many things end too badly. This lovely and romantic book is worth reading, for its an excellent sugarcoat in the world of o ur bitter reality. The idea of being comrades and only connecting suits any place in the world at any time. Why not follow it, why not pay attention to personality only instead of making a big fuss about a persons social status or the amount of money an individual has? This book is too romantic, but the ability of being romantic is, after all, our strength. Who knows, maybe things that seem too idealistic to us today will become the fundamental society principles tomorrow. Who knows, maybe in the future people all over the world will only connect and be happy. At least, one may hope.

Main Economic Features of Oligopolies and Price-fixing Theories Essay

IntroductionOligopoly, from the ancient Greek a some and seller (Woodhouse, 2002), defines the market with a small number of large players. (Begg and Ward, 2009, B&W). To demonstrate a clear understanding of what it is and how it works, this essay will be tacitly divided in two sections. In the first section I will demonstrate oligopolys definition, demand curve, main features and price-fixing. In the second, I will illustrate oligopoly by referencing the UK Beer Market, and the extent to which this industry could support price-fixing. Oligopoly definitionUnder monopoly one firm has no rivals (Rittenberg and Tregarthen, 2009). On the contrary, in perfect emulation many small firms co-exist, none with the power to influence price (Sloman and Sutcliffe, 2001). Equally important, as a combination of monopoly and competition, noncompetitive competition represents the market with freedom to enter and many firms competing. However, each firm produces a differentiated product and ther efore has some control over its price. Finally, oligopoly exists when few large firms can erect barriers against entry and share a large proportion of the industry. Moreover, firms are aware of their rivals and concerned about their response to competitive challenges (Allen, 1988). Consequently, oligopolies track down under imperfect competition.Demand CurveOligopolies present kinked demand curves. These curves are downward-sloping, similar to traditional ones. However, they are distinguished by a convex stoop at a discontinuity. This change in elasticity shows that price rises will not be match by competitors, yet prices reductions will (B&W). Therefore, firms will hunt not to raise prices because a small increase will lose customers... ...n_law Accessed on 21/11/2010.Rittenberg, L. and Tregarthen, T. (2009). Principles of Microeconomics, 2nd edition. New York Flat World Knowledge, Inc.Routledge, R.(2010). Bertrand competition with cost uncertainty. Economics Letters, no. 107, pp. 356359.Sab-Miller Report. (2003). On-trade and off trade. Available at http//www.sabmiller.com/files/presentations/2003/000503/may03_ontradeofftrade_slides.pdf Accessed on 21/11/2010.Sloman, J. and Sutcliffe, M. (2001). Economics for business, 2nd edition. Harlow Pearson Education Limited.Vives, X. (2001). Oligopoly pricing old ideas and overbold tools. Cambridge, MA The MIT Press.Woodhouse, S. (2002) English-Greek Dictionary A Vocabulary Of The Attic Language. 10th edition. Padstow TJI Digital.World Bank. (2010). Indicators by country. Available at Accessed on 16/11/2010.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Charlie Chaplin Essay -- Biography Biographies Chaplin Essays

Charlie ChaplinIt is absolutely no exaggeration to say that for the greatest partly of this century Charlie Chaplin was the most recognizable human being on the planet, (Burr, 20). Chaplin did everything in show business he was an actor, director, screenwriter, producer and composer, (Readers Companion 157). He was the model rags to riches role model that every American dreamed of becoming. Charlie Chaplin revolutionized American show business and inspired Americans to follow their dreams because he was proof that even underdogs could coiffe it to the top. Charles Spencer Chaplin had a very eventful life. He was born in London on the 16th of April, 1889, (Douglas np) to two music hall performers Charles and Hannah Chaplin. (Readers Companion 157). His yield was a singer who had run out on the family early in Chaplins life he later on died of alcoholism, (Douglas np). Hannah was a smalltime singer but worn out(p) most of her life in and out of mental hospitals, (Byers 438). He h ad a half brother named Sydney, (imdb.com). Chaplin was married four times and had a total of xi children, (imdb.com). His first marriage was to Mildred Harris on the 23rd of October 1918, he was 28 and she was 16 years old. They had a son together but unfortunately the baby completely lived for three days, (Turk 49). Chaplin was too much of a workaholic to commit to marriage so he moved out in August 1920, while Mildred filed for divorce, (Turk 50). He later fell in love with sixteen year old Lita Grey during the making of The Gold Rush. Litas mother disapproved of the relationship but once she install out that Lita was pregnant with Chaplins baby she let them wed. On November 24, 1924 Lita and Chaplin tied the knot. They had two children Charles Jr.... ...superstar. Entertainment Weekly. Fall 1996.Byers, Paula. Chaplin, Charles. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd Ed. Detroit Gale Research, 1998. 438-440.Chaplins Admirers slant Their Hats for his 100th. Time. 1 May 1989. Cha plin, Charles. Charlie Chaplin. Roy Export Comp. 10 February 2004. http//charliechaplin.com/ Chaplin, Charles. Dictionary of World Biography the 20th Century A-Inc. Volume VII. Pasadena Salem Press, Inc. 1999. 653-656.Chaplin, Charles. Internet icon Database. 1990. Internet Movie Database Inc. 9 February 2004.http//www.imdb.com/name/nm0000122/bio Chaplin, Charles. The Readers Companion to American History. 1991. 157 Douglas, Ann. Charlie Chaplin the comedian. Time. 8 June 1998. Turk, Ruth. A Lerner Biography Charlie Chaplin Genius of the Silent Screen. Minneapolis Lerner Publication Comp., 2000.

Charlie Chaplin Essay -- Biography Biographies Chaplin Essays

Charlie ChaplinIt is absolutely no exaggeration to say that for the greatest part of this carbon Charlie Chaplin was the or so recognizable human being on the planet, (Burr, 20). Chaplin did everything in show business he was an actor, director, screenwriter, producer and composer, (Readers Companion 157). He was the ideal rags to riches role model that every American dreamed of becoming. Charlie Chaplin revolutionized American show business and inspired Americans to follow their dreams because he was proof that even underdogs could make it to the top. Charles Spencer Chaplin had a very eventful life. He was born in London on the 16th of April, 1889, (Douglas np) to two music hall performers Charles and Hannah Chaplin. (Readers Companion 157). His father was a singer who had run protrude on the family early in Chaplins life he later died of alcoholism, (Douglas np). Hannah was a smalltime singer but spent most of her life in and out of mental hospitals, (Byers 438). He had a half brother named Sydney, (imdb.com). Chaplin was married four times and had a total of eleven children, (imdb.com). His freshman marriage was to Mildred Harris on the 23rd of October 1918, he was 28 and she was 16 years old. They had a son together but unfortunately the baby only lived for ternion days, (Turk 49). Chaplin was too much of a workaholic to commit to marriage so he moved out in August 1920, while Mildred filed for divorce, (Turk 50). He later fell in love with sixteen year old Lita Grey during the making of The Gold Rush. Litas mother disapproved of the relationship but once she found out that Lita was pregnant with Chaplins baby she let them wed. On November 24, 1924 Lita and Chaplin tied the knot. They had two children Charles Jr.... ...superstar. Entertainment Weekly. Fall 1996.Byers, Paula. Chaplin, Charles. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd Ed. Detroit Gale Research, 1998. 438-440.Chaplins Admirers Tip Their Hats for his 100th. Time. 1 May 1989. Chaplin, Charle s. Charlie Chaplin. Roy Export Comp. 10 February 2004. http//charliechaplin.com/ Chaplin, Charles. Dictionary of World Biography the 20th Century A-Inc. Volume VII. Pasadena Salem Press, Inc. 1999. 653-656.Chaplin, Charles. Internet Movie Database. 1990. Internet Movie Database Inc. 9 February 2004.http//www.imdb.com/name/nm0000122/bio Chaplin, Charles. The Readers Companion to American History. 1991. 157 Douglas, Ann. Charlie Chaplin the comedian. Time. 8 June 1998. Turk, Ruth. A Lerner Biography Charlie Chaplin Genius of the Silent Screen. Minneapolis Lerner Publication Comp., 2000.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Business Resource Essay

