Monday, September 30, 2019

Relevant Legislation, Regulations and Codes of Practice

Care workers have got the responsibility to follow the relevant legislation which is in a form of policies and procedures to follow while at the work place so as to protect the employer and the clients.Health and work safety work act 1974 has got policies and procedures to follow so as to protect others from risks that could happen at work and it has got policies and procedures such as fire evacuation procedures for example the hand massage room was checked so as to make sure that the fire doors are not obstructed and the clients I worked with had received induction and she knew the fire evacuation procedures for example where the fire exits are, where to go for assembly when fire bell goes and many others.This act also covers risk assessments for example the adult should make sure that the dancing room has the right floors which is non-slip floors so as to prevent risks of hazards , the correct clothing for dancing and the room should not be crowded and no objects on the floor. The act also states about manual handling and the act protects people from being injured from manual handling and instead uses lifting safely instead of manual handling which could be a risk to the client and the employer.Reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 1995 and this act states that if you have an infection which is contagious or an injury then one should be able to use non-verbal communication through a use of letter telling them why you are not coming in, what happened, when it happened , what you did or what you doing to cure it and the date and time of incident so basically this act is just when one can’t come into work because of a certain contagious illness and also recording it in an accident book.Food hygiene/ storage also is a policy to follow so as to avoid food poisoning to the clients and careers and the staff have got to be trained so as they can know how to handle food, store food safely and also prevent and avoid access of bact eria so as to avoid the risk of food poisoning which could lead to signs such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and other signs which could affect the health of the clients.COSHH (control of substances hazardous to health) 2002 act says labels should remain on bottles so as to know what to do if an accident happens; it also states the right of storage of materials and chemicals so as to avoid risks due to the hazardous chemicals that could cause risks to the clients and the workers.Disability /Discrimination act 1995 is an act that protects the disabled and also give them the equal opportunities even if they have to be treated individually and also employers should also supply services that the disabled could also access so that they could also access the services for example having lifts in a building, ramps so that the disabled could be able to access it. The disabled should be not being treated less favorably or failure to have equipment to access services just like every individual in the society.The act also protects people from being discriminated and also enforces equality hence discouraging bad acts such as race discrimination, age discrimination, sex discrimination and many others. The disability act also states that shops should have equipments / adjustments that disabled people could access for example lifts, words written clearly in big capital letters or Braille for the blind and communication styles such as sign language for the hearing impaired and many other equipments for them to access services too.The hand massage room should also be accessed for example the room should be able to adapt the needs of the disabled students such as lifts, ramps and also the right equipment for example the right tables and chairs needed for the disabled students. Human rights act 1998 also states that people have rights and if they think that their rights are being violated then they should have a law solution so that they could be protected from others. Human right s include the right to have a safe life for example people who work with vulnerable adults should have CRB check and relevant qualifications.I am studying at level 2 and training to work safely with this client group, right not to be discriminated again, right to liberty, freedom of expression, right to fair trial, right to enjoy, freedom of speech and many other rights and these rights should be exercised . However, one should not affect others just because he/she has rights because also others have also got the same rights so one should use their rights but also make sure that their rights don’t harm others.Equal opportunities act 2004 also states that people should have the same rights and also treated equally regardless of their individual needs because some people are more vulnerable than others and that is why some people have to be treated individually with their needs so as to receive equal opportunities with the other individuals in the society for example if the cli ents were going to have a hand massage and one client has got eczema then he/she has to get a hand cream that suits her type of skin so as for her to get the hand massage as well hence the clients receiving equal opportunities but treated individually.The equal opportunities states that everyone has the right to have a hand massage even if they have got skin complications for example people with brittle bones and different skin integrities must receive the right and equal care. This act also covers that everyone should have right to join activities for example everyone has the right to dance even thought they are disabled they could either move to the music or get out of their chairs with the help of crutches and people who can’t get out their chairs can also participate in this activity by joining and listening to music hence enjoying the social occasion.The care standard act 2002 also states that the care workers have got the responsibility of following policies and procedu res of the work placement and also the codes of practice so as for them to know how to treat the clients and their fellow colleagues. The act also states that the staff (care workers) has got to be trained and CRB checked so as to know their history life and to also make sure that they are suitable to be care workers.This cat also states that the care workers have got to be ISA registered and also allows the staff to complain and the employers have got to check the complaints of the staff and adjust them fairly so that the staff and the care workers are protected from harm. This act also states that the clients must be respected for example if any client didn’t want hand massage then they should not have it.This act also covers the dignity of the clients for example clients who are going to swim should be able to be given individual rooms so as to protect their dignity, swimming pools should also have the right access for example hoists, steps and the ramps so that they could enjoy their swimming without any disturbances. The codes of practice are linked to the legislation, policies and procedures and they should always be followed by the staff so as to improve on the tandards of professional conduct and practice required for the staff. The adult should always protect the rights and promote the interests of service users and care workers for example treating each person as an individual and an adult should also strive to establish and maintain the trust and confidence of service users and care workers for example being honest and trust worthy to clients.An adult should also promote the independence of service users while protecting them from as far as possible from danger or harm for example promoting the independence of service users and assisting them understand and exercise their rights, an adult should also respect the rights of the service users whilst seeking to ensure that their behavior does not harm themselves or other people.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Genetic Modified Food

Introduction Food is any material consumed to provide nutritional support for the body which it is probably from plant or animal that holds important nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, or minerals (Shah, 2006). Despite the importance of the food but it will be harmful in human health if it was genetically modified. So, genetically modified Food, is food that has been well genetically altered.Furthermore, they are foods products from genetically modified organisms that have had their DNA changed through genetic engineering which the DNA is the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that transmits the genetic orders for making living organisms. So, Genetic engineering can be completed with plants and animals like for example, the most mutual modified food that resulting from plants are soybean, canola, cotton seed oil and corn (Shah, 2006).In addition, the benefits of genetically engineered food such as food will be tastier, more nutritious food, the plants and animal s grow faster, some medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines and decreased use of pesticides (Shah, 2006). This assignment will shed the light on the history of GMF, the advantages and disadvantages, discussing the role of the food industry in the marketing of the GMF and perform the opinions of government and food companies about GMF. To define more genetically modified food, which it is food that produced by changing the DNA of an organism, which probably done with a plant that make food.It begins by inserting a gene in organism's genome to create new characteristics (Organization, 2012). Moreover, these characteristics contain a confrontation to wildflowers, pests or herbicides, growth rate will increase faster and improved nutrients. Moreover, people can produce hereditarily modified food by altering the amount of the genes in an organism by simply adjusting the genes. Furthermore, the history of genetically modified food started since scientists discovered that DNA can tr ansmit between organisms in 1946.The first product of genetically modified food crop was a tomato created by California Company in the early1990s which they called it Flavr Savr tomato that it have been submitted to the US food and drug administration in 1992 (Organization, 2012). However the aspect of GM food has received much criticism after marketable introduction of these in the form of making them accessible to the general public. The food industry has grown and stabilized strongly, because of the increasing demand of the population for food resources (Nataliya Moglina, 2010).To keep up with it, the food providing companies or farmers had to adjust in their production plans, one of the methods besides good marketing, was to genetically modify the crops of plants and the meat sources (Nataliya Moglina, 2010). Over the past decade, consumers have showed a high level of anxiety about the safety of the food source, which consumers asked for assurances that food is free from materia ls such as pesticides, hormones and antibiotics. Moreover, some consumers accepted on the benefits of chemicals in the food production that resulted in cosmetically perfect fruits and vegetables at low price.It has been seen in the previous researches that the worldwide consumers respond negatively towards food products made from genetically modified food which they try to avoid taking and consuming GMF because of the risks and negative effects on the human health. Some studies in US showed a higher acceptance from consumers on biotechnology and genetically modified food than other countries. Furthermore, China, India, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia are the main countries are working on modified crops in Asia.Nevertheless, in developing countries only little acceptance have been showed toward genetically modified food. In my opinion, most of the consumers they mostly refuse using genetically modified food because of the risks on their health such as liver cancer, allergies, hea rt diseases, and colon cancer and it may damage nerves system. However, the marketing is promoting the product and attract people to buy these products even if they are harmful on their health also it help them to achieve more sales.Recently, genetic modified food is being consumed in a big amount to provide people's needs of food according to the increasing numbers of the population, which it produces cheap, safe and nutritious foods. The advantages and disadvantages of GMF caused diverse opinions and arguments in different countries (Amin, 2011). So the advantages of GM foods such as, good quality of food, offer inexpensive and nutritious food like carrots with more antioxidants, provide food with a greater shelf life like tomatoes hat taste better and last longer, produce food with medicinal benefits for instance bananas with bacterial or rotavirus antigens, and produce crops that require less chemical application, such as herbicide resistant canola. Despite the many advantages t o genetically modified food there are also several disadvantages. The main impact is that genetically modified foods are original and it is difficult to know all the coming effects it might be on human health and environment (Amin, 2011).Another disadvantage is the possible impact it could have to human health, like for example some of new genes that are inserted into food can be resilient to specific antibiotics, so when we eat these products the effectiveness of antibiotics might be reduced. Also new allergens could be suddenly created and well-known allergens might be transmitted to new foods, for instance when the genetic factor of the peanuts was taken and put in a tomato so people that are allergic to peanuts could be allergic also to tomato (Amin, 2011).Genetically modified food endures a debatable subject which some experts trust that the future of GM crops is at a crossroad (Biggs, 2007). Some genetic modification of food has helped producers more than consumers because it gives more products faster which can be sold to the consumers and most of the consumers cannot accept to get specific nutrients from genetically modified food (Biggs, 2007). So, the future of GM foods seems to depend on purpose of issues linked to cross-pollination and change of existing crops, the viability of small farms, consumer benefits, and other worries (Biggs, 2007).After the appearance of genetically modified food, some people were against of using these products according to the risks on their health which the other side of people was with using these products because of the advantages (Biggs, 2007). This issue leaded to debates and different arguments such as, the government was against of using these products so it has decided to introduce classification of genetically modified food to protect consumers from misuses of producers and providers of biotechnology products ( council, 2007) .Also it will allow for the consumers to choose between genetically modified or non-Gen etically modified food. So the labeling polices depend on the supposition that the industry is incapable or unwilling to recognize the risks that inherited in their GMF products (council, 2007). Thus, the government gets involved in the market with obligatory labeling policies to ensure consumer protection from possible health and safety risks related with depletion of GM food.Moreover, environmental activities, religious administrations, professional associations and other scientists have worries about GM food so it seems that everybody has a strong view which most worries of GM food separated into environmental dangers, human health risks and economic concerns (Herbert, 2005). From my side am impartial, I command and approve with some of the advantages that GMF have, like feeding the hungry mass of people and enriching the world economy by constantly providing the food supply to sell and buy.On the other hand I find the cons are more harmful and despicable, the gene engineering of an organisms is harmful to the human body in an indirect way, no proven studies but some rare cases brings the big question. Conclusion In conclusion, hereditarily modified food they are food that provided by crops and their genetic has been changed to develop their agricultural qualities. As I have mentioned about the positive and negative impact such as the grow rate of the plants will be faster some medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines and decreased use of pesticides.However, the disadvantages mostly effects on people's health and cause disease due to misusing of herbicides on the crops. So in my opinion GMF has the potential to solve several of the world's hunger and starvation problems and to protect the environment from the over using of chemical pesticides and herbicides and GMF should be a good solution for the world's increasing population because it reached six billion and it might double in the coming 50 years and according to growing population many people wil l die and mare children will be suffer starvation because of food shortage.References Amin, L. (2011, September 29). Risks and benefits of genetically modified food. pp. 1-3. Association, N. S. (2007, March 6). Genetically Modified Crops . pp. 4-5. Biggs, A. (2007). Biology . New York: National Geographic . Chapman, J. (2006, December 2). History of genetically modified food. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Barrick Gold and the Mine at the Top of the World