With Examples, you atomic number 18 to describe the of import physical and technological resources required in the operation of your selected presidency.In this assignment I give describe the main physical and technological resources required in the operation of Tesco. visible ResourcesPhysical resources ar resources that the business gather ups to maintain in order to carry taboo its activities. They mainly include things like facilities, buildings, machinery and more. These be resources that are avail up to(p) to a businesss organisations in form of buildings and other machineries takeed for the solar day to day running of the organisation.Tesco feed many physical resources such as their toilets, buildings, trolleys, CCTVs. Toilets is a good resource to have within a good organization as it skunk attract more customers to not feel rushed into shopping beca hold they need to go toilet they can shop at their confess spreadhead and wasting disease the toilet when they f eel to. Another physical resource for Tesco is the car leafy ve educateable so customers can park within Tescos car park and not have to worry ab egress receiving a dumbfoundet, or checking their term to beat up back to the car before they get a ticket, this leave behind excessively attract more customers to shop within Tesco. A recent physical resource that Tesco has brought in is the self-checkouts this is good for customers that want to quick shop as Tesco can be quite busy on nearly days they dont want to wait in the long queues so they can use the self-checkout which is much quicker.BuildingsPermanent or temporary structure enclosed within exterior walls and a roof, and including all attached apparatus, equipment, and fixtures that cannot be removed without cutting into ceiling, floors, or walls.MaterialsThe matter from which something can be made. Material can include but is not limited to raw and processed material, components, parts, assemblies, sub-assemblies, fuels, lubricants, coolants, cleaning agents, and small tools and accessories that whitethorn be consumed directly or indirectly.Plant and machineryLike materials and buildings, each business has specific requirements for the type of plant and machinery. As Tesco dont own regulate outies to where theyre products are produced they pay for another company to produce their products or have suppliers. Most of Tescos products are from suppliers. This means even though they may not own the factory they have to pay the right derive to the suppliers for them to produce their products for them.EquipmentEquipment is essential for a business to operate smoothly. Equipment is critical for profit and non-profit organisations like Tesco. In some organisations lack of equipment means a job or service cannot be carried out. Equipment is crucial for Tesco as they deal with selling a range of products from fresh forage to technology and more. Within Tesco they will need tills so that masses will be ab le to purchase products from their store. Tills help them to take payments from customer, without the tills they couldnt take payments from customers or record profit or loss within all the Tesco stores. excessively within a Tesco retail store they need to provide equipment like shelves to business line the products within the store, without the shelves and equipment to put the products on the store wouldnt appeal to customers. On a module level they have to provide the retail store mental faculty with uniform. For Tesco its essential that the customer face stave have uniforms as it looks more professional and also it is a in truth big store so they must be and look professional.Technological ResourcesIntellectual PropertyIs the Knowledge, creative ideas, or expressions of human mind that have commercial value and are protectable low copyright, patent, trademark, or trade secret laws from imitation, infringement, and dilution. As Tesco designs different products they wouldnt wan t other supermarket companies to copy what they have designed so they would hold intellectual property. Its chief(prenominal) that Tesco has intellectual property as the supermarket market is a big market and competition is tight. The intellectual designs aspect covers the features of decoration of products, such as colours, lines, materials, construct or texture.Accumulated scram and skillsAccumulated experience means experience gained over a number of years when a person has to come crosswise lots of different issues to do with the job. Its important for Tesco to keep their employees happy as the protracted they incline in their position the more experience they get and become better people at their job. For Tesco to keep employees that have been working at the business for a long time and have good experience would be to pay them more. By Tesco paying the cater more they will feel more privileged and would want to stay with the business for longer.Its important for Tesco to build employees skills but they do have to be careful not they have employees that are the only people or person to operate a piece of machinery or fix a piece of parcel. Key technological resources for the running of Tesco. This is because they would be unsure of what to do when in particular situations and they also wouldnt continue to create new ideas for the organisation to ensure it continues to develop and make profit to survive.SoftwareTesco would invest a lot of money in software and its day-to-day use. Sometimes software will be spoke software will be designed for a business or they will use someone elses software and pay a licence fee to use it. Onesoftware which some internal office staff may use would be Microsoft office, excel and maybe publisher.http//www.tescosoftware.com/officelicenseagreement.phpM1 explain how the management of human, physical and technological resources can improve the performance of your selected organisation.The Human resources can improve the Tescos performance in many ways. There are two main processes which are looked at when managing human resources. The most important is to employ they correct people for the job, people that will carry out the job role correctly. Then the correct resources have to be provided for them so that they can carry this process out to the best of their models. Treating these employees with care and sensitivity is important. They are not like physical or technological resources humans need to be dealt in certain ways, as they are protected by legislations and laws.For font, In TESCO there will be a constant change of different demand of products that the customers wish to purchase, for this reason the staff will have to be schooled for any of these occasions. This is how they improve their human resources. They also look at how many skills the employee has when they are searching for new employees. They will check whether that person can be used in more than one job position in that store , how many skills they consist of.Coordination of the teams in Tesco is really important in ensuring that they meet the targets that the company sets them. When all employees of the team complete their assigned roles the team will run more smoothly. It is also important that a manager is ever there so that they can supervise the staff and also if there is a problem that they might not be able to handle the manager will be trained and know how to deal with the situation.By Tesco monitoring employees punctuality they can make sure that staff are on time to work. By making sure time are on staff to work the work could be through more quick making it easier for the employee and even Tesco. This would improve the performance of the employee as they have more time tocomplete the work that has been assigned to them, by Tesco also monitoring staff punctuality they can evaluate the people who have distressing punctuality. From evaluating they can make a decision whether to get rid of the m. This is because one person who has bad punctuality could be causing the team to be able to not get work completed etc. By having people who are always punctual it means teams and individuals can perform better which will help to improve the performance of Tescos customer service etc.Physical ResourcesPhysical resources are resources that the business needs to maintain in order to carry out its activities. They mainly include things like facilities, buildings, machinery and more. These are resources that are available to a businesss organisations in form of buildings and other machineries needed for the day to day running of the organisation.All businesses including Tesco need premises where they can operate from as these buildings and environment can have a satisfying affect on the people that work there. For Tesco having their retail stores based in local areas the amount of customers they get is going to be a problem. Its important that retail stores are located where they can attract customers, preferably in a populated place. too the buildings are going to be commutable for staff to get to and not in the middle of anywhere so customers find it hard to find or travel which will put them off travelling to the store. The importance of the Tesco retail store layout is vital and for them successful as they draw in customers buy having products for them to supply themselves and from there customers like the product and want to buy it.The correct equipment is essential for a business such as Tesco to operate smoothly and efficiently. Checkouts is a very important part of equipment as it re orders stock when it is running low so it saves a member of staff having to check when its running low and tick off that they need to re order. Tesco has a very good IT system, which consist of both hardware and software, which carry out their main jobs of looking after the amount of stock in the stores, the days cash intake, and many other importantfunctions that the com pany needs.Technological ResourcesTo make sure that the employees are happy with the software they are using to do their work would be to gain feedback from them. By gaining feedback you can see whether there things that need improving to make it easier or better for the employee to use. Also by gaining feedback from employees you are making them feel part of the organisation as they have a say into whats going on and what may need improving so that they dont feel left out. By keeping staff happy they are more likely to stay for longer which means for Tesco that they have people who are good and have an understanding of how to use the software. By having employees who are good with working with the software it makes the process of doing work easier for them and this will overall help to boost the performance of Tesco as they have highly trained and good staff. M2The importance of employability, and individual(prenominal) skills in the recruitment and safekeeping of staffTelecommun ication Sector(Alcatel Lucent)Employability and Personal SkillsEmployability is defined as a persons own capability for acquiring and maintaining employmentEmployability depends factors like the fellowship, personal skills and abilities possessed by the individual and the way he presents those assets to employers. In other words it is the process of self assessment of an individual which can be done by himself or by some other person or agency.Importance of Employability and Personal Skills In the Recruitment and Retention of staff While in the process of hiring and selecting individuals in an organisation, the management has to identify a certain selection criteria. This selection criteria consists of a list of abilities and skills, in addition to certain education standard an individual must possess if he has to qualify for that position.An individual who has acquired certain skills like figurer knowledge (hardware / software) will be more valuable for an organisation than the on e who does not have this skill. The organisation will not have to train the individual who already has this capability. The organisation will get a plant Made asset which can be utilized straight away on a project.The Alcatel can also short list those individuals with certain raw material knowledge or skills in a specified field. The individuals can be trained on special task or assignment with minimum effort. For example if an individual has basic skills and knowledge of operations and maintenance of Computers then he can be trained quickly to operate and maintain small computer and telecom networks. That individual will have more value than an individual who does not possess such skills.The individual who is hired and has good background knowledge in a certain field and possesses various skills, can become a learning source of other employees in an organisation. That person can train other employees On the Job, with better knowledge and skills and can increase companys productiv ity. Such employees are retained by the organisationIf gibe opportunities are provided to the employees in an organisation for learning and skill improvement, the employees always become loyal to the company and will remain with the company. In this way company will be able to retain its useful resources.Exceptions There are certain areas in the Telecom sector where there is less need forskills and knowledge. For example the employees who have to work on the Assembly lines of products manufacturing, they need minimum orientation on how to do their work efficiently. They may not need more skill to jampack final products. For their case, it is not advisable to detach them from their work and send them for extra training.The organisation i have chosen to asses is the Alcatel Lucent. It is important for Alcatel Lucent to consider employability skills when recruiting and retaining staff as having a good balance of these skills in employees will make the organisation run smoothly and ef fectively. There are many different factor to consider when employing new recruits and keeping current staff such as training ,meeting targets, having the correct skills which match up the job recruitment , trust , qualifications , limning a professional image and have excellent communication skills to liaise with fellow colleagues and the public .When recruiting and reviewing current staff personal skills employees need to have strong communication attributes . This would be required for any job as you need to be able to understand other colleagues and the customers/public.Alcatel need to consider this skills in employees as they need to communicate and understand colleagues and customers for tasks to be understood and carried out effectively.. Alcatel looks to see if their staff new recruits are hard working . This would be portrayed at inductions/ interviews for a job or in a trail period of vacancy. Employees need to be hard working / service they provide is of high step and m eets the companys standards it is important that the Alcatel consider employees and recruits ability to work well as a team as well as individually. Staff need to work well as a team so they have an understanding of each other and so that projects and meetings are effective.When employees work effectively in a team it shows they understand each other and the work given therefore the Alcatel can run effectively as task given are being understood Alcatel staff also need to be able to cope working on their own as in some aspects it saves time and money . rather than having two people carrying out one job, if possible one person doing the job while the other employee can go work in another area where help is needed. http//www.termpaperwarehouse.com/essay-on/M2-Business-Resource/239019

Sunday, May 26, 2019

”Heritage” by Countee Cullen Essay

This poem is titled Heritage and is by Countee Cullen (for Harold Jackman). The social leave that motivated Cullen to write Heritage is the oppression that blacks faced and their eagerness to go back to the place that their ancestors were taken from. In the poem Cullen reflects the urge to reclaim the African arts, during this time, the Harlem Renaissance, blacks called this movement negritude. Cullen depicts the negro speaking on the view of Africa, by the all negroes. In the poem, Cullen uses auditory imagery, constitutional imagery, and visual imagery.Cullen uses auditory imagery to draw his readers in to hear what he hears. The meaning of this poem is to take the reader on a journey of what the negro felt or so Africa. Line 12-30, the negro explains that he hears large animals all about and how he can hear the birds of the sky sing. He also explains the sounds of drums that he can hear. Drums in Africa were used for one or two reasons, either celebrations or during war time. This literary device was effective because Cullen captivated what the negro would have heard had he been in Africa.Then Cullen uses organic imagery to draw his readers in to feel what he felt. The usage of this literary device was to show the reader what the negro was feeling when Africa was the thought. In line 22-30, the Cullen uses more metaphors that all tie and have a connection. For example, So I lie, fount of pride, dear distress and joy allied, is my somber flash and skin, with the dark blood call down within like great pulsing tides of wine that, I fear, must burst the fine channels of the chaffing net. Blood from within refers to the negro not creation able to change himself from being black. The metaphor is relating wine to blood, pulsing tides to veins, and chaffing net to the heart.Lastly, Cullen uses visual imagery draws the readers in to visually see what the negro sees when he thinks about Africa. Cullen uses this literary device effectively because the reader is able to connect with the negro when thinking about Africa. First, Cullen opens with an unanswered question. Then in lines 1-10, Cullen begins to help us visualize what Africa looks likethrough the eye of the negro. He goes to the scenery of Africa by referring to it as the copper sun and scarlet sea. In this allusion, he is describing the reflection of the sun on the water. The negro also spoke about the people of Africa. Strong bronzed men, or regal black women from whose loins I sprang when the birds of Eden sang. Women from whose loins I sprang, hes talking about the queens of Africa. Strong bronzed men referred to the men who looked like himself during this time, and one three centuries removed, referred to the slave trade. The negro decidedly takes the reader on tour of Africa to see, hear and feel everything that he did.In conclusion, the poem was used as a key to unlock some of the thoughts the negro had concerning Africa. The negro in this poem was a representative of all negroes during this time their thoughts and the their feelings toward Africa. Cullens usage of the literary devices allow for an effective expression of the meaning of this poem. Poems atomic number 18 intensified language of experience, so the devices assured the connection of the reader to the poem and the experience. This applies to many issues in society today because as beautiful as our surface area is there are still dark clouds that cover the very essence of what the states once stood for.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Poetry †Pablo Neruda Essay

1. The speaker in this poem is the persona, because first person is used (I).2. The character of the speaker changes from the first base of the poem to the end. At the beginning the character is unsure in his words and actions, cant find an answer to his questions I dont manage, I dont know where it came from, from winter or a river. I dont know how or when, I did not know what to say. The character has also lost his identity there I was without a face, my eyes were blind.By the end of the poem, the speaker finds himself as part of something, part of the void, conundrum, part of the abyss. He finds himself going with the flow, wheeling with the stars, my heart broke loose on the wind.3. a) The kind of images used most often afterward the line, and suddenly I saw in stanza two are attached with the nature and its flow palpitating plantations, shadow perforated. They are also connected with how the world opens for the speaker the heavens unfastened and open.b) This imagery contri butes to our reading of the speakers thoughts and feelings when he first encounters poetry, because the reference to nature helps the reader to understand the idea of the poem. Nature is something everybody understands regardless of nation or education.4. The speakers first lines of poetry could be pure nonsense(prenominal), / pure wisdom. They could be nonsense because he is not guided by his thoughts, but the poetry simply flows in him and he writes it. The lines can be wisdom as well because of the mood the poet receives his ideas and puts them into words.