Main Body Barrick Gold’s main communication problem has been formed by Barrick saying one thing, then doing something else; this inevitably caused a lack of trust between its stakeholders and the company. The problem has created hidden agendas and guarded communication, thereby slowing decision making and productivity. For example, Argentina passed a law that protected their glaciers and permafrost, â€Å"which looked as if it might prevent the Argentinian part of the project from going forward. † (Barrick Gold case, pp. 11). The cause of the problem stems from Barrick Gold not keeping their promise. They proposed to transport the most affected glaciers farther away from the mining site, but did not live up to that promise. The symptoms of the problem include the farmer’s unhappiness with the company and the mayor for supporting the mining project. Another symptom is the fact that the Argentinian national legislatures passed the law protecting the glaciers. This desperate move shows that Argentina has a lack of trust that the company will follow through on their promise to deal with the melting glaciers. The 5 main stakeholders include the Chile and Argentina governments, the local farmers, residents of the valley, and the shareholders of Barrick Gold. Each of these stakeholders have separate issues they are concerned with. The Chile government is concerned with waste the mine is dumping into the river that runs through the Huasco Valley of Chile, specifically cyanide. The Argentina governments concern is based on the fact that the royalties they receive from the mine are ? of the total GDP of their poor San Juan province; once the mining is finished this will regress back to zero and devastate the economy. The local farmers are concerned with the explosions that cause dust to settle on the glaciers and accelerate its melting; the effects are devastating to the whole surrounding ecosystem. The resident’s of the valley share the same concern as the Argentinian government, that once the mining ceases their income will revert to zero. Finally, the shareholders of Barrick Gold are concerned with the idea of huge opposition and lack of productivity that ensued because of it. In dealing with the afore mentioned stakeholder groups, Barrick Gold can use all the steps of the communication model, including: sender, encode, channel, receiver, and feedback. First off, the Chilean government: Barrick Gold (sender) needs to think of a method that allows cyanide to be removed from the river (encode), and this idea needs to be presented face-to-face (channel) to the Chilean government (receiver); once the idea is received, Barrick Gold needs to allow for feedback (positive or negative) from this stakeholder. Secondly, the local farmers: Barrick Gold (sender) is responsible for devising a plan for decelerating the melting of the glaciers (encode) and portraying this plan, either in a proposal or in a meeting (channel), to the local farmers (receiver); the farmers need to provide their response of how the government is doing (feedback). Conclusion In conclusion, Barrick Gold has a communication problem that could potentially destroy its whole project. How the company deals with its stakeholders is very important to its future success in Chile and Argentina. To mend the problem it is of the company’s best interest to follow the communication model and make all attempts to repair the damage already done by not keeping their promise. Barrick Gold and the Mine at the Top of the World Main Body Barrick Gold’s main communication problem has been formed by Barrick saying one thing, then doing something else; this inevitably caused a lack of trust between its stakeholders and the company. The problem has created hidden agendas and guarded communication, thereby slowing decision making and productivity. For example, Argentina passed a law that protected their glaciers and permafrost, â€Å"which looked as if it might prevent the Argentinian part of the project from going forward. † (Barrick Gold case, pp. 11). The cause of the problem stems from Barrick Gold not keeping their promise. They proposed to transport the most affected glaciers farther away from the mining site, but did not live up to that promise. The symptoms of the problem include the farmer’s unhappiness with the company and the mayor for supporting the mining project. Another symptom is the fact that the Argentinian national legislatures passed the law protecting the glaciers. This desperate move shows that Argentina has a lack of trust that the company will follow through on their promise to deal with the melting glaciers. The 5 main stakeholders include the Chile and Argentina governments, the local farmers, residents of the valley, and the shareholders of Barrick Gold. Each of these stakeholders have separate issues they are concerned with. The Chile government is concerned with waste the mine is dumping into the river that runs through the Huasco Valley of Chile, specifically cyanide. The Argentina governments concern is based on the fact that the royalties they receive from the mine are ? of the total GDP of their poor San Juan province; once the mining is finished this will regress back to zero and devastate the economy. The local farmers are concerned with the explosions that cause dust to settle on the glaciers and accelerate its melting; the effects are devastating to the whole surrounding ecosystem. The resident’s of the valley share the same concern as the Argentinian government, that once the mining ceases their income will revert to zero. Finally, the shareholders of Barrick Gold are concerned with the idea of huge opposition and lack of productivity that ensued because of it. In dealing with the afore mentioned stakeholder groups, Barrick Gold can use all the steps of the communication model, including: sender, encode, channel, receiver, and feedback. First off, the Chilean government: Barrick Gold (sender) needs to think of a method that allows cyanide to be removed from the river (encode), and this idea needs to be presented face-to-face (channel) to the Chilean government (receiver); once the idea is received, Barrick Gold needs to allow for feedback (positive or negative) from this stakeholder. Secondly, the local farmers: Barrick Gold (sender) is responsible for devising a plan for decelerating the melting of the glaciers (encode) and portraying this plan, either in a proposal or in a meeting (channel), to the local farmers (receiver); the farmers need to provide their response of how the government is doing (feedback). Conclusion In conclusion, Barrick Gold has a communication problem that could potentially destroy its whole project. How the company deals with its stakeholders is very important to its future success in Chile and Argentina. To mend the problem it is of the company’s best interest to follow the communication model and make all attempts to repair the damage already done by not keeping their promise.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Innovation in History Impact and Change How Gunpowder Revolutionized Essay

Innovation in History Impact and Change How Gunpowder Revolutionized Warfare - Essay Example Although being a low explosive, gunpowder burns rapidly without outside air. In a confined space like the barrel of a gun, the gases build up enough pressure to push the bullet or shell out of the muzzle with high velocity. The gunpowder does not explode like high explosives such as TNT and dynamite. Gunpowder has played its main part in revolutionizing warfare and military thinking. Cannons, muskets, rockets and bombs powered by the black gunpowder removed all weapons and forces that were before them. Apart from playing its role as a weapon, it brought a tremendous boon in civil engineering. It made the development of Quarrying, cathedral foundations and roadways easier. And changed the way the engineers thought about major earth moving constructions. Gunpowder has been used in various fields including mining, military, naval warfare's and as a smokeless powder in propellants which provide higher energy density and lack of smoke. It was used as an igniter to charge the propellant in large guns. In comparison with World War 1 when less sensitive explosions were used; World War 2 saw a drastic change when flash emitted from gunpowder was used to temporary blind the ship crews. Various flash suppressors were created and mixed with the powder, which was formed into grains for small guns and into pellets for the larger guns. Before the invention of gunpowder peop... In between A.D 850-1000 Chinese first invented and used the gunpowder. "The sort of universal belief has been given to China or India, the credit of being the birthplace of this destructive compound" (Anderson, 1862). Gunpowder was bought to Europe after 1200; its formula was found in a letter from Francis Bacon to Pope Clement IV in 1267 A.D. Then by 1275 chemist Albertus Magnus described its formula. Bacon with amazing accuracy predicted and described the formula. He was considered the alchemist of his time; he did series of experiments with saltpeter, charcoal and other elements from nature until he arrived at the right composition of all the 3 ingredients; charcoal, saltpeter and sulfur to give gunpowder. His formula included 75% saltpeter, 10% sulfur and 15% carbon. It was after a century when German Friar Berthold Schwartz found out that Bacons experiment could be used as a weapon. Gunpowder's impact on medieval warfare The impact of gunpowder for the medieval army changes the warfare for all times. It brought the beginning of cannon and firearms which revolutionized the way people fought battles. The commander had to reform the ideas on how the war had to be fought and the military leaders that that properly recognized the use of firearms were successful. The archaic stones of the old age could not stand against iron and brass artillery cannons; lowly peasants could gun down well trained and disciplined knights of noble blood and as a result the mighty medieval horsemen's role was changed forever. Gunpowder became a mighty asset in the battlefield and its psychological impact was that the judgment criteria for hiring soldiers had to be changed. "One thing is for certain though: the impact of gunpowder on medieval warfare was profound, and its introduction

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Exam 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 5

Exam 2 - Essay Example Through criticism, scientists are able to conduct more research on the evolution of and this will lead to more elaborate and clear understanding of the collect evolution. This can be clearly be seen from the research that lead to the understanding evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic as Marguli always needed to prove the reality behind the growth of Flagella as opposed by most of the scientists at the start. The piecemeal acceptance of the new theories was because of unclear defined evidences to the growth of the cell evolution. But the piece to piece acceptance also was contributed by criticizing scientists .For instance ,Marguli’s first book in 1970 on endosymbiosis although new to most of the scientist those who knew of it dismissed it making her to carefully again distinguish her ideas clearly from others like Ivan Wallin who first wrote of it. The only way to resolve a problem between two parties is by producing clear and substantial evidence that is used to oversee the evidence of the other. Controversial theories on the evolution between Marguli and other scientists for instance, her presenting a wide would only solve the close competitive theory by F.J.R Taylor and well explained with touchable evidence on the evolution of the cells like Prokaryotic and eukaryotic, mitochondria, chloroplast and flagella. Due to the criticism and dismissal of her scientific theory. Margulis was encouraged to clearly do research in order to fully gain acceptance on the cell evolution theory. Thus, she based her cell evolution on the past study of Ivan Walliam .As a result, by the end of a decade after his first book on 1970 she came up with analogies that were greatly accepted worldwide. She ended up gaining popularity on the Set theory than the autogency theory that emphasized on the end symbiosis. For instance Margulis in her Set theory she confirmed that few intermediates between prokaryotic and

Discussion Form Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Discussion Form - Assignment Example The article brought in pricing concerns that would allegedly be affected by the merger, specifically with other Modelo brands. Finally, the third article indicated that compliance with settlement provisions to the merger deal conforms to the merger regulations posed by the DOJ. The merger was originally perceived to bring the respective market shares of each of the organization’s respective brands to a staggering 46% of the U.S. market. As such, it was identified that the merger would benefit the firms involved through dominance and entrenched leadership in the U.S. beer market; as well as the ability to control market prices. A maverick firm is described to exhibit a pivotal role in a merger transaction through its potentials for influencing pricing strategies. As such, Modelo was identified as a maverick firm in terms of its ability to significantly affect the prices of competitors in the beer market through a previous joint venture that the manufacturing organization had forged with. The primary concerns of the DOJ is that if the merger application, in its original conditions would be approved, there would be perceived increases in the market prices of beer due to the elimination of Modelo as a previously independent competitor. The market definition of the merger is a merger for beers in the U.S. market. Since the merging organizations were noted to assume number 1 and number 3 positions, respectively, the merger would definitely consolidate their respective market shares and would dominate the beer industry. Their consolidation was perceived to violate anti-trust regulations in terms of jeopardizing competition in an equitably fair playing field. Their union could be perceived to tantamount to the creation of a monopoly through the apparently large market share that these two organizations would create after the merger. One strongly believes that there are