Friday, May 24, 2019

IT and HR Department Case Study and Analysis

Based on my observation security at Cenartech is high risk. I base this off of the security expends that be in smudge. What companies fail to realize is you can protect your meshing technically but you also have to protect the network physical. There are firewalls in place to protect the network from the outside but no policy to protect the network from the inside. A security policy is a document that defines the range of security needed by the organization and discusses the assets that need tax shelter and the extent to which security solution should go to provide the necessary protection.(Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221)Although the comp both IT structure is solid, nearly of it was created by out consultants and the IT department did not have both leadership that was IT smart. The IT department was ran by the Director of Finance. Cenartech has already been establish for a few long time before Brian the IT manager came on board. There was no exemplar Operating P rocedures. Procedures are the final element of the formalized security policy structure. (Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221)Within a year of being at the company he wrote a draft outlining duties and responsibilities for each staff member. Since his IT department was small he gave each staff member virtually security responsibilities. His staff members did not have any experience looking at security logs. Any time he had the chance he would give instruction them. He knew the importance of looking at the logs regularly and maintaining Audit Trails. Audit trails are a set of records or events that record activity on a system. (White, 2003)As Brian was viewing the logs he set that there were ingeminate failed log in attempts on a few different studys, but not enough to cause a lockout. But there were too many to failed log-in attempts to just ignore. He also constitute out someone was attempting to access the accounts from other location inside the engineering departme nt. According to policy he had to score this to leadership in Human Recourses. The leadership was not technical and did not understand the issue and how host the problem was. Given what the case has presented the attacker treasured to gain access to thenetwork.After the presenting his case to HR leadership he decided to work on an IT experience at the top of the list. He setup virtual private networks (VPN) for the sale staff to have remote access. A VPN is a communication tunnel that provides point-to-point contagious disease of both authentication and data job over an untrusted network. (Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221) He setup the VPN on the financial network. Once the software was loaded on employees systems he started to monitor the security logs. He found more incoming connection then what he installed.When he followed up on a few of the originating IP addresses in the security log, He found that a number of the connections originated from a local c adequate Internet Service Provider (ISP) (Whitman and Mattord, 2011, p. 27). The attacker was using divided accounts from employee in the company. When someone would leave they would render the account down. Accounts were not being deleted or disable. Removing or disabling accounts should be a standard best practice for any system. Accounts need to be deleted as soon someone leaves.(Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p231)Some of the things he could have done differently was to review his IT security policies from day one. The events that took place were events that were flaccid to miss. HR should have had a policy on how to handle terminated employees. There should be a lock out policy since the engineering employee was able to try many attempts on the account before it was locked out. The good lockout policy is three attempts then the user has to go through their IT department to get the account unlocked. A password policy should be implemented as well.At least 8 characters with a c ombination of lower case, upper case, one number, and one excess character, this is DOD standard. If these were in place the attacker would not have been able to attack the network. The IT department needs to be trained to Monitor Security logs at one time a week. He would represent a big challenge trying to recommend these changes to the Leadership. He try to explain this to the HR Director. His explanation required cheering effort as Jim had borderline IT experience. (Whitman and Mattord, 2011, p. 26). It took another incident for the HR Director to take him serious.IT and HR Department Case Study and AnalysisBased on my observation security at Cenartech is high risk. I base this off of the security practices that are in place. What companies fail to realize is you can protect your network technically but you also have to protect the network physical. There are firewalls in place to protect the network from the outside but no policy to protect the network from the inside. A security policy is a document that defines the scope of security needed by the organization and discusses the assets that need protection and the extent to which security solution should go to provide the necessary protection.(Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221)Although the company IT structure is solid, most of it was created by out consultants and the IT department did not have any leadership that was IT smart. The IT department was ran by the Director of Finance. Cenartech has already been establish for a few years before Brian the IT manager came on board. There was no Standard Operating Procedures. Procedures are the final element of the formalized security policy structure. (Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221) Within a year of being at the company he wrote a draft outlining duties and responsibilities for each staff member. Since his IT department was small he gave each staff member some security responsibilities. His staff members did not have any experience l ooking at security logs. Any time he had the chance he would train them. He knew the importance of looking at the logs regularly and maintaining Audit Trails. Audit trails are a set of records or events that record activity on a system. (White, 2003)As Brian was viewing the logs he found that there were repeated failed log-in attempts on a few different accounts, but not enough to cause a lockout. But there were too many to failed log-in attempts to just ignore. He also found out someone was attempting to access the accounts from other location within the engineering department. According to policy he had to report this to leadership in Human Recourses. The leadership was not technical and did not understand the issue and how server the problem was. Given what the case has presented the attacker wanted to gain access to thenetwork. After the presenting his case to HR leadership he decided to work on an IT project at the top of the list. He setup virtual private networks (VPN) for th e sale staff to have remote access. A VPN is a communication tunnel that provides point-to-point transmission of both authentication and data traffic over an untrusted network. (Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p221) He setup the VPN on the financial network. Once the software was loaded on employees systems he started to monitor the security logs. He found more incoming connection then what he installed.When he followed up on a few of the originating IP addresses in the security log, He found that a number of the connections originated from a local cable Internet Service Provider (ISP) (Whitman and Mattord, 2011, p. 27). The attacker was using shared accounts from employee in the company. When someone would leave they would pass the account down. Accounts were not being deleted or disable. Removing or disabling accounts should be a standard best practice for any system. Accounts need to be deleted as soon someone leaves.(Stewart and Chapple and Gibson, 2012, p231) Some of the things he could have done differently was to review his IT security policies from day one. The events that took place were events that were easy to miss. HR should have had a policy on how to handle terminated employees. There should be a lock out policy since the engineering employee was able to try many attempts on the account before it was locked out. The good lockout policy is three attempts then the user has to go through their IT department to get the account unlocked. A password policy should be implemented as well.At least 8 characters with a combination of lower case, upper case, one number, and one special character, this is DOD standard. If these were in place the attacker would not have been able to attack the network. The IT department needs to be trained to Monitor Security logs once a week. He would face a big challenge trying to recommend these changes to the Leadership. He try to explain this to the HR Director. His explanation required substantial effort as Jim had minimal IT experience. (Whitman and Mattord, 2011, p. 26). It took another incident for the HR Director to take him serious.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Minimum wage essay Essay

Minimum betroth has been a very controversial topic. Nowa mean solar days pack skillful cant locomote on minimum wage. Prices are rising but yet the pay is still the same. How do they expect us to survive on eight dollars and twenty five cents?Minimum wage workers in Chicago land locations had joined others across the country for a oneness-day strike, which was held August 29, 2013 after-school(prenominal) the ROCK N ROLL McDonalds in the River North neighborhood, demanding their wage to be at least $15.00 an hour.There was a worker there named Tyree Johnson who said he has been working on McDonalds for a total of 21 years and still earning a total of eight dollars and twenty five cents an hour. He states Every snip I would ask for a throw out they would just tell me you shouldnt have joined that union, were not giving you any raise. The workers who had gathered up there said that they were tired on choosing between paying the rent or paying the groceries.Another minimum wage worker named Dejun Jackson says it takes him 3 jobs to raise a family. He gets up at 430am to start his shift at 545am. He ends his first job around 1 Oclock and has to be in his second job around 115. He does not end his second shift until 9 or 930pm. He states he has no time to see his kids except the weekends for the same reason that he has both jobs. Between his two jobs he flora a total of 70 hours a week. Within a year he makes an average of $50,000. Dejun Jackson is also in school hoping one day he would be able to work just one shift and spend more time with his family. But just by having just one job he wouldnt be able to make it through since one job helps him pay the pills and the other the cost of his school.I agree that people cannot live on minimum wage since the cost of subsisting has gone up drastically. This has always been a conflict and will continue to be unless they raise minimum wage. The type of life we are living now days wont simply just get us through by working on minimum wage. People havethings to pay for example rent, food transportation, clothes, bills school etc. People that get pay minimum wage are usually on government assistance which means everybody who is paying taxes are actually paying for the food stamps or any type of run that they are receiving from the government. It would be better if the companies would just pay their workers a decent amount of salary instead of other people having to pay for whatever the fraternity is not paying them.The authors argument is very logical since it states why people cant survive on minimum wage. This makes people have two jobs just too sustain a family. People wouldnt be able to make through just by having one job, since the cost of living has gone up drastically.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Love vs Infatuation

Love Vs. Infatuation There are plenty of differences between being infatuated with person and being in fill in with some one. A person knows in their heart what they notice only when most of the time the two can be fragmented. ordinarily it takes a little while to know whether or not youre infatuated versus being in love. You wont know overnight but sometimes you agree to figure it out for yourself. Both love and infatuation are crazy things, They are both led by something other than your consciousness which is why its so hard to distinguish the two. Love is led by your heart and infatuation, by the chemicals released in your body.Infatuation may have some standardized symptoms of love but the differences overrule the small similarities. I myself still have trouble separating the two. It would be an amazing thing if a guide book well(p) dropped down to help you figure out still what you were experiencing. Unfortunately that does not exist so I will distinguish the differe nce between love and infatuation in the next few paragraphs, with some help from some people experienced in the area. Love is friendship that has caught fire it takes root and grows, one day at a time, Ann Landers of the Chicago Tribune says.I love this quote because it really gives you an idea of how love should start. Love takes time to grow, it does not come overnight. It isnt something equal a fairytale. For instance in Cinderella, Cinderella leaves her glass slipper behind and the prince searches for her and they fall in love and get married in what seems like slight than a month. Yes there may be some out there that do get married or fall in love in such a short time span. Usually those are the relationships that dont last long or work out. When youre in love, you feel strong, full of life, and happy.You feel Secure and beautiful, S. E Jones, chawbacon contributor beautifully puts her version of love. With love you dont feel as if you have to worry about your mental state o f mind you feel great, like as if nothing can bring you down or get in your way. You might feel as if anything that comes your way you can handle. With love comes trust, you trust them kind of literally with your heart. Some people may even trust their associate with their life, they would give their own life to save the other if it came down to it. Lastly I believe love is taking each other mperfections every exclusive one of them and saying wholeheartedly that you accept them. No matter how horrible they may be you can say that you still accept them, love them, and loss to spend the rest of your life with them. You should not have really try when youre in love. Love is mature, it is effortless. Infatuation I feel is fairly, easily confused with love because when you think of love you think of this intense, strong feeling. Infatuation is a strong, deep feeling as well but there is a largish difference between the two.The reason infatuation can feel so intense and strong feelin g is because with infatuation it all comes at once, sort of like a bomb. However, unlike love the bomb goes off after a short time and does not last as long as love does. Infatuation does not grow over time because when youre infatuated you need instant gratification. Also, when you are infatuated you are uniformly wondering. Wondering if your first mate is doing something behind you back to hurt you, if they like you as much as you like them, and simply what they think of you.To sum it up with infatuation come constant worrying and anxiety. Unlike love you do not feel secure or safe. Infatuation lacks confidence, Ann Landers simply puts it. In an infatuated relationship you pilot as if disaster is around the corner. You feel like your partner is going to disappoint you or even that you are going to lose your partner at any point. In which most cases things are fine and you are just overthinking but thats what comes along with infatuation, being in that obsessive state of mind.Wi th infatuation there is no trust, just hope. Again using S. E Jones creative words Infatuation is getting through today and hoping tomorrow will be good too. Infatuation is a very interesting experience, fun to some. It is bound to happen at some point. Infatuation is the evil twin its nice looking on the exterior but it ends up being a little less than horrible when looked at a little closer. instantly as you can see there are big differences between love and infatuation. On the other hand see how easy it may be to mix up the two.Its sort of like infatuation is the kid in you while love is the adult. Its important to know sometimes it is inevitable to be infatuated with a person but once love comes around youll see just what you were missing out on. Love lasts and is sometimes quite literally your best friend a lot of people in love view their partners as their best friend which is an amazing thing in itself. Unfortunately Infatuation can be compared to that friend you were best friends all throughout middle school but lost touch with when you entered high school.Some things just arent meant to last but thats mostly because better things like love are waiting to happen. References * Jones, S. E. The top ten differences between love and infatuation. Yahoo Voices. Yahoo, 15 Sep 2009. Web. 1 Apr 2013. . * Landers, Ann. Love Vs. infatuation Telling the difference. Chicago Tribune A&E. Chicago Tribune, 01 Dec 1990. Web. 1 Apr 2013. .

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Educational psychology Essay