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

What are the factor causing the record low of 0.3% inflation and what Essay

What are the factor causing the record low of 0.3% inflation and what are the consequnces - Essay Example Lower prices may also be caused by change in structure of capital markets and decrease in currency supply. Thus factors causing the record low of 0.3% mainly emerge from the fall in prices of widely consumed products or services such as motor fuels and food. A fall in price for the two is the main cause of this extremely low inflation level. This has been observed recently in UK. â€Å"The rate of UK consumer prices Index inflation fell to 0.3% in January; its lowest level since records began. Cheaper petrol and lower food prices helped by a supermarket price war-cut the rate from 0.5% in December† (BBC NEWS). Extreme fall in prices, deflation, results into reduced business revenue. Businesses must significantly reduce the prices of their products in order to stay competitive. As they reduce their prices, their revenue starts to drop. Besides, deflation may cause wage cutbacks and layoffs. Drop in revenue of companies forces them to reduce their expenditure to meet their bottom line. One of the possible ways to cut the expenses is by reducing wages and cutting positions. Additionally, extreme fall in inflation level may increase purchasing power (BBC NEWS). Consumers may substantially take advantage of the lower prices by increasing their

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Job satisfaction and its impact on employee intention to leave Research Paper

Job satisfaction and its impact on employee intention to leave - Research Paper Example The offering of competitive salaries would not only satisfy the employees, but it would also increase their commitment to their work, hence an increase in productivity. As the workload for the employees within the institution increases, so should their pay, because in the modern world, good payment packages are a huge motivator for keeping employees satisfied as well as dedicated to their jobs. If the institution for which people work does not offer them competitive salaries, then there is a high likelihood of them leaving for better paying jobs is quite high. In addition, another reason why employees would lose satisfaction in their jobs is the lack of independence to be innovative in their work. There are instances where the management of an institution chooses to dictate all the processes, which the employees should undertake in the workplace. The lack of consultation by the management to the employees ensures that the former does not know what the employees want and as a result, the latter end up not being satisfied with their work conditions. Employers should make sure that there is frequent consultation with the employees so that any issues from the latter can be addressed and settled. Furthermore, employees should be given the freedom to choose how best to work, as long as what they do is in the best interests of the institution. This will ensure that the employees have a high level of job satisfaction because they will be able to find innovative ways of doing their work without any fear of negative repercussions from the managemen t. The good relationship that would be built between the employers and the employees through constant consultations and innovative freedom to the latter would ensure that the working conditions within the institution are more than satisfactory. It can be concluded that job satisfaction does in fact influence the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The feminization of the Community Correction Work force by Jo G Case Study

The feminization of the Community Correction Work force by Jo G. Holland - Case Study Example The research problem of this research article is whether there is balance in the community corrections work force. The study used a number of questions to facilitate a systematic enquiry into the aforementioned research problem. The first question touches on the roles women have been given while participating in the corrections workforce. The second question enquires into the barriers that women have faced while pursuing careers in the corrections work force. The third question looks into how women counter barriers while engaged in the correctional work force. Support systems that provide opportunities for the enhancement of careers are the object of the fourth question. The last question is on the opportunities that the future holds for women to grow within the community corrections work force (Holland, 2008). This study’s data analysis used mean and percentages. For example, the average age of women working in the Virginia community correctional workforce is 35 years. Besides age, location is another demographic factor checked for in the analysis include in terms of whether urban or rural. The positions that the analysis considered are deputy and chief probation and parole officer and that of the administrator. The analysis considered the elements of ethnicity and population status (minority or not). This analysis also enquired whether respondents received mentorship or not. The need for networking among the women working in Virginia DOC was assessed. The analysis measured the percentage of women who received support from other women while participating in the correctional workforce. The study checked for the highest positions that women in the correctional workforce expected (Holland, 2008). The author makes a number of conclusions. She concludes that the correctional work force needs to be expanded in order to augment organizational processes. The

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Essay Example for Free

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Essay Lord Capulet is partially at fault because he told Juliet to take her time and find someone she loves to get married. As well as Friar Laurence because he made hasty decisions about marrying behind the backs of their parents. Romeo and Juliet because they went behind everyone’s back at such a young age to marry one another. In the tragic love story Romeo and Juliet, written by Shakespeare, Friar Laurence, Romeo, Juliet, and Lord Capulet are all at fault for Romeo and Juliet killing themselves because the use of hasty decisions. Lord Capulet, Juliet’s father, was making hasty decisions by trying to over whelm all the sadness from Tybalt’s death with the ‘good’ news of Juliet’s wedding with Paris. He tells Juliet that she is going to marry Paris that Thursday and it will be a big celebration. Only a day later he changes the date from that Thursday to a day before, Wednesday. Capulet was not the only one to make hasty decisions, Friar Laurence did as well. He was the one that agreed to marry Romeo and Juliet behind their families back. In the intro to scene six it says â€Å"†¦the two confess their loves for each other and prepare to get married by the friar†. Friar Laurence also gave Juliet the potion that would make her seem like she was dead for â€Å"two and forty hours†. Romeo and Juliet were also to blame for their deaths though. They are the ones who made the hasty decision to marry behind their parents’ backs. They were only thirteen and about sixteen as well. If Romeo had been there to talk to Juliet he would have known what was going on and he wouldn’t have killed himself because he would have known that Juliet was still alive. If Romeo didn’t kill himself neither would have Juliet. So, there were many people to blame in the deaths of the very tragic yet romantic Romeo and Juliet; Lord Capulet, Friar Laurence, and of course, themselves Romeo and Juliet.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Failure In An Air Compressor Engineering Essay

Failure In An Air Compressor Engineering Essay Abstract In this project, the mission which needs to be accomplished is to investigate the relentless root cause of such failure and to give useful recommendations which can help to avoid such failures in the reciprocating compressor under study in the future. An engine driven auxiliary air compressor failed, the air compressor is located in the Hawke workshop. The first stage will be to establish details about the compressor, the manufacturer and how the compressor works. Classification of compressors and types will be also discussed and of course the theory of operation. Collecting components failed in order to be examined subsequently for the failure cause or causes this will be held using a variety of methods. NDE (non-distractive examination) or NDT (non-destructive testing) is valuable way to use for preliminary inspection of the failed parts without damaging it. Discussion of the probable causes for the failure well be performed in the following chapters as well as the conclusion obtained from study conducted. Introduction This project will investigate and analysis a failure happened in an air compressor. This investigation will be done in several ways to figure out the cause of the failure. Air compressor is a machine has the ability to compress the air and release it to convert the electrical power to kinetic energy to use it in several industrials and usages. Air compressor is consisting of many components. These components are electrical motor, pistons, air pump, air receiver, air drier, filters, air pressure regulator and pressure switch. All of these components will be discussed in details in the next chapters. There are also types of air compressor will be discussed later. Background The case which had here is a failure in an air compressor. From the first sight on the damage happened in it, it seems to be that the failure happened in the connecting rod and its obvious from the below figure number 1. This figure shows that the failure happened in the connecting rod from the ring part which connected to a crank shaft. But the reason for this failure is unknown as there are several scenarios could be adopted. The first scenario is the fatigue is the reason for this failure. The second scenario is a very heavy pressure loaded to the compressor which led to that failure. These are the most expected scenarios which will be investigated later in this project to figure out the reason of the failure. C:UsersAzizDocumentsreportsgreenwichMOHAMMADAir_CompIMG_0471.JPG Figure 1: Failure of compressor connecting rod Amis and objectives Aims: The main aim of this graduation project is to investigate and discover the cause or the causes of failure of diesel engine driven auxiliary reciprocating air compressor made by Knorr-Bremse, model number is LP 4865. This will be achieved by carrying out the below objectives, once its achieved, the main aim of the project will be achieved. Project objectives: Collecting valuable information about, model number is LP 4, this will include: design of compressor, design of each part, construction materials of each part, operation principles, working theory, production range..etc. collecting data will help to recognize main failure cause, and accordingly to prepare new procedure to eliminate the problem, to decrease the opportunity of failure occurrence in the future, use greater safety factor and to recognize the person or the entity responsible for failure and to make mistake proofing for future avoidance of the failure. Collecting this background information is not limited to numbers only but it is should be extended to everything such as pictures, charts and graphs and samples. Investigating operational parameters, history of operation, nature of operation..etc in order to be able to determine precisely the root cause of such failure and which failure mode it follows. Physical investigation or macroscopic inspection should be carried out. This mission includes photo capturing, code of the product, model number, lot number, batch number and serial number. Perform compressor disassembly in order to dismantle each component, part, assemblies and sub-assemblies to perform through investigation and inspection of each. Its should be mentioned that necessary tests and analyses should be performed; mainly the manufacturer usually has his own procedures and tests for test and inspection. Air Compressor What is the air compressor? Air compressor is a machine that converts electric power to kinetic energy (motion). This energy comes from pressurizing and compressing air. After that, the compressed air goes into a chamber, and the air kept in the chamber by unidirectional valve. There are many types of compressors these types are: reciprocating compressor, rotary screw compressor and centrifugal compressor. These types will be explained in details below. Reciprocating compressor: Reciprocating air compressor is positive displacement compressor. This compressor sucks a volume of air and presses it with high pressure. This pressure done by using a piston and cylinder as movement part and displacement part. The compressor could be single acting or double acting according to its accomplish by using one side or both side. When the pressure difference between the cylinder and the receiver became proper, the valves open. Inlet valves open when the pressure in the cylinder is slightly below the intake pressure. Discharge valves open when the pressure in the cylinder is slightly above the discharge pressure. The compressor could be a single stage when the compression process done parallel. Rotary screw compressor: Also Rotary air compressor is a positive displacement compressor. Single stage helical or spiral lobe oil flooded screw is the most common in rotary air compressor. This compressor is consisting of 2 rotors located in a case where the air is compressed internally without any valves. The cooling for these compressors done by oil. As the cooling for the working parts happened inside the compressor, this type of compressor will not experience over heat due to operation, so it could operate without stop. Due to the simple design of the rotary screw compressor and its parts it can be maintained easily and installed any where could handle its static weight. The 2 stages rotary air compressor uses 2 rotors with a combined air end. This 2 rotors installed in series to share the compression. This raise up the efficiency with 50%. This 2 stage rotary compressor combined the maximum profit from the rotary screw with its simplicity and flexibility and the reciprocating compressor with its effect ive energy when it works 2 stages with double acting. The 2 stages of this compressor could be cooled by water, air or oil. The cooling system for this compressor could be oil, air and water. Centrifugal compressor: The centrifugal air compressor is a dynamic compressor that depends on transfer of energy from a rotating impeller to the air. This done by changing the airs momentum and pressure. By slowing the air in stationary diffuser the momentum converted to pressure. This compressor is oil free compressor. There is a separation between the lubricated oil and air by shaft seals and atmospheric vents. Where the high volume of dry air is required a centrifugal compressor is the proper compressor as it has a few moving parts and could operate continuously. The reciprocating air compressor (knorr-bremse, model lp 4865) The main study object in this project as said before is to study the reciprocating air compressor (knorr-bremse lp 4865). By searching the internet and try to get information about the air compressor which needed to complete this study but unfortunately the required information couldnt be found. So the general information about the reciprocating air compressor will be mentioned instead of the specific air compressor. There are 9 main parts for the reciprocating air compressor these parts are: Crank case: Crank case is a close rigid body where the crank shaft and the bearing house where located. This body could by rectangular or square shape. Mainly crank case formed by using cast iron. Crank Shaft: Crank shaft in one of the most important parts in air compressor. It is a motion transferor. It designed as one piece has balance in its dynamics and tries to avoid any twisting. To ensure a long life for bearings, the polishing and crank pin will be done. Generally crank shafts have a fly wheel. This crank shaft manufactured mainly of high grade S.G iron. Connecting rod: This part is responsible of transfer the motion from the crank shaft to the piston and changing the direction from the rotating motion come from the crank shaft into reciprocating motion in piston. This part is mainly forged of alloy steel. Bearings: Bearings are made to provide the rotating gear with rigidity. Its mainly manufactured of copper lead alloy. Cross slide: to get a perfect running for cross head, this part is responsible for reduce the inertia. This part is commonly manufactured of high grade S.G. iron. Cylinder: This part is where the air flow passes and compressed. Cylinders are manufactured with water jacket to reduce the generated heat from the compression process. This cylinder mainly made of cast iron. Pistons: Piston is the main part in the compression process, which move forward to compress the air and backward to intake a new air amount to compress. There are 2 types of piston according to its lubrication system, the first type is non-lubricated which made from aluminium alloy, and the second type which is lubricated is made from cast iron. Due to moving of piston in the cylinder, so there must a space exist between them, to ensure there is no leak happened for air a piston rings located on piston. Piston rod: Piston rod is this rod which connects the piston to the connecting rod. The piston rod is manufactured of alloy steel. Intake and discharge valves: These valves are responsible for the amount of air sucked or discharged. When the piston in the retraction position the suction valve open to allow the air to get in. when the piston move forward and reach the maximum pressure the discharge valve open. These 2 valves are adjusted to be opened and closed according to the pressure difference between inside the cylinder and the outside. These valves are made from stainless steel even a plate type or spring type. Problem Analysis The first problem in this study is that damage which happened in the connecting rod from ring which connected with crack shaft. As said in the background, there are 2 scenarios leads to this damage. The first scenario is a fatigue accrues in the connecting rod with lead to this damage as it couldnt stand the motion and the pressure any more. The second scenario is an excessive pressure more than the maximum pressure which could be hold by the compressor. At the same time a malfunction in the discharge happened, and this could be taken in consider as it must opened at slightly below the maximum pressure. In both scenarios, the damage in the connecting rod lead to another greater damage in the piston and the cylinder, as the piston start to move in non-liner motion and hitting the cylinder wall. This leads to a serious damage in the compressors piston and cylinder. The second problem is gathering the information about the air compressor Knorr-Bremse Lp 4865. This problem happened as the manufactured company keep the information about this compressor not listed and its material and properties to figure out the reason of the damage, maybe by knowing its maximum pressure or material type to check the fatigue on it. Problem Solution To overcome the second problem a deeply internet search is made with trying to contact with the manufactured company through their website, but with no result. So another technique implemented, which is gathering common information about reciprocating air compressor and its common parts and materials. This could be useful but not accoutre.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Bill Gates: The New Revolutionary Creator Essay -- Bill Gates Papers