School minorren in Durban, South Africa. In dinner dress procreation, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a condition or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences finished which children recrudesce to receive mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a much superior general political platform which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of intimacy which is formally taught, either at the universityor via or so other such(prenominal) method.Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines ar often twain(prenominal) arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines imply the natural accomplishments, mathematics, computer science,social sciences, humanities and applied sci ences. 5 Educational psychiatric hospitals whitethorn incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curricula or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The divers(a) subjects of fine arts are music, dance, and theater. 6 editPre conditionsMain article Pre naturalize gentility The term preschool refers to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school. Preschool raising is master(prenominal) beca give it jakes give a child the edge in a competitive adult male and statement climate. citation needed While children who do not receive the positives during their preschool eld will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors and designs when they experience their formal tuition they will be stooge the children who already possess thatknowledge.The true purpose behind kindergarten is to provide a child-centered, preschool curriculum for tercet to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the childs phy sical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced focus on each of them. 7 edit master(a) election schools Main article primitive gentility Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts ofBucharest, virtually 1842. Primary (or elementary) commandment consists of the frontmost 57 years of formal, structured program line.In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of knowledge starting at the age of five or six, although this varies amongst, and some whiles within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. 8 Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries grow committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in legion(predicate) countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education.The division between primary and alternate education is close to arbitrary, nevertheless it broad ly occurs at close to eleven or cardinal years of age. Some education systems admit separate mall schools, with the transmutation to the final stage of secondary education taking adorn at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.In India, compulsory education spans all over twelve years, out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the re mankind of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on national curriculum framework knowing by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. editSecondary schools Main article Secondary education Students working with a schooler at Albany Senior High School, sore Zealand.Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School, Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective 3rd, post-secondary, or soaringer education (e. g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, whitethorn be called secondary or broad(prenominal) schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools.The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another(prenominal). The exact margin between primary and secondary education alike varies from country to country and even within them, just is slackly around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary ed ucation together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in modern Zealand Year 113 is utilize.The purpose of secondary education can be to give rough-cut knowledge, to prepare for high education or to train directly in a profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, ca apply by the rise in big businesses and technical advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In hostel to meet this youthful job indigence, high schools were created, with a curriculum foc utilise on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white clerical collar or skilled blue collar work.This proved to be beneficial for twain employers and employees, for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which down in the mou thered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educationa l attainment. In atomic number 63, grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 1sixth century, in the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which themselves aim an even seven-day history. MLC Kx12 in Portland, Oregon editAutodidacticism Main article Autodidacticism.Autodidacticism ( too autodidactism) is self-directed learnedness that is related to but different from loose erudition. In a nose out, autodidacticism is eruditeness on your witness or by yourself, and an autodidact is a self-teacher. Autodidacticism is a contemplative, take up process. Some autodidacts spend a great deal of time re flocking the resources of libraries and educational websites. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in ones life. While some may overhear been informed in a pompous manner in a particular field, they may choose to inform themselves in other, often unrelated areas.Notable autodidacts let in Abraham Lincoln (U. S. pre sident), Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician), Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist), Charles Darwin(naturalist), Thomas Alva Edison (inventor), Tadao Ando (architect), George Bernard Shaw (playwright), and da Vinci da Vinci (engineer, scientist, mathematician). editvocational Main article Vocational education Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft.Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions commandment courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts. editIndigenous Main articleIndigenous education Indigenous education refers to the inclusion body of endemical knowledge, models, methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing acknowledgement and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenousknowle dge and language with the processes of colonialism.Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students. 9 editAnarchistic emancipate schools Main article Anarchistic free school An anarchistic free school (to a fault anarchist free school and free school) is a decentralized mesh topology in which skills, information, and knowledge are shared without hierarchy or the institutional environment of formal schooling. unaffectionate school students may be adults, children, or both. This organisational structure is distinct from ones used by democratic free schools which permit childrens individual initiatives and learning endeavors within the context of a school democracy, and from free education where traditional schooling is made available to pupils without charge. The open structure of free schools is intended to encourage self-reliance, little consciousness, a nd personal development. Free schools often operate outside the market economy in favor of a gift economy.citation needed Nevertheless, the meaning of the free of free schools is not restricted to monetary cost, and can refer to an emphasis on free speech and student-centred education. citation needed editAlternative Main article Alternative education Alternative education, also cognize as non-traditional education or educational substitute, is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education).This may include not only forms of education designed for students with circumscribed needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual dis competency), but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods. Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education.While some wee-wee strong political,scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, free- liveness schools, homeschooling and autodidacticism vary, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community. Alternative education may also allow for independent learning and engaging class activities. 10 editSpecial.In the past, those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were often educated by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians ( populate like Itard, Seguin, Howe, Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized information and functional sk ills. Special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its early years, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning. 11 editEducation through funThe apprehension of education through recreation was scratch line applied to childhood development in the 19th century. 12 In the early 20th century, the concept was broadened to include young adults but the emphasis was on physical activities. 13 Educationalist Lawrence L. P. Jacks, who was also an early counsel of lifelong learning, best described the modern concept of education through recreation in the adjacent quotation A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play, his labour and his leisure, his mind and his body, his education and his recreation.He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of duty through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. To himself he al paths seems to be doing both. Enough for him that he does it well. (Jacks, 1932). 14 Education through recreation is the opportunity to learn in a unlined fashion through all of lifes activities. 15 The concept has been revived by the University of Western Ontario to teach anatomy to medical students. 15 - editSystems of higher education Main article higher(prenominal) education.The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school or secondary school. third education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.Tertiary education general ly results in the receipt ofcertificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated military unit for the rest of the economy. editUniversity systems Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU in Prague.University education includes teaching, research, and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (orpostgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges. In the United States, universities can be private and independent, likeYale University, t hey can be public and State governed, like the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education, or they can be independent but State funded, like the University of Virginia. editOpenHigher education in particular is currently undergoing a transition towards open education, elearning alone is currently growing at 14x the rate of traditional learning. 16 Open education is lush growing to become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as its superior capacity and results compared to traditionalist methods. 17 Cost of education has been an issue throughout history, and a major political issue in most countries today. Open education is generally significantly cheaper than traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free.Many large university institutions are now starting to offer free or near free full courses such as Harvard, MIT and Berkeley teaming up to form edX Other universities offering open education are Stanford, Princeton, Duke, Johns Hopkins, Edinbu rgh, U. Penn, U. Michigan, U. Virginia, U. Washington, Caltech. It has been called the biggest change in the modality we learn since the printing press. 18 Many people despite aureate studies on effectivness may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons.19 The conventional merit system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities. Although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom. Currently many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate. Due to the popularity of open education these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more take note and equal academic value to traditional degrees.20 Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. citation needed There has been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in traditional on campus education that is not often directly offered from open education. citation needed Examples of this are people in open education forming study groups, meetups and movements such as UnCollege. editLiberal arts colleges.Saint Anselm College, a traditional New England free-hearted arts college. A liberal arts institution can be defined as a college or university curriculum aimed at imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. 21 Although what is known today as the liberal arts college began in Europe,22 the term is more commonly associated with Universities in theUnited Statescitation needed. Examples include St. Johns College, beating-reed instrument College, Carleton College, and Smith College.editCommunity colleges Main article community colleges A nonresidential junior coll ege offering courses to people living in a particular area. - editTechnology Main article Educational applied science One of the most hard uses in education is the use of technology. Also technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and lively phones are used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education).This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also mode the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. One such tool are virtual manipulatives, which are an interactive, Web-based visual representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing numeral kn owledge (Moyer, Bolyard, & Spikell, 2002).In short, virtual manipulatives are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical mathematical manipulatives, which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. Virtual manipulatives can be tardily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets, allowing for easy access and use in a word form of educational settings. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results, suggesting comparable, and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness compared to standard teaching methods.citation needed Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Respon se System (ARS), which allows agile feedback tests and classroom discussions. 23 American students in 2001, in a computer fundamentals class taking a computer-based test Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are adiverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information. 24 These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings. 25 Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.26 In admittance to classroom application and growth of e-learning opportunities for knowledge attainment, educators involved in stude nt affairs programming have recognized the increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about students. Motivation and belongings counselors, along with faculty and administrators, can impact the potential academic success of students by provision of technology based experiences in the University setting. 27 The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka. 28 The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and dista nce learning, still relies severely on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.29 Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, enter audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies. 30 The term computer-assisted learning (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching. Classrooms of the 21st century contain interactive white boards, tablets, mp3 players, laptops, etc. Wiki sites are another tool teachers can implement into CAL curricula for students to understand communication and collaboration efforts of group work through electronic means.citation needed Teachers are encouraged to embed these technological devices and services in the curriculum in order to kick upstairs students learning and meet the needs of various types of learners. - editAdult Main article Adult education Adult learning, or adult education, is the practice of training and developing skills in adults. It is also sometimes referred to as andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn). Adult education has become common in many countries.It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. A number of career specific courses such as veterinarian assisting, medical billing and coding, real estate license,bookkeeping and many more are now available to students through the Internet. With the boom of information from availability of knowledge through means of internet and other modern low cost information exchange mechanisms people are beginning to take an attitude of Lifelong learning.To take a leak knowledge andself improvement a lifelong focus as opposed to the more traditional view that knowledge and in particular value creating trade skills are to be learned just exclusively in youth. - editLearning modalities Students in laboratory, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University. There has been work on learning styles over the die two decades. Dunn and Dunn31 focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli32 recommended varying teaching strategies.Howard Gardner33 identified individual talents or aptitudes in his duplex Intelligencestheories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter34 focused on understanding how peoples personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorcs Type Delineator35 follows a similar but more simplified approach. It is currently modernistic to divide education into different learning modes.The learning modalities36 are probably the most common * visual learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. * Auditory learning based on listening to instructions/information. * Kinesthetic learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities. Although it is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness,37 recent research has argued there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational practice.38 A signification of this possible action is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them. 39Guy Claxton has questioned the extent that learning styles such as VAK are helpful, particularly as they can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict learning.InstructionTeacher in a classroom in Madagascar Instruction is the facilitation of anothers learning. Instructors in primar y and secondary institutions are often called teachers, and they direct the education of students and might draw on manysubjects like reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers, instructors, or professors, depending on the type of institution and they primarily teach only their specific discipline.Studies from the United States suggest that the quality of teachers is the item-by-item most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. 4243 With the pop offing game of NCLB in the United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified.A popular way to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers (SETS), but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive to learning and inaccurate due t o studentbias. 44 - editTheory Main articleEducation theory Education theory can refer to either a normative or a descriptive theory of education. In the first case, a theory means a postulation about what ought to be. It provides the goals, norms, and standards for conducting the process of education. 45 In the second case, it means an hypothesis or set of hypotheses that have been verified by observation and experiment.46 A descriptive theory of education can be thought of as a conceptual scheme that ties together various otherwise discrete particulars. . . For example, a cultural theory of education shows how the concept of culture can be used to organize and unify the variety of facts about how and what people learn. 47 Likewise, for example, there is the behaviorist theory of education that comes from educational psychology and thefunctionalist theory of education that comes from sociology of education. 48 - editEconomics Main article Economics of educationStudents on their way to school, Hakha,Chin State, Myanmar It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of stinting growth. 49 Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. However, technology tape drive requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation.Therefore, a countrys ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of human capital. Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions50 and the role of cognitive skills. 51 At the individual level, there is a large literature, generally related back to the work of Jacob Mincer,52 on how earnings are related t o the schooling and other human capital of the individual. This work has motivated a large number of studies, but is also controversial.The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. 5354 Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis famously argued in 1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production on the other. 55 - editHistory Main article History of education Nalanda quaint center for higher learning. Platos academy, mosaic from Pompeii.The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universitat Berlin 1994, began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770. Education as a science cannot be apart(p) from the educational traditions that existed before. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and event ually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation.Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially. When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, ghostly practices, etc. , formal education, and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC. citation needed The first large established university is thought to be Nalanda established in 427 A.D in India. 56unreliable source? At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, china, Greece, and Persia. The first university establishments in the western world are th ought to beUniversity of Bologna (founded in 1088) and later Oxford university (founded around 1096). A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088. Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclids Elementspublished in 1607. In the West, Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC.Plato was the Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician and writer of philosophical dialogues who founded the Academy in Athens which was the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Inspired by the admonition of his mentor, Socrates, prior to his unjust capital punishment that the unexamined life is not worth living, Plato and his student, the political scientist Aristotle, helped lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. 57 The city of Alexandria in Egypt was founded in 330BC, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of the Western World.The city hosted such in the lead lights as the mathematician E uclidand anatomist Herophilus constructed the great Library of Alexandria and translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek (called the Septuagint for it was the work of 70 translators). Greek elaboration was subsumed within the Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire and its new Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the easternmost, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD 476.58 In the East, Confucius (551-479), of the State of Lu, was Chinas most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, japan and Vietnam. He gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in the East into the modern era. In Western Europe after the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church emerged as the consolidative force.Initially the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe, the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education. Some of these ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europes modern universities. 58 During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Planning Function within the Different Levels of Management in Organizations Essay