Bill Gates The New Revolutionary Creator Introduction Throughout my journey in this honors seminar, I have read about several creators (in Creating Minds) who were pioneers or masters in their respective domains. Each of these creators (Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi) was researched by Howard Gardner who then classified each one as representing one of his seven intelligences (Intrapersonal, Logical/Mathematical, Visual/Spatial, Musical, Verbal/Linguistic, Kinesthetic, and Interpersonal). Interestingly, one of the main reasons he chose those particular individuals as representatives of each intelligence was due to the fact that they had all lived within a certain time period and had made some of their most significant breakthroughs in the early part of the 20th century. Their names and their work still live on today (even long after their deaths). They have been some of the most influential people whose works have helped to shape our perceptions of our art, music, literature, dance, ourselves, each other, and the very fabric of the universe itself. However, many critics of Gardner's work asked why he chose the people he did. "Why didn't he choose Beethoven for Musical or James Joyce for Verbal/Linguistic?" Now that our class has finished studying each of these creators, each one of us has the opportunity to research and write about a creator whom we think should be included in Gardner's book. While I recognize that there have been many creators from the past who could be included, I find myself asking the question "What about creators who are living right now? What about those who are shaping our perceptions, ideologies, and society right before our own eyes?" Along with that, who would be som... ...r part in shaping our present lives. His desire to bring PC's to the homes of consumers has been realized. Partly owing to the advances in computer hardware, but mostly owing to his keen economic insight and gifted ability to create computer software. How history will ultimately cast Bill Gates is still undetermined. Despite all the criticisms of him and his company, I hope that Bill Gates will be recognized a genuine historical creator and have his name placed among the ranks Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi. Resources Bill Gates Biography Page: Http:// Gates, Bill. (1996). The Road Ahead (2nd e.). New York: Penguin Books. Rensin, David. (1994). The Bill Gates Interview. Playboy Magazine. (accessed through Britannica Online). Sulloway, Frank. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

My Invisible Gay Culture Essay -- First Person Narrative Examples

   Unlike an African American because of their skin color, or an Asian because of their distinctive features, or even an Australian because of their accent, my culture is invisible. When I walk into a room my culture is not, from my appearance, apparent to others. The dialect of my culture is not orally distinctive. For the majority of my life, thus far, my own family was unaware of who I am and what I believe my culture to be. Yet, as secretive as this may seem, I still share my culture with millions of invisible others. We partake in days of celebration, moments of fear, the hatred of a nation, but the love of a community. We are men, women, liberal, conservative, Hispanic, Jewish, black, atheist, Christian, republican, democrat, pro-life, and pro-choice. We live in every neighborhood, in every city, of every country all around the world. I myself am white, female and English (with some German flair that I get from my stepfather). I have values, dreams, convictions, and disappointment s all my own, as does each person within this culture. The only common denominator shared between everyone in my culture is that we are all GAY.    My high school was newly built school and had every modem accessory available. The school had an auditorium large enough to front a Broadway play and a swimming pool grand enough for the summer Olympics. What it lacked was diversity. My graduating class of 1988 had one African American and one Asian. That's it. No Hispanics or Native Americans. But, my sophomore year I discovered that within the walls of our school existed several "invisible others."    Our school had a news crew that investigated stories and then brought them to the student body every week. One afternoon while I was watching ... ...redity, prenatal development, childhood experiences, and cultural worlds in varying combinations. It is not what identifies me, but it is a blanket of understanding of who I am.    When asked by a fellow student what my culture was I said that I would be writing about my gay culture. They responded with a jealous, "Wow, You're lucky. You'll have a lot to write about." Am I lucky? I was able to write about persecution, exile, imprisonment and murder. I was able to draw from my own experience of fear, oppression and uncertainty. But this is all history, the past. Gay and Lesbian people first demanded the right to be left alone, and then more recently, the right to be included, their love and relationships accepted and validated. This is the future and what I fight for daily as I live my life with confidence and pride. So yes, that person was right. I am lucky.

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee :: essays research papers

The story, To Kill a Mockingbird is a very fine novel which exemplifies the life in the south and the human rights and values given to everybody. The book especially took the case of prejudice to a serious extreme. From the title, a mockingbird through the eyes of Harper Lee, is a person who has fallen victim to vicious stereotypes. The title To Kill a Mockingbird explains itself quite clearly in the end of the novel when Tom Robinson, one of the mockingbirds, is killed due to the stereotypes dumped upon him. Often, the use of stereotypes just breaks down the real truth of a person.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When stereotypes of Boo are used, the truth is often obscured. 'You'll get killed if you touch that tree';(pg 38) This quote reveals that the two siblings felt that Boo was a harmful person because of false rumors. Stereotypes are easily picked up, and used to horrible extreme when a large majority of people use them. This was the case with Scout and Jem when they picked up on the stereotypes going around the neighborhood about Boo. 'When I got there, my breeches were all folded and sewn up';(pg 63) When Boo sewed Jem's breeches together, this was a sign from Boo to let the children realize what a kind and pleasant man he really was. Also, Boo was considerate enough to save Jem from a couple of whippings, because after all, if Atticus were to see the torn pants he would have known Jem was the culprit in the Radley's yard. 'You were so busy looking at the fire, you didn't notice Boo behind you';(pg 76) This was also a symbol which Boo shared to let the kids slowly realize the truth about him, that he was an innocuous caring person hiding behind a fading shadow. Boo just wanted to be seen as the real him instead of the horrid stereotypes which deformed his image.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Misconceptions are results of prejudice in Jehovah's Witnesses' case. When they come strolling up people's street, the first reactions to the neighborhood is to lock the door. They lock their doors because they hear the jokes and prejudice against Jehovah's Witness which puts the thought in people's minds that Jehovah's Witness is just a joke. On the other hand, many are already faithful followers to their own religion and don't want to waste the time listening to a mini sermon.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

An Early Marriage Essay

An early marriage, is an issue where argued by many now a days. Some people are advocated for early marriage because it is healthy. Prophet Mohammed said that it is better to marry early, but if you can’t then you should fast instead if you still can’t control your desire. I believe that early marriage had a lot of advantages. But people would argue that younger married couples are not matured enough to take the responsibilities. But this is not a big issue to argue for, since a most succeeded marriages in the past 10 years are a younger married which lasted longer. Personally, any person should have a step to marry early. People says , married earlieris the best way to destroy your life in such a young age besides drugs. Young people are not ready for responsibilities. They have not done any thing important in their life. But , I believe if people waited until they were older to marry they’d be a lot more careful about selecting a mate. That would be a terrible blow to the divorce industry. Although divorces didn’t depend on the age of the couples. It depends on how they faced and solved their problems. Moreover, I would say that it would be nice to have your children younger, and will be able to join them in many things, be closer to understanding their generational viewpoints, fashion, trends, etc. When your children have your grandchildren, you will be young grandparents able to enjoy your grandchildren, do more things with them, live longer to see them prosper as well. The nice thing is that once your children leave home, you will be still young enough and most likely healthy enough to do more things such as travel, or physical activity. Others says , that many females refuse to live with in lows , so as a consequencesmales most ready to assist their own financial situations first before they gettingmarried, which may cause to delay marriage . Well, it is all about whether they want to get married and your partner is supportive or not. It is about maturity levels, how much they care for each other and how much they want the marriage to work. You have those marriages which do turn out to work. These marriages seem to work because the couple has worked things out and have thought out every way possible to keep this marriage going and will work out the problems that come their way. If the couple is prepared, most likely the marriage will continue to go strong it both spouses take an equal part of the marriage and work it out.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Crescent Case Essay