Management of a melodic phrase involves the four world(a) functions of making stick outs, organizing, exercising leadership, and fostering coordination. Planning constitutes the process of determining goals and objectives, identifying strategies and techniques, and accessing or allocating the necessary resources to support implementation. Plans commix the competencies and resources of the make-up relative to the map of the actions designed and intended to achieve goals and objectives. Daft, 2000) As a fundamental prudence process, intend occurs at the different levels of the business organization.Planning at Different Levels of Management Management levels tin be hierarchical or functional. Hierarchical levels of instruction refer to the chain of command in the organizational structure reflecting the designation of decision-making, reporting and accountability. Functional levels of management pertain to management roles according to function. Daft, 2000) Generally, there a tomic number 18 two hierarchical levels of management, the senior management and front line management. Senior management takes charge of strategicalal formulation since the focus is conceptual, directional and fantasyary plans encompassing the direction of future actions, the expected proceedss, the availability and example of resources, and contingency ideas for issues likely to emerge. The thrust of planning at this level is long-term outcomes.Front line management handles operational planning because the focus is specific, measurable, tactical, and applicable plans covering daily activities and issues much(prenominal) as task assignments, quotas, deadlines, funding, and different day-to-day issues requiring planning. The focus of front line management planning is short-term expectations and outcomes. Although differing in the nature of planning functions, strategic plans provide guidance to operations plan while operational plans influence future strategic planning. Daft , 2000) Functional management involves a wide network of horizontal and vertical levels usually designated into departments and sub-departments or running(a) teams distinguished according to functions. There could be a number of departments in an organization including sales or marketing departments, purchasing department, accounting department, benignant resources department, and other departments depending on the nature, scope and scale of operation of the business organization.Planning at the department level depends on the respective functions so that the scope of planning covers the designated functions. The sales or marketing department focuses on marketing planning and advertising planning covering goals such as brand equity building, hold dear creation for consumers, distri yetion, promotional plans, and pricing. The human resource department engages in leadership development, management development, c atomic number 18er development, performance, staffing, and training a nd development planning. The other departments take charge of planning on other function argonas. Daft, 2000) The functions of these departments are interconnected since planning done by the marketing department has a link to the competence of human resources especially leadership. Within the departments is a hierarchy, with department managers or directors handling strategic planning and the managers of the different sub-departments or working teams handling operational planning with the plans focusing on functions. consolidation of Various Kinds of Plans The overlap between hierarchical and functional management planning reflects the interconnections of various plans.There are also a number of practical reasons for integrating different plans. One is the need to translate a vision and goal into action to support fulfillment (Griffin & Thomas, 1999). In the case of strategic and operational plans, strategic plans are conceptual in nature providing a guide or picture of the expecte d outcome while operational plans are practical by focusing on particular actions and techniques that support apparent motion towards the achievement of envisioned concepts (Daft, 2000).As such, integrating strategic and operational plans ensure that action finds guidance from the vision and goals translate into specific actions directed towards actualization. Another is the likely interconnectedness of plans. With regard to functional management, a plan requires alignment with other plans to ensure successful realization. (Griffin & Thomas, 1999). Customer service forms part of marketing planning and human resource planning so that training plans under the HR department should coincide with marketing plans for value creation.Last is the essence of organizations as a single unit made up of different part that need to work together to sustain the body. Successful organizations are those with aligned or integrated plans. existent Life Application Successful planning doe not only req uire integration but also relevance to changing market conditions. Strategic plans could change in order to make the organization more responsive to issues.An example is the shift in the strategic plan of Wal-Mart from the vision of a sell store offering the lowest prices to consumers to a store providing employment to thousands of people in impoverished areas (Wal-Mart, 2008). This came as a response to the corporate accessible responsibility issue of its payment of wages below the stripped-down wage and resistance to the call of worker groups for unionization. By shifting its strategic plan, Wal-Mart reaffirms its commitment to corporate social responsibility by helping impoverished families with jobs created by establishing stores in these communities.By focusing strategic plans towards communities, the fraternity is able to express its concern not only towards consumers but also to its present and future employees who are members of the community. Conclusion Planning is an i mportant aspect of organizational management. To succeed in planning, it is important to understand how planning occurs at the different management levels of the organization, the importance of integrative planning, and the consideration relevant and responsive planning by adjusting to changes in business context.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Introduction to Modern Management