A. Segmentation and Targeting When Looking at what market should be targeted the thing that stuck out most was there is not a healthy alternative for energy drinks. Most of these drinks are full of high fructose corn syrup and loaded with extreme amounts of caffeine. Crescent give the consumers a healthy alternative to this option. The trend these days is towards more organic and healthier choices. Crescent is just that. It gives the option for a healthy version of an energy drink which is much needed. The Energy Drink market is growing at a much faster rate than the sport drink market as well as the fitting into a much better price point for marketing. With the market for these energy drink being on average $2.99 the price of $2.75 for crescent is below the market average as well as being a slight bit different by marketing a healthy alternative option to most other sport drinks on the market now. B. Positioning When Looking over the two perceptual Maps the thing noticed is that most of these products hit extremes of each category. For example a sport drink is high on the hydration level but low on the energy. As for the energy drink the case is the exact opposite. When looking at nutrition and taste the nutrition and taste are higher on sports drinks and energy drinks are low on nutrition but the 50/50 on the taste. When looking at crescents studies it would seem that they would be the best case for the average consumer as they would be better than average in all of these categories. The nutrition would be higher than the sports drinks and close to what swish and drip are pertaining to nutritional value and the taste would also fall higher similar to Drip or Razor. When looking at the Hydration and Energy Crescent would also be above average for both. With the equivalent of a cup of coffee’s worth of caffeine Crescent would fall similar to where torque and Drip are for energy levels. As for looking at hydration; Crescent would be up closer to the sports drinks with is electrolytes and natural ingredients closer to where Glean and Watr+ are. Each marketing promotion has positive’s and negative’s. When marketed as an energy drink there is the Pros of being a drastically growing market which has grown by 40% already and is projected to hit 13.5 billion by 2018 as well as no single product being marketed as a healthy alternative energy drink. Another pro is that the cost of the  product is less than the market average. The con of an energy drink market would be that current news stories are highlighting the health risks of Energy drinks and the diminishing number of consumers who are now drinking them. The sports drink market have a much larger population of consumers ranging from younger ages of 12-24. Also with the average sports drink being much cheaper people may not be willing to pay the $2.75 for a sports drink. With Crescent being an all organic product being an alternative to high fructose corn drinks would increase their market audience. The threats would be the increase in childhood obesity who make up a large portion of the sport drink market the option of just proving water to children is easier and more economically sound for parents rather than continually paying for sports drinks. Lastly as an Organic Drink they are able to market it as a healthy sports/energy drink for the body continuous adult who wants to stay away from non-organic products. This also works as a con where if they market solely to this small group of people they may be losing a lot of consumers who may be avoiding the new fad of vegan, healthy organic products. C. Contribution Margin The contribution margin per case of Crescent would be $5.28 or 18%. This is figured by taking the selling price per can and minusing the cost per can. Which would bring the profit of 22 cents per can and a case of 24 would bring the profit to $5.28 per case. You would then take that number and divide it by the Price per case of $29.76 which would give you 18% profit. D. Breakeven To match the national level of marketing it would require putting in 6.66 times the budget that it took to market 15% which would be a total marketing budget of 5 million dollars. With a Total budget of 5 Million dollars it would take selling 946970 Cases of Crescent to break even on the National Level. To address the break-even market share for energy would be .07% of the Market Share. This is figured by taking the Market of 9.58 Billion dollars and dividing that by the Marketing budget of 5 Million Dollars. E. Recommendation The factors that should be used to determine positioning are, Similarities in  competitors, Forecast of market increase, pricing of products and marketability of product. I would Recommend Marketing Crescent as an organic energy drink. This would apply to a large number of people and would give a different option to the Energy Drinks that are currently on the market. This product could increase the consumers ideas of what energy drinks are; especially focusing on bringing up the areas of healthiness, hydration and natural. With these area’s only having the highest percentage at 11% Crescent would be a great product to diversify the market. Having a below average market price for product pricing makes Crescent an even better market to explore. Crescent provides a great break from the normal high fructose high caffeine energy drinks while still hydrating and tasting great.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Orwell disapproves of communism Essay

In both cases, the authors reinforce the declaration that intelligence is dropping by demonstrating depreciation in language. The Time Traveller describes the language of the Eloi to be very basic, with sentences and expressions often composed of not more than two words. In fact, he learnt a good amount of the language during his short stay. Wells is suggesting that since human intelligence is decreasing, the need for a diverse language, rich with adjectives and adverbs, is diminished. Hence humans only speak when they need to, and when they do, they’re speech has a very basic structure, composed mainly of a subject and a verb, for example. In â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four,† Orwell writes about a new language, called â€Å"Newspeak†, which the government is introducing. He explains plans to rid the world of plain English, or â€Å"Oldspeak,† and replace it with Newspeak, the idea being that if the government can control people’s speech, then ultimately, they can reduce the thoughts and decisions that people are capable of making. This way people can have uniform thinking, one of the endeavours of totalitarianism. Orwell has included a detailed analysis and explanation of Newspeak in an appendix, but the two fundamental rules behind the language are: to remove the majority of the words from the English language and replace them with modified versions of other words; and to abbreviate proper nouns and multiple-word phrases and statements, and respell them. The adjective â€Å"good,† for example can be modified to express adjectives such as â€Å"bad† and â€Å"excellent. † These, respectively, would be â€Å"ungood,† and â€Å"plusgood. † An example of the second rule of Newspeak is â€Å"Ingoc,† an abbreviation of â€Å"English Socialism. † The general suggestion that Wells and Orwell are making, is that the deterioration of language indicates that past political practices lead to a reduction in general intelligence levels. An interesting similarity is that the main character in both books stumbles across a female to whom they feel attached. Although the relationships between the Time Traveller and his female, â€Å"Weena,† in The Time Machine, and Winston and his female, â€Å"Julia,† is different, I believe they serve a similar purpose in the stories. The fact that both couples are eventually tragically parted suggests that in the futures in the books, love is not welcome. In The Time Machine, Wells describes how couples seemed to only exist in order to reproduce, and how nobody expressed any emotional attachment to anybody else. For a very short period, The Time Traveller and Weena show attachment to eachother, but Weena is killed off in a horrific setting, where the Morlocks drag her away while The Time Traveller is asleep. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, although neither Winston nor Julia is killed off, Orwell yet again shocks the reader in ending the two character’s love for each other. After being brainwashed at the Ministry of Love, both characters automatically lose all attachment to each other. Orwell has demonstrated that even Love, is under the power of the government. I believe that Orwell and Wells are targeting readers who have been or are in love. These readers or Nineteen Eighty-Four may be thinking to themselves, â€Å"Ah, but one thing the government cannot control is love! † And then, to the reader’s astonishment, Winston and Julia are no longer lovers. Why? Because the government did not want them to be. In many cases changes expressed in both books are much more extreme in â€Å"The Time Machine† than in â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four. † For example, in â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four,† although people have generally become less intelligent, they have not become so to the extent of the races of â€Å"The Time Machine;† people can still read, write and speak with great expression and effect, but only to the extent that the Party allows. I believe that this is because Wells is dealing with a much later date, and so can make radical changes and claim that over long periods of time, such changes are possible. Orwell was only writing thirty-five – or so – years into the future, and so modifications cannot be as extreme. Due to their hidden messages, both books seem to be targeting readers who would be capable of decoding the front-text. The Time Machine also discusses scientific and philosophic matters, which would be difficult to comprehend if the reader is not familiar with that area of science. Nineteen Eighty-Four also requires the reader to be psychologically mature, as it includes some pages that portray sex. The major difference between the two books is the political philosophies that they are criticising. â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four† suggests that Orwell disapproves of communism – especially Stalin and his reign of terror – and, obviously, totalitarianism. The general message in the book is that theoretical communism is not possible, and real communism always involves a tyrant. â€Å"In The Time Machine,† Wells is targeting capitalism. The Time Traveller states, â€Å"†¦ social difference between the capitalist and the labourer was the key to the whole position. † He believed that over time, industrial workers were banished to the underground and evolved to work here. I think that both books were an excellent read. The authors effectively included powerful messages in an engrossing storyline. The use of satire gave the texts their power. â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four† is amongst my favourite books, not only because Orwell, being the master satirist that he is, cleverly ridicules Stalin and communism in general, but also because Orwell has a unique style of communicating with the reader. His texts are informal and interesting, allowing him to form tight relationships with the reader.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Economic Activity as Reflected in Painting:

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AS REFLECTED IN PAINTING: THE CONTRASTING VIEWS OF ECONOMISTS AND ART HISTORIANS [1] Manuel Santos-Redondo Universidad Complutense de Madrid [las diferencias con respecto al Documento de Trabajo disponible en la Web estan subrayadas] 1. Introduction The Moneychanger and his Wife is probably the picture most widely used to illustrate economic activity, and so it is (supposedly) well known by economists, managers, and accountants. The accounting book which appears in the picture is the origin of former AECA (Spanish Association of Accounting and Business Administration) logotype. It is a Flemish painting from the early 16th century. Not so many economists are, however, aware that there are two different versions of this picture: one by Quentin Massys, painted about 1514 (now in Paris, the Louvre), and another by Marinus (Claeszon) van Reymerswaele, painted in 1539 (now in Madrid, in the Prado). There are significant changes between the two versions. This being the Scholastic period and also the epoch of the commercial revolution in Europe, we would expect this picture to have some sort of economic meaning, and for the changes in the pictures to reflect these changes in economic activity and economic thought. We will argue in this paper that there does exist such a meaning; and that also the very important changes between Massys’s and Reymerswaele’s pictures have much to do with the economic changes in Europe in the beginning of the 16th century. Most art historians have seen in Massys' and Reymerswaele's paintings a satirical and moralising symbolism, The Money Changer and his Wife being the representation of greed. Others think that the picture shows economic activity in a respectable way. Flanders at that time was the centre of a flourishing industrial and commercial activity, and also was the centre of a mercantile trade in works of art. Both things led to a representation of the professional activity of moneychangers, goldsmiths, and bankers in a way that shows those activities as respectable professions. The second view is the one implicitly shared by economists when choosing this picture to illustrate many books on economics or business. Some scholars have proposed more subtle interpretations. Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson, the historian of economic thought who first aroused the interest of economists in the Spanish Scholastics of â€Å"School of Salamanca†, considers Massys' painting to be an illustration of the intention of Scholastics to make compatible the commercial customs of the time with Church doctrine on usury. According to her interpretation, Massys' painting would mean the money lender working and, at the same time, discussing with his wife the fairness of a particular commercial deal, helped by the religious book his wife is reading. It is important to notice that, 25 years on, the book in Reymerswaele’ painting is no longer a religious work but an accounting book. But art historians claim that there is still some symbolism in the painting which gives it a moralising and satirical intent. According to them, this symbolism was clear to contemporaries but not to us; or sometimes would have been intentionally difficult to notice for those contemporaries who were not in the same religious group as the painter or his client. For instance, the long, curved fingers of the bourgeois couple allegedly represented avarice. But Reymerswaele painted the fingers of Saint Jerome in the same way , so it must have an aesthetic intention and not a symbolic one. In the process of reviewing the different interpretations provided by art historians of this picture and other similar ones, we shall see that they are consistent with the views that most art historians share about the economy (as Hayek points out in his chapter of The fatal conceit, 1988, â€Å"The Mysterious World of Trade and Money†) rather than based on any objective interpretation of the painting and history. Thus, while the picture shows commercial and financial activity to be a normal, respectable occupation, most art historians see a moralizing and satirical intention. My view is that art historians’ prejudice towards commercial and financial activity leads them to a wrong interpretation of the paintings. When the painters wanted to be satirical and moralizing, they did it in a way that is clearly recognizable by us today. And that this is not the case with the The Moneychanger and his Wife, in either the version of Massys or that of Reymerswaele. 2. Quentin Massys Let us start with Quentin Massys,[2] The Moneychanger and his Wife, dated 1514. Figure 1]. It is probably derided from a lost work by Jan van Eyck, c. 1440. [3] On the table are placed coins, a set of scales, and various other tools of their trade. (â€Å"various other tokens of their wealth†, says the art historian Jean-Claude Frere, 1997, p. 186. This is our first difference in interpretation). The man is wei ghing gold coins with great care. At that time, coins with the same face value varied in the amount of gold they contained (and therefore in their real exchange value), because it was a normal practice to file them down, clip them, or to shake them together in a bag in order to collect the gold dust they produced. So, the moneychanger is simply going about his business, not counting his money as a miser would do. And, if you look at his face, it is not the face of a miser, but the face of a concentrating working man, carefully carrying out his job. His wife is looking at the coins and scales too; but she has a book in her hands. The book is a religious one, an illustrated â€Å"book of hours†. Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson, the historian of economic thought who first brought economists attention to the Spanish Scholastics of the â€Å"School of Salamanca†, considers Massys painting an illustration of the intention of the Scholastics to make compatible the commercial practices of their time with the Church's doctrine on usury. According to her interpretation, Massys painting portrays the money lender at work and, at the same time, discussing with his wife the fairness of a particular commercial deal, helped by consulting the religious book his wife is reading. [4] Many other interpretations of Massys’s work consider this picture as to be a oralizing one, in a much stronger sense than that of Grice-Hutchinson's view. The Encarta Encyclopedia says: â€Å"In The Moneychanger and his Wife, the subtly hinted conflict between avarice and prayer represented in the couple illustrates a new satirical quality in his paintings. â€Å"[5] (It is curious that the â€Å"Web Gallery of Art†, together with the Encarta article, provides this contradictory explanation: â€Å"The painting remains in the Flemish tradition of van Eyck, with the addition of a profane sense of beauty, sign of a new world†). [6] Another scholar says this about Massys: â€Å"Painters also began to treat new subjects. Men like Quentin Massys, for example, played an active role in the intellectual life of their cities and began to mirror the ethical concerns expressed by humanist thinkers with new paintings that used secular scenes to impart moralizing messages. Vivid tableaux warned against gambling, lust, and other vices. â€Å"[7] At the bottom of the painting there is a circular mirror; we can see the tiny figure of a man wearing a turban. [Figure 2] For some reason, the following is the explanation of the art historian Jean-Claude Frere: â€Å"a side window, under which we can just make out the tiny figure of a thief. He would seem to be spying on the couple as they count their gold, while they would seem to be oblivious to his presence, blinded by their greed†. [8] Let us leave aside the greed and concentrate on the tiny man. Is he a thief? I don't know. But I'm sure he is not â€Å"spying on the couple as they count their gold†: I am not an art historian, but it seems clear to me that the man is inside the room, he is reading a book and looking out of the window to the street. In think that this is not a casual mistake: it is consistent with art historians’ interpretation. Symbolism, a source of moralistic interpretation My view is that art historians explanation of The Moneychanger and his Wife as a satirical work containing symbolic allusions hidden from contemporary observers, is merely a reflection of their own prejudices concerning certain economic activities. Let us consider the serious arguments supporting the symbolic explanations of paintings of the Flemish Renaissance, in order to be able to judge when a painting has this meaning and when has not. The famous art historian Erwin Panofsky held that the Early Flemish painters had to reconcile the â€Å"new naturalism† with a thousand years of Christian tradition. Based on St. Tomas Aquinas, who thought that physical objects were â€Å"corporeal metaphors for spiritual things†, Panofsky (Early Netherlandish Painting, 1953) maintains that â€Å"in early Flemish painting the method of disguised symbolism was applied to each and every object, man made or natural†. [9] There are other historical sources that point to a symbolic meaning in the painting of Quentin Massys. In his painting Portrait of a Merchant and his Partner,[10] [Figure 3] there is a clearly legible inscription, in French: â€Å"L'avaricieux n'est jamais rempli d'argent†¦ N'ayez point souci des richesses injustes, car elles ne vous profiteront en rien au jour de la visitation et de la vengeance. Soyez donc sans avarice†. This is a paraphrase of the Gospel of St Luke, ch. XII, 15, 21-34; Saint Matthew, ch. VI, 19-21. Jean Cailleux says that the main character in the painting â€Å"est soumis a la parole evangelique. Il est vraiment fidele dans les richesses injustes. Il ne cede pas a la sollicitacion du Tentateur qui, derriere lui, le visage tordu par lavarice et la soif du lucre, lui propose des comptes fantastiques†. 11] Painting and Economic Activity at Flanders We can expect the Flemish painters to be familiar with market oriented economic activity and the money world, because of the society in which they lived. Flanders at that time was the center of a flourishing industrial and commercial world, and also was the center of a mercantile trade of works of art. Both things led to a representation of the professional activity of moneychan gers, goldsmiths, and bankers in a way that shows those activities as respectable ones. Most Flemish artists were familiar with this world because of their own craft of painting, which was indeed market oriented. Massys was the most important of Antwerp painters of his time; and this means his shop was an example of how artistic production was organized in Antwerp, and formerly in Bruges. It is not at all odd that Flemish painters should portray business people. Massys worked for religious confraternities, and also painted portraits and other profane subjects, sometimes satirical, in response to commissions from humanists and scholars. Frere says that Massys was â€Å"perfectly attuned to the new mercantile conception of art. Antwerp was already established as an active and liberal center for trade in art† (1997, p. 186). Both Antwerp and Bruges had a regulated guild system for painters at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It is important to notice not only the art of the painter, but also the evolution of the master's workshop. At the beginning of the Renaissance, training in a craft took place in workshops regulated by civic authorities: apprenticeship was followed by admission to a guild. By the end of the century, â€Å"workshops had become more like shops nowadays, turning out goods for a flourishing private market accountable to no one. And change came without a defining moment and without artists missing a beat. Workshop assistants had certain preparatory tasks, including grinding pigments, laying grounds, and the transfer of under-drawings. Experienced assistants took on subsidiary passages, including background or stock figures. Assistants also made copies to keep pace with demand, and they had access to the master's designs once they set up for themselves. Workshop copies ranged from straightforward replicas to transpositions into other media and from large commissions to private, devotional images. â€Å"[12] The conventional portrait of a rich man But this familiarity of artists with a commercial society does not lead them automatically to portray business people in their trade, as â€Å"occupational portraits†: the common way to portray a business man was in a way that showed him as a religious man, or as an intellectual in his house, surrounded by works of art and literature. The best known example is The Arnolfini Portrait by van Eyck, but there are many others. In the triptych The Last Judgement, painted in 1480 by the Flemish painter, working in Bruges, Hans Memling, we can see the portraits of Tomaso Portinari and his wife, naked inside the scales; and those of Angiolo Tani and his wife, Catarina Tanagli, kneeling on the floor at prayer. [Figure 4] Both Portinari and Tani were important business men working in Bruges branch of the Medici company. In the Italian Renaissance, Lorenzo de Medici is portrayed as one of the Magi in Gozzoli’s Journey of the Magi, 1459. 13] It was quite common to include the donors' portrait in a religious scene. Tomaso Portinari and his wife, Maria Baroncelli, were also directly portrayed by Memling, at prayer. [14] (The fact that Antwerp was a rapidly enriched city and lacked a traditional aristocracy, may well have been an important reason for the artist representing economic activity in the portraits of businessmen , instead of the traditional â€Å"rich and cultured† portrait). 3. Marinus van Reymerswaele Let us now move on to the other version of the portrait and to a different year. Marinus van Reymerswaele[15] The Moneychanger and his Wife, [Figure 5] painted in 1539, is inspired by Massys. [16] This is the explanation of the painting provided by the Spanish Association of Accounting and Business Administration, AECA, which in 1979 chose as the symbol of the association a section this painting. [Figure 6] â€Å"The painting which has inspired our logotype is internationally famous as an image of financial activity during the Renaissance: it shows a scene typical of the counting house of a banker of the period. The subject of the pair of moneychangers shows us a new profession which has appeared in the period, a profession related to the world of finance, taxes and commercial accounts. Reymerswaele adapts the subject of the banker and his wife from Massys’s painting now in the Louvre in Paris. In Reymerswaele’s painting, the bourgeois married couple are seen counting out gold and silver coins, and the husband is weighing them with great care in a small set of scales, since most of them would be clipped or scraped. The coins are probably the product of tax-collection, an exchange of foreign currency or the repaying of a loan. This would imply the use of the abacus which the banker has at his right on the table, and then the setting out of accounts in the accounts book which the wife is holding in her delicate fine hands. â€Å"[17] Compare the explanation of this picture given by the AECA with the moralistic and over-sophisticated explanations of the art historians. The changes Between 1514 and 1539, many things have changed. In particular, the accelerated growth of the economy that stemmed from the discovery and colonization of the New World, and the religious transformation known as Lutheran Reformation. Reymerswaele was himself involved in the Lutheran Reformation. (We know that in 1567, being an old man, he took part in the sack of Middelburg cathedral, and was severely punished (six years of banishment and public humiliation). Reymerswaele specialized in everyday scenes of flourishing Flanders, with great realism, which gives his works a considerable documentary interest. (Paintings by masters of Northern Renaissance realism often recorded official contracts or acts. The Lawyer's Office, 1545, by Reymerswaele, [Figure 7] is a remarkable example of this practice. Recent research has demonstrated that the documents, which form the background of the painting, refer to an actual lawsuit begun in 1526 in the town of Reymerswaele on the North Sea). [18] His subjects were businessmen: usurers, notaries, tax gatherers; but what could be seen as â€Å"occupational portraits† are always stressed as moralizing: Another art historian says â€Å"usuriers, changeurs, avocats, notaires, percepteurs d'impots, monde apre et rapace de l'argent toujours plus puissant dans le metropole enrichie. †¦ ] L'art de Marinus [Reymerswaele] presente une accentuation presque caricaturale, qui donne a l'ouvre sa portee moralisante† (Philippot, 1994, p. 173). Puyvelde considers that, in the genre painting by Marinus van Reymerswaele, the realist portrait turns into a caricature of rapacious and greedy businessmen. In Reymerswaele The Moneychanger and his Wife, he says, â€Å"l'esprit de lucre est plus nettement marque dans les physionomies et les doigts maigres† (Puyvelde, p. 13; we will turn to the fingers latter). The study of the gold coins that appear in the painting shows that â€Å"the coins are mostly Italian and are all of types minted before 1520† (Puyvelde, p. 17). This could mean that the painting is a trial effort done by Reymerswaele, before his first clearly datable painting, Saint Jerome, of 1521. The importance of Puyvelde's argument is not the exact date, which I cannot dispute, but the fact that Puyvelde considers The Money changer and his Wife closer to a portrait than to a satire, as ompared to later works by Marinus: later in his career, Reymerswaele would have abandoned portraiture and turned to satire and caricature (â€Å"pamphlet†, says Puyvelde). [19] The public appears to have had a preference for satire, and Marinus sought to satisfy the public with pleasant humorous pictures which enjoyed great popularity among collectors of the period. Other paintings contain inscriptions which refer to the taxes charged on beer, wine or fish. In one of the copies or i mitations of The Lawyer's Office, titled The Notary's Study, the document the notary is reading has been deciphered: it appears to be a parody of legal slang. Even the signature on the document in French reads â€Å"Notaire infame et faussaire†. [20] Usually museum guides reflect the views of art historians. Referring to Reymerswaele The Moneychanger and his Wife, a guide to the Prado says: â€Å"In this painting we find all the characteristics of Northern European painters: minute detail, fine quality raw material, an empirical approach to reality, and above all, the naked sordidness with which Van Reymerswaele approaches one of the principal evils of his time: usury, the greater of all possible sins in a commercial society such as Flanders. Corruption and fraud affected all levels of society, even the clergy, producing a critical reaction on the part of writers, theologians and artists. â€Å"[21] Reymerswaele was not the only painter who developed Massys portraits; several other Flemish painters did. Again, there are significant differences in their style, differences which influence the overall â€Å"tone† of the picture either as â€Å"occupational portrait† or â€Å"caricature†. My point is that a common spectator of today can spot the difference. Corneille van der Capelle painted Le Percepteur d'impots et son Garant and Le Percepteur d'impots et sa Femme,[22] [Figure 8] in which we can notice a real, kind portrait of the businessmen, quite far from any caricature. But, even given the very different styles, I find no moral satire in Reymerswaele The Moneychanger and his Wife, as compared to his other works. In Reymerswaele version, the religious book has disappeared. This is an obvious change, since Marinus was a Protestant and wouldn't have accepted any other religious book for daily reading than the bible. But there is no bible in Marinus painting. Instead, there is a hand-written book, with no illustrations, which seems to be an accounting book. The characters in Reymerswaele painting are most elegant, with luxurious clothes, and long, delicate fingers. This is also thought by some scholars to be satirical: â€Å"Long, curved fingers were, in XVI century, a sign of greed or avarice, so an apparently domestic subject can also be full of moral meaning†. [23] Long, curved fingers and noses use to represent Jews and, by extension, greed or avarice in Christian iconography. It may be important to notice that Jews played an important role in Antwerp’s economic activity. The money market was controlled by the Italian Lombards, and Jews could only act as minor money-lenders. The Jews lent mainly small amounts of money for shorter periods of time to less wealthy people such as butchers and bakers. Scarcity was an excellent situation for Jewish money-lenders. As a consequence, the y had many clients among the common people who probably had great difficulties in paying them back. This fact may have reinforced the strong anti-Semitism prevalent at that time. There were a massacre of Jews in Antwerp in 1350, and then many Spanish and Portuguese â€Å"marranos† came to settle there after 1492 and 1497, expelled from Spain and Portugal. [24] I haven’t fully explored yet the possibility of the satirical portraits being racist or anti-Semitic). But the long fingers can imply other things: they can be an esthetic technique to make people appear more mystical, unmaterialistic, attractive. We could interpret thus the fingers of Reymerswaele’ Saint Jerome, in 1521. [Figure 9] And Saint Jerome transmits you the idea of ascetic sanctity, the antithesis of greed. Although, again, some scholar says that Reymerswaele painting of Saint Jerome is â€Å"stressing the crabbedness of scholarship†. Even if that is correct, it would not be the crabbedness of greed). To me, the long, curved fingers of the moneychanger and his beautiful wife imply simply elegance. This is my personal impression. If I then look at other paintings by Reymerswaele, for instance, the two Tax Gatherers (also The Misers), described by the same scholar as â€Å"exceedingly ugly and covetous†, I don't need to be his contemporary to notice the satirical meaning. [25] After comparing their clever interpretations with what a spectator sees in these pictures, I would recommend that the meaning of a painting, as given by art historians, not be accepted uncritically: their judgments appear to be based upon certain prejudices, in this case concerning commercial and financial practices, rather than any objective analysis of the painting. 4. Other Flemish â€Å"occupational portraits† If you look at other paintings of the same school, it is easy to find examples of â€Å"good†, non critical or satirical, representation of moneychangers, goldsmiths, and bankers. Adriaen Isenbrant Man Weighing Gold (c. 1518),[26] [Figure 10] is described in this way by Jean E. Wilson: â€Å"This sensitive portrait of a banker or, perhaps, a moneychanger reveals the sitter's evident pride in his occupation. The portrait also serves as an example of the widening interest in portraiture, which had gradually extended to members of the business sector† (Wilson 1998, p. 196). But another scholar points out that â€Å"the act of weighing coins may allude both to the man's profession and to his contemplation of higher values, comparable to Saint Michael's weighing of souls on Judgment Day†. [27] In Hieronimous Bosch's The Table of the Deadly Sins,[28] 1480, [Figure 11] avarice is shown as a judge who is being bribed. This is completely different from the activity of the banker: what Bosch shows us is not a profit-seeking commercial practice which is therefore sinful, but an act of corruption which would be taken to be immoral equally in a commercially oriented society or in an ideal world described by Scholastic theologians. Another example of an â€Å"occupational portrait† is the Portrait of a Merchant [Figure 12] by Jean Gossaert (c. 1530),[29] thought to be a portrait of Jeronimus Sandelin, a real merchant from Zealand, in Flanders. There is nothing satirical about it: it is a purely â€Å"occupational portrait†. But the National Gallery of Art Brief Guide says this: â€Å"the sitter's furtive glance and prim mouth are enough to inform us of the insecurity and apprehension that haunted bankers in the 1530s, when the prevailing moral attitude was summed up by the Dutch humanist Erasmus, who asked, â€Å"When did avarice reign more largely and less punished? â€Å"[30] St. Eloy (Eligius) in His Shop, 1449, by Petrus Christus,[31] [Figure 13] is the clear representation of a goldsmith working in his shop and attending two clients: a rich, well-born bridal couple. It seems to be a representation of the goldsmith's trade, with the excuse of the portrait of a saint (hardly a subtle ploy, since St. Eloy is the patron of goldsmith's guild). The goldsmith sits behind a window sill extended to form a table, a pair of jeweler's scales in one hand, a ring in the other. Only his halo suggests that the painting deals with legend. On the right is a display of examples of the goldsmith's craft. The picture may very well have been painted for a goldsmith's guild (the one in Antwerp). St. Eligius is the Patron of metalworkers. As a maker of reliquaries he has become one of the most popular saints of the Christian West. Eligius (also known as Eloy) was born around 590 near Limoges in France. He became an extremely skillful metalsmith and was appointed master of the mint under King Clothar of the Franks. Eligius developed a close friendship with the King and his reputation as an outstanding metalsmith became widespread. It is important to notice that most prominent features in the life of St. Eligius can be seen both as indications of sanctity and the best professional characteristics of a good goldsmith. In the goldsmith's trade, skills were as important as reliability, as Adam Smith notices in Wealth of Nations: â€Å"The wages of goldsmiths and jewelers are every-where superior to those of many other workmen, not only of equal, but of much superior ingenuity; on account of the precious materials with they are intrusted†. [32] Eligius is praised for both qualities. From his biography, we can see how important this reliability of his goldsmith was, for the king to become Eligius' protector: â€Å"The king gave Eligius a great weight of gold. Eligius began the work immediately and from that which he had taken for a single piece of work, he was able to make two. Incredibly, he could do it all from the same weight for he had accomplished the work commissioned from him without any fraud or mixture of siliquae, or any other fraudulence. Not claiming fragments bitten off by the file or using the devouring flame of the furnace for an excuse. â€Å"[33] The portrait Saint Eligius by Petrus Christus is a fine example of the â€Å"occupational portrait†, describing a goldsmith's shop, the only religious connection being the halo and the fact than the saint is the patron of the guild. The true â€Å"moralizing† pictures of the Flemish School Look at the painting The Ill-Matched Lovers, c. 1520, [Figure 14] by Quentin Massys:[34] again you don't need to be a contemporary of his to notice the satirical intention. (It is important to notice that the theme of love between the old and the young was extremely popular in sixteenth century, and we can agree that both the popularity and the moral view has changed on this subject in modern times. The meaning of the painting, however, hasn't changed at all, because the artist doesn't paint the old man with tenderness and love and mature elegance, but as undignified uncontrolled, despicable desire). There are other paintings by Marinus which shows a clearly satirical approach, or at least an ugly expression which does not imply pride in the profession: see The Lawyer’s Office, 1545, and The Misers [Figure 15] (also known, in different versions, as The Tax Gatherers or The tax gatherer and his guarantor). This one shows â€Å"two tax collectors, or rather a treasurer, or an administrator with his clerk, the collector with a winking grimace†¦. The treasurer enters in a book the sums received for the taxes†¦ with his right hand counts and weighs the coins†¦ â€Å"[35] Both of them look clearly satirical for a modern observer. 5. Conclusion This paper has compared the rival interpretations provided by economists and art historians of the painting The Moneychanger and his Wife. The painting is seen as an â€Å"occupational portrait†, showing a banker in his office, carefully weighing coins simply because this is one of most prominent features of his trade. It is a clearly secular subject, much more so in Reymerwaele's version: the religious books in the woman's hands has been turned into an accounting book. We could expect Flemish painters to be familiar with market oriented economic activity and the money world, because of the society in which they lived. Flanders at that time was the center of a flourishing industrial and commercial world, and also was the center of a mercantile trade in works of art. [36] Both things led to a representation of the professional activity of moneychangers, goldsmiths, and bankers in a way that shows those activities as respectable ones. In the process of reviewing the different interpretations provided by art historians about this picture and other similar ones, we have seen that they are consistent with the views that art historians share about the economic activity, rather than based on any objective interpretation of the painting and history. Thus, while the picture shows commercial and financial activity to be a normal, respectable occupation, most art historians see a moralizing and satirical intention. This paper maintains that art historian’s prejudice towards commercial and financial activity leads them to a wrong interpretation of the paintings. LIST OF ILUSTRATIONS 1. The Moneychanger and his wife, by Quentin Matsys, 1503-1505. 