Introduction to mod Management Lindsay Bursar Aspen University Abstract Throughout history many polar theories have been developed, researched, written virtually and mystify to the test in actual ferment place setting to see how well they lay down and how potent they be. Lower-level forethought, spatiotemporal compend of counseling and pitying relations ladderment in path theory ar Just a few of them. Each theory was and dummy up is important in todays modern championship conception.E real theory has had some kind of impact on the new theories in direction that eave come about since thus and lead still continue to have an impact in the future. Its important that coach-and-fours now and coach-and-fours in the future are educated on these divers(prenominal) management theories so that they notify provide the brook and education to their employees need and deserve. This exit foster a positive work environs that will drag to increased productiveness and s uccess at bottom companies. Every company must have entire, competent managers in order to survive and be successful.Module 1 Introduction to Modern Management Assignments Essay Questions Managers should be paying more than regular employees. Do you agree with this education? Justify your attend to in scholarly detail. in that location are many reasons management should be paid more than a regular employee. One of the reasons being the workload managers take on and another being the necessary skills that a manager must be in possession of to name Just a few. As a current portion of management at the hospice style I work for, I agree that management should be paid more.However, I agreed with this before I became management as well. As a regular employee I saw everyday how different the workload was between a regular employee and management. According to a recent study an average manager is actually worth 1. 75 employees (Edwards, 2012). After being promoted into my curren t management position, I agree with this statement 100%. Now kind of of doing the agate line of adept, Im doing the Job of three and still manage to get everything make and in on time or ahead of a deadline while likewise managing my employees.Employees in my sometime(a) position who have the workload of only one sometimes struggle to meet the same deadlines. The forecast of productiveness is much higher for a manager versus those of a regular employee. The importance of a good manager cannot be stressed enough. Management influences every aspect of an make-up from top management to demoralize level management (Cert. & Cert., 012). If any organization or company intends on being successful wherefore it is of the utmost importance that they hire good management beca physical exertion these people are the ones who lead the company towards their closings and towards success.Good management must have the skills to carry out the four basic management functions planning, organi zing, influencing and controlling (Cert. & Cert., 2012). Without these skills any member of management would be ineffective and unsuccessful. Managers should be paid more than regular employees because not every employee in an organization possesses these skills. If every employee did, the need for management would be obsolete. Discuss in scholarly detail wherefore it is important for managers to be alive(predicate) of pagan differences in their dealings with people. One of the biggest reasons its important for management to aware of heathenish difference is because of the increase in multi-national businesses and business deals. In todays business world an increasing form of companies have started doing business with people from different countries and cultures. Because of this trend of globalization, it is very important that managers understand and respect cultural differences. If differences in customs and culture are not cognize or not respected, business deals can quickl y go south and be lost (Brown).Managers must know what kind of behaviors would be improper in situations where you are dealing with people from other cultures in order to avoid doing anything that would be deemed bounderish or disrespectful. They need to be able to t to each one their employees what is acceptable and prepare their employees and themselves for interactions where this knowledge is paramount. One of the ruff things managers can to do to prepare their staff for these interactions is cultural awareness training (Acculturates Consulting, 2011).By giving staff cultural awareness training theyre being given the tools to learn about the customs and cultures theyll be interacting with. Employees will go to meetings for business deals or potential business deals armed with the cultural knowledge to ensure that they will not offend or come across as disrespectful. This training and knowledge that managers give to their employees will enable them to be culturally sensitive. T his will make not only the employees, but also the company move forward and be successful in the international business world. How is lower-level management analysis different from comprehensive analysis of management? Is the latter onset suitable for an organization focusing on increasing productivity by concentrating on the one silk hat bureau to perform a task? Explain your answer in scholarly detail According to Cert. & Cert. (2012), lower-level management analysis concentrates on the one best musical mode to perform a task (p. 28). This means each task a worker does is closely looked at and studied to come up with the most efficient way to complete the task that will event the highest production.This approach is also known as the scientific method of management (Cert. & Cert., 2012). Frederick W. Taylor has come commonly known as the creator of scientific management. While Taylor worked at Bethlehem Steel Co. His goal was to increase worker talent and productivity. He di d this on the idea that every Job had one best way to do it and that this way should be discovered and put into operation (Cert. & Cert., 2012, p. 29). This approach differs from the comprehensive analysis of management because it looks at very specific tasks and simplifies each task as much as possible to create efficiency.Comprehensive analysis of management focuses on the entire range of managerial performance (Cert. & Cert., 2012, p. 32). Whereas lower-level management analysis or scientific management focused more on the micro aspects of how to efficiently do a Job, comprehensive analysis of managements focuses on the macro aspects. Henry Payola was very influential in creating a management philosophy for the comprehensive analysis of management (Cert. & Cert., 2012). So much so that the general ideas and principles of management that he wrote about are still considered very useful in todays management world.Payola had 14 main principles of management that cover many different topics and believed that having managerial excellence is an ability that can be obtained (Summon, 2010). The three biggest principles that Payola focused on were organisational efficiency, the manipulation of people, and appropriate management action (Cert. & Cert., 2012, p. 33). These principles can be seen being used in modern management today. I believe that using the comprehensive analysis of management is suitable to use in an organization that is focusing on the one best way to do a Job to increase the organizations productivity.While Frederick W. Tailors contributions to the management world were very influential and important, they are also unpopular because of the extreme his ideas went to. In order to increase productivity the whole many should first be working towards a common goal or direction. If a company is focusing solely on the one best way to complete a task, that is the goal in that respect are focusing on first with increased productivity spot. By focusing on the one best way, other aspects and employees in a company are being ignored which ultimately will not lead a company towards increased productivity.Looking at a company and the companys goal in a comprehensive view is what will help achieve the goal of increased productivity. Everything and everybody must work in conjunction with one other to reach their goals. Discuss in scholarly detail the tender-hearted relations movement in management theory. How would you, as a manager in an organization, use the human relations approach to manage employees? According to Cert. & Cert. (2012), the human relations movement is a people- oriented approach to management in which the interaction of people in organizations is studied to Judge its impact on organizational success (p. 5). This movement was started because of the Hawthorne studies that were conducted from 1927 to 1932 by Professor Elton Mayo (Cert. & Cert., 2012). These studies gave managers a lot to think about and a new direction t o start researching. The human relations movement focuses more on employees as individuals instead of focusing on procedures and policies in the workplace (Ziegler, 2014). Instead of a company environment that focuses on quotas and procedures, the environment focuses on communication between managers and employees.With a better understanding of employees and an environment more focused on communication, production and success for a company can actually increase. If the workplace is negative, noncommittal and unproductive, then there are some big changes that would need to be made. As a manager I would use this knowledge o learn about my employees and find out what motivates them to work more efficiently and productively. I would figure what exactly would help create commitment to the company from employees and grow off of that.I would start grammatical construction relationships between management and employees to strengthen the unity within the company to continue working towards the common goal of success. If an attitude of commitment and high productivity can be grown and fostered within the employees then the manager is doing a good Job of creating an effective work environment. Good relationships with the employees means employees are titivated and will work harder and more productively. Discuss in scholarly detail how a managers understanding of his employees physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs improve productivity? Managers must have human relations skills in order to be effective. Human relations skills are defined as the ability to work with people in a way that enhances organizational success according to Cert. & Cert. (2012). Its important that managers understand Mascots hierarchy of Needs to improve productivity within their employees. The five levels of Mascots Hierarchy of Needs are physiological, feet, social, esteem and self-actualization (Burton, 2012). In order for people to achieve the top level of self-act ualization, each of the other levels must first be fulfilled starting with the lowest and then making the way up the hierarchy.These five levels are not only pertinent to peoples lives outside of work but also their lives and well-being in the work place. The first level, physiological, is peoples need for air, food, sleep, etc. If an employee doesnt have those basic needs met then they come to work tired or feeling sick and their productivity will be decreased. The second level, feet, has to do with peoples need to feel secure. Within the workplace, employees need to feel safe and secure in their Job on a daily basis to keep up their productivity. The third level, social, refers to peoples need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance.Within a company its important that employees feel valued and part of a team. The fourth level, esteem, is what will make employees feel confident. After an employee masters a skill and is recognized for it, their self-esteem will rise. This can l ead to an increase in productivity because they are proud of themselves and what theyve accomplished. The last level is self-actualization. An employee strives to the best that they can and be all that they can possibly be. Once that is reached, the employee will be satisfied within their Job. Theyll feel accomplished and part of a team.