2. The Last Judgement, by Hans Memling, 1480. Portrait of Angiolo Tani and his wife. 3. The Moneychanger and his wife, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1539. 4. Saint Jerome, by Marinus Reymerswaele. 5. Logo of the Spanish Association of Accounting and Business Administration (AECA). 6. Adriaen Isenbrant, Man Weighing Gold, fist half of the sixteenth century. 7. St. Eloy (Eligius) in His Shop, by Petrus Christus, 1449. 8. The Table of Deadly Sins, 1480, by Hieronimous Bosch. 9. Portrait of a Merchant, by Jean Gossaert, c. 1530. 10. The Ill-Matched Lovers, by Quentin Mastsys. 11. The Misers, or The moneylenders, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1545. 12. Marinus van Reymerswaele, Two Tax-Gatherers, 15–, National Gallery, London. [Yamey, p. 52, Plate XVI] 13. Marinus van Reymerswaele, Two Tax-Collectors, 15–, Alte Pinakotheck, Munich. [Yamey, p. 54, 29 XVI] 14. Map of Flanders and Antwerp. 15. The Lawyer's Office, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1545. 16. Portrait of a Merchant and his Partner, by Quentin Metsys. 17. The taxgatherer and his Wife, by Corneille van de Capelle (Corneille de Lyon? ) BIBLIOGRAPHY Ainsworth, Maryan Wynn (et al. (1994), Les Primitifs flamands et leur temps (sous la direction de Brigitte Veronee-Verhaegen et Roger Van Schoute). 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Philippot, Paul (1994), La peinture dans les anciens Pays-Bas. XV-XVIe siecles. Paris: Flammarion. Puyvelde, Leo van (1957), â€Å"Un Portrait de Marchand par Quentin Metsys et les Percepteurs d'Impots par Marin van Reymerswale†, Revue Belgue d'Archeologie et d'Histoire de l'Art, vol. 26, pp. 3-23. Silver, Larry (1984), The paintings of Quinten Massys with catalogue raisonne, Oxford. Montclair, N. J. : Allanheld & Schram. Smith, Adam (1976) [1776], An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Comps. R. Campbell, A. S. Skinner y W. B. Todd. Oxford : Clarendon Press. Van Houdt, Toon (1999), â€Å"The Economics of Art in Early Modern Times: Some Humanist and Scholastic Approaches†, History of Political Economy, 31(0), Supplement 1999 (Economic Engagements with Art, edited by Neil De Marchi and Craufurd D. W. Goodwin, London: Duke University Press), pages 303-31. Vanhoutte, Edward (1997), â€Å"In your seed all the nations of the Earth shall be blessed. Importance and unimportance of the Jews of Belgium from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment†,. Guest-lecture. Lancaster (UK): Lancaster University, 6 february. In . VVAA (1994), El Prado, Barcelona: Lunwerg. Wilson, Jean E. (1998), Painting in Bruges at the close of the Middle Ages. Studies in Society and Visual Culture. Pennsylvania : University Press. Yamey, Basil S. (1989), Art and Accounting, New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ———————– [1] The author wants to thank John Reeder for his useful comments. A previous version of this paper, with the title â€Å"The Moneychanger and his Wife: from Scholastics to Accounting†, is in Internet, [http://www. ucm. es/BUCM/cee/doc/00-23/0023. tm]. [2] Quentin Massys (1465/66 – 1530), also Matsys, Metsys, Metsijs, Massijs. Famous Flemish painter, the founder of the Antwerp school, he was probably born in Leuven, Belgium. He was the main painter of his epoch. [3] Yamey (1989), pp. 24, 45. [4] Grice-Hutchinson (1993), pp. 203-205. [5] â€Å"Massys, Quentinâ₠¬  Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000, . In the same Encarta website, Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, says that Massys painted â€Å"a witty commentary on greed. The banker's wife pretends piety by leafing through a religious book, while stealing a glance at her husband's gold. [6] â€Å"Web Gallery of Art†, . The pages says that â€Å"the comments were compiled from various sources†. [7] National Gallery of Art (Washington D. C. , USA), 2000, â€Å"Antwerp in the Early 1500s†, . [8] Jean-Claude Frere, Early Flemish Painting (1997, pp. 187-188). [9] Wilson (1998), p. 191; quoted from Panofsky, Early Netherlandish painting, 1953, p. 142. â€Å"Every perceptible thing, man made or natural, becomes a symbol of that which is not perceptible†, says Panofsky (â€Å"Abbot Suger of St-Denis†, 1946, in 1955, p. 161) following Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite. 10] Quentin Massys, Portrait of a merchant and his partner (Paris, collection M. Cailleux) . [11] Puyvelde (1957, p. 5), quoting from Jean Cailleux, Les Richesses injustes, Reforme, Paris, n? 72, 3 aout 1946. In Antwerp, a tax-collector was obliged to have a surety or guarantor, who had the right to supervise the collection of money and its recording. The tax-collector is â€Å"shown as a respectable person, accompanied by his guarantor, malicously rendered with a pronounced scowl†. Yamey (1989, p. 54), confronts this van Puyvelde’s interpretation with other art historians’ view. 12] â€Å"The Boys in the Back Room†, written by John Haber in the Website â€Å"Postmodernism and Art History: Gallery Reviews from Around New York†. The informations refers to the exhibition â€Å"From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting†, at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, January 1999. . [13] Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-1497), Italian painter. Procession of the Magi, 1460, Medici Riccardi Palace, Florence. [14] The Triptych The Last Judgement, now in Gdansk, Narodowe Museum, was painted by Memling (also Memlinc) in 1477. Angiolo Tani is painted in the outside of the wings. Tani had been the head of the Bruges branch of Medici Bank from 1455 to 1465. Tomaso Portinari was his successor in the position. Memling, Tommaso Portinari, 1470, tempera and oil on wood, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Maria Maddalena Baroncelli (Mrs. Tomasso Portinari), 1470, tempera and oil on wood, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. For details, see Ainsworth et al. (1994), chapter â€Å"Hans Memlinc†, pp. 462-466. [15] Marinus (Claeszon) van Reymerswaele (also Roymerswaele) is a Flemish painter (c. 1495-1566). He received his first artistic training as an apprentice to an Antwerp glass painter named Simon van Daele in 1509. Known as a painter of genre and satire, Reymerswaele was famous enough to have been mentioned by the Florentin historian Guicciardini and the art historian and painter Vasari. [16] Reymerswaele (or his workshop) made a lot of copies of this subject. Puyvelde (1957, p. 15) claims that the two paintings in the Prado and the one in the Collection of the State of Babiera, signed in 1538 and 1539, are inspired by Massys The moneychanger and his wife. Puyvelde considers that most other copies are inspired by Massys Tax Gatherers. 17] â€Å"El cuadro inspirador del logotipo es conocido internacionalmente como una imagen de la actividad economica del Renacimiento, especialmente de la financiera, ya que en el se muestra una situacion caracteristica de lo que podria considerarse un banquero de la epoca. El tema de la pareja de cambistas pone de manifiesto el surgimiento de una nueva profesion renacentista relacionada con el mundo de las finanzas, de los impuestos y de las cuentas mercantiles. Marinus toma de Quintin Metsys el tema del banquero y su mujer, que se expone en el Louvre de Paris. En el cuadro de Marinus, el matrimonio burges recuenta las monedas de oro y plata y el pesa en una pequena balanza, con gran delicadeza, aquellas, ya que la mayoria de las mismas eran raspadas o recortadas. Posiblemente provendrian de una recaudacion de impuestos, de una cambio de monedas o de la devolucion de un prestamo, lo que implicaria despues controlar o calcular la operacion con el abaco que tiene a su derecha sobre la mesa y a efectuar anotaciones en el libro de Contabilidad que ella tiene entre su bellas y delicadas manos†. From AECA's Website, 1999. 18] â€Å"Recent research has demonstrated that the documents, which form the background of the painting, refer to an actual lawsuit begun in 1526 in the town of Reymerswaele on the North Sea. The suit arose between three heirs of Anthonius Willem Bouwensz and Cornelius vander Maere, the latter having purchased a salt refinery from the heirs of Anthonius. Difficulties began when Cornelius vander Maere refused to make the initial payment and subsequently had his goods seized. The legal transactions lasted until 1538, by which time the property under dispute had probably been ubmerged or destroyed by storms. Ironically, the court fees still had to be paid. † New Orleans Museum of Art, Information written by Joan G. Caldwell. [http://www. noma. org/MARINUS. HTM]. The Museum owns one of the many versions of the painting: â€Å"Several versions of this composition exist in Munich, Amsterdam, Cologne and Brussels. While the Museum's version is apparently the last in the series, it is painted with the greatest detail, thus clearly revealing the documents in the lawsuit†. [19] Puyvelde (1957), pp. 7-18; â€Å"le veritable portrait fait place a la caricature de l'homme de affaire rapace† (Puyvelde, 1957, p. 13; also, p. 20). [20] Puyvelde (1957), p. 23. [21] â€Å"Es esta tabla encontramos todas las caracteristicas de los pintores nordicos: el detallismo, las calidades materiales que se aprecian a la perfeccion, la aproximacion empirica a la realidad, y sobre todo, la sordidez descarnada con la que Van Reymerswaele aborda uno de los principales males de su epoca: la usura, el mayor pecado posible dentro de una sociedad comerciante como era la flamenca. La corrupcion y la estafa afectaban a las capas de la sociedad, llegando al clero y provocando la reaccion de escritores, teologos y artistas†. CD-ROM La Pintura en el Prado, 1996, Editorial Contrastes. [22] Corneille van der Capelle, Le Percepteur d'impots et sa Femme. Jadis Sigmaringen, Pince of Hohenzollern collection. [23] The illustrated book El Prado (Barcelona: Lunwerg, 1994), p. 389. [24] Vanhoutte (1997). [25] â€Å"Web Gallery of Art†, description of the painting The Tax Collectors, 1542 (Wood, 103,7 x 120 cm. Alte Pinakothek, Munich), : â€Å"The Tax Collectors by Marinus Van Roymerswaele appears to be a deliberate caricature; the painter's Calvinist background clearly comes through in his depicting the tax collector's greed with a fierse grimace and claw-like hands, whilst the administrator records the money in the ledger, maintaining his proper distance. Marinus van Reymerswaele was a painter of three themes, all more or less caricatural. He painted a numbe r of straightforward S. Jeromes, all derived from Durer's picture of 1521 (Lisbon) but stressing the crabbedness of scholarship. The other two themes are interdependent: two exceedingly ugly and covetous Tax Gatherers and a Banker and his Wife (the banker counting his profits). The Banker is closely related to Massys's picture of the same subject, and it may be that the Tax Gatherers derive from Massys's borrowings from the caricatures of Leonardo da Vinci. There are about thirty versions of the Tax Gatherers (the best is in London, National Gallery; another has the date 1552), and what nobody has so far explained is why so many people should want to own a picture of tax collectors (and excessively ugly ones at that) gloating over their imposts. There are also examples in the British Royal Collection and in Antwerp, Berlin, Ghent, Madrid, Munich and Vienna. † The Website says on the Welcome page that â€Å"the comments were compiled from various sources†. [26] Adriaen Isenbrant (? ) Man Weighing Gold, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Friedsam Collection. Adriaen Isenbrant is also known as Hysebrant or Ysenbrant. He was active in Bruges, 1510 – 1551. He was first mentioned in 1510 when he became a master in the Bruges painters' and saddlemakers' guild. He was recorded as a stranger, but his native town was not mentioned. Between 1516/1517 and 1547/1548 he was listed numerous times as a vinder or minor offical of the guild and in 1526/1527 and 1537/1538 was a gouverneur or financial officer. Because of the uncertainty, some authorities prefer to use the name Isenbrandt in inverted commas or with or with question mark. See the Website of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D. C. , [27] Bauman, G. , â€Å"Early Flemish Portraits 1425-1525†, M. M. A. Bull. XLIII, Spring 1986, pp. 46 f. On the contrary, Wehle, H. B. , and M. Salinger, M. M. A. , A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings, 1947, pp. 100 f. , â€Å"identify the sitter as a banker or a money changer and consider the portrait to be purely secular, not a ‘donor's likeness in a religious ensemble'†. References provided by Sandra Fritz, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Central Catalog. [28] The Table of the Deadly Sins, 1480, by Hieronimous Bosch (c. 1450-1516). Oil on panel, 120 x 150 cm. Prado Museum. Bosch is the name given to the Dutch painter Hieronimus van Aeken. [29] Jan Gossaert (c. 1478 – 1532), Portrait of a Merchant, c. 1530. Oil on panel, . 636 x . 475 m Washington, National Gallery of Art, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. [30] National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA, Brief Guide, in . [31] Petrus Christus (fl. 1444-c. 1470), St. Eloy (Eligius) in His Shop, 1449, oil on panel, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. [32] Smith (1976), I. x. b. 18. [33] The Life of St. Eligius, 588-660, paragraph 5. The Life of Eligius, bishop and confessor, was written by Dado, bishop of Rouen (his friend and contemporary). Eligius lived from 588 to 660. The full text is in . [34] Quentin Massys, Ill-Matched Lovers, c. 1520/1525, oil on panel, 0'432 x 0'630 m. National Gallery of Art, Washington D. C. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. [35] Marinus Van Reymerswaele, The Misers, 1531. Oil on wood. Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, . [36] â€Å"Bruges et surtout Anvers ont donc cree les premiers marches publics consacres a l’art en Occident†, Cassagness (2001), p. 